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Melting Point Determination & Boiling Point Determination

Experiment 3 & 4
Assignment 3 & 4
Manalang, Irish Jem B.
#28
MT 1325
8/26/16
1. What is the significance of boiling point and melting point determination?
The purpose of melting and boiling points in a lab experiment is to use
them to help identify unknown substances. By taking a melting point of an
unknown solid, you can compare it to a list of potential solids and their melting
points and make a match to identify the solid. (The smaller the melting point
range, the more pure the substance is. The larger the melting point range, the less
pure the substance is.) Likewise, you can take a boiling point of an unknown
liquid and compare it to other boiling points to make a match and identify the
liquid.
2. Why should a solid be finely powdered for use in melting point determination?
Finely ground particles of the compound are necessary for good heat
transfer. If the particles are too coarse, they do not pack well, causing air pockets
that slow heat transfer
3. What differences would you expect in melting point of a pure and an impure
compound?
A pure organic compound usually melts over a range of two degrees or
less. If the melting point of a pure compound is within a degree of the value it is
presumed to be pure. A sample is impure is it has a melting point range that is
lower or wider than that the literature value. More impurities increase this effect
4. How does impurity affect boiling point values? Melting point values?
Impurities present in a solid organic compound tend to have 2 effects on
the melting point. First, they tend to lower the overall melting point of the
compound versus the value for pure material. Second, they tend to increase the
range of the melting point values. Pure compounds tend to melt very quickly
once they reach the correct temperature. Impure compounds tend to melt more
slowly over a larger range of temperature values. Both of these effects are due to
a weaking of the molecular lattice structure of the solid. Pure solids tend to form
stronger lattice bonds that require more energy (heat) to break up. Impurities
present tend to disrupt these lattice networks, thus requiring less energy to disrupt
them.
5. What is the influence of change in atmospheric pressure on melting and boiling
point values of a compound?
For most substances, higher pressure (or atmospheric pressure) will cause
the melting temperature to go up. Melting it would increase the volume of that
substance because liquids take more space than solids. If you increase the
pressure, it becomes harder for that transformation to occur. It's harder to change
into a state that needs more volume if you are under pressure. So, you need more
energy, hence temperature, to melt.

6. Why do we use glycerol bath, instead of water bath in melting point determination?
If glycerol were not available, what can, we use instead? Suggest at least three
liquids.
Glycerol, a common coolant fluid, is used to determine melting point
because unlike water, glycerol has a very high boiling point. Water will boil off at
100 degrees Celsius in standard pressure, whereas glycerol stays liquid up until
290 degrees Celsius. Glycerol is used in the bath to heat the phosphoric acid
solution of adrenaline to a temperature of 120 C. Water would boil off at 100 C.
Glycerol boils much higher at 290 C because has three hydroxyl groups that can
form extensive networks of hydrogen bonds. Other liquids you could use would
be best with similar properties. This means liquids like oils, which can stay liquid
at high temperatures, will be great for melting point determination. Motor oils,
which function around the intense heat of an engine, or cooking oils, which far
surpass the boiling point of water, would work well here. For things that need to
be even hotter, liquid mercury could be used, as it has a boiling point at 355
degrees Celsius and lastly Parrafin. You could add a salt to raise the boiling point
slightly.
REFERENCES:
http://www.enotes.com/homework-help/what-purpose-melting-boiling-points-lab-experiment362873
http://www.answers.com/Q/Why_should_the_melting_point_sample_be_finely_powdered?
#slide=2
http://www.csi.edu/ip/physci/faculty/rex/MPTips.htm
http://www.enotes.com/homework-help/what-effect-impurities-melting-point-compound-361967
http://chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/32841/the-effect-of-air-pressure-on-the-meltingpoint
http://usefulchem.wikispaces.com/Exp016GSreport
http://www.enotes.com/homework-help/why-we-use-glycerol-bath-instead-water-bath-753616