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Original Title: Basic Conservation Laws-currie

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For the starts of this chapter is necessary to discuss certain preliminary topics. The first

topic of discussion is the two basic ways in which the conservation equations may be

derived: the statistical method and the continuum method. Having selected the basic

method to be used in deriving the equations, one is then faced with the choice of

reference frame to be employed, eulerian or lagrangian. After of established the basic

method to be employed and the tools to be used, the basic conservation laws (the

conservation of mass, the conservation of momentum, conservation of thermal energy)

are then derived.

STATISCAL AND CONTINUUM METHODS

There are basically two ways of deriving the equations that govern the motion of a fluid.

One of these methods approaches the question from the molecular point of view and

other in where the individual molecules are ignored and it is assumed that the fluid

consists of continuous matter called continuum approach.

The continuum approach requires that the mean free path of the molecules be very

small compared with the smallest physical-length scale of the flow field (such as the

diameter of a cylinder or other body about which the fluid is flowing).

For continuum approach consider a small volume of fluid V containing a large number

of molecules. Let m and v be the mass and velocity of any individual molecule

contained within the volume V, as indicated in Fig. The density and the velocity at a

point in the continuum are then defined by the following limits:

where e is a volume which is sufficiently small that e1/3 is small compared with the

smallest significant length scale in the flow field but is sufficiently large that it contains a

large number of molecules. The summations in the above expressions are taken over

all the molecules contained within the volume V

A sufficient condition, though not a necessary condition, for the continuum approach to

be valid is

where n is the number of molecules per unit volume and L is the smallest significant

length scale in the flow field, which is usually called the macroscopic length scale. The

characteristic microscopic length scale is the mean free path between collisions of the

molecules. Then the above condition states that the continuum concept will certainly be

valid if some volume e can be found that is much larger than the volume occupied by a

single molecule of the fluid but much smaller than the cube of the smallest macroscopic

length scale (such as cylinder diameter).

There are two basic coordinate systems that may be employed, these being eulerian

and lagrangian coordinates.

In the eulerian framework the independent variables are the spatial coordinates x, y,

and z and time t. In order to derive the basic conservation equations in this framework,

attention is focused on the fluid which passes through a control volume that is fixed in

space. If the principles of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are applied to

the fluid passing through the control volume, the basic conservation equations are

obtained in eulerian coordinates.

In the lagrangian approach, attention is fixed on a particular mass of fluid as it flows;

we are always considering the same particles of fluid. The principles of mass,

momentum, and energy conservation are then applied to this particular element of fluid

as it flows, resulting in a set of conservation equations in lagrangian coordinates. In this

reference frame x, y ,z, and t are no longer independent variables.

Although the lagrangian system will be used to derive the basic equations, the eulerian

system is the preferred one for solving the majority of problems.

MATERIAL DERIVATIVE

The material derivative established a relationship between the eulerian frameworks

with the lagrangian.

Let a be any field variable such as the density or temperature of the fluid, the material

derivative in vector form this equation may be written as follows:

Alternatively, using the Einstein summation convention where repeated subscripts are

summed, the tensor form may be written as

CONTROL VOLUMEN

The concept of a control volume, as required to derive the basic conservation

equations, has been mentioned in connection with both the lagrangian and the eulerian

approaches. Irrespective of which coordinate system is used, there are two principal

control volumes from which to choose. One of these is a parallelepiped of sides dx, dy,

and dz. Each fluid property, such as the velocity or pressure, is expanded in a Taylor

series about the center of the control volume to give expressions for that property at

each face of the control volume.

The second type of control volume is arbitrary in shape, and each conservation

principle is applied to an integral over the control volume. The result of applying each

conservation principle will be an integro-diferential equation for each property.

Each of these two types of control volumes has some merit, depending upon which

gives the better insight to the physics of the situation under discussion.

The combination of the arbitrary control volume and the lagrangian coordinate system

means that material derivatives of volume integrals will be encountered. As was

mentioned, it is necessary to transform such terms into equivalent expressions

involving volume integrals of eulerian derivatives. The theorem that permits such a

transformation is called Reynolds transport theorem.

After some mathematical strong arrangements the Reynolds transport theorem is

defined as:

The last equations relates the lagrangian derivative of a volume integral of a given

mass to a volume integral inwhich the integrand has eulerian derivatives only. Having

established the method to be used to derive the basic conservation equations and

having established the necessary background material, it remains to invoke the various

conservation principles. The first such principle to be treated will be the conservation of

mass.

CONSERVATION OF MASS

The principle of mass conservation which applies to fluids in which no nuclear reactions

are taking place. The equation that expresses conservation of mass is

In many practical cases of fluid flow the variation of density of the fluid may be ignored,

as for most cases of the flow of liquids and it first expanded by use of a vector identity.

Mathematically, this statement may be written as

Other form of the continuity equation will be recognized as being the eulerian form of

the material derivative be written as

This mixed form of the continuity equation in which one term is given as a lagrangian

derivative and the other as an eulerian derivative is not useful for actually solving fluidflow problems. However, it is frequently used in the manipulations that reduce the

governing equations to alternative forms, and for this reason it has been identified for

future reference.

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

The principle of conservation of momentum is, in effect, an application of Newtons

second law of motion to an element of the fluid.

The mathematical equation that results from imposing the physical law of conservation

of momentum is

In general, there are nine components of stress at any given point, one normal

component and two shear components on each coordinate plane.

This equation may be converted to a volume integral in which the integrand contains

only eulerian derivatives by use of Reynolds transport theorem. At the same time the

surface integral on the right-hand side may be converted into a volume integral by use

of Gauss theorem.

All these volume integrals may be collected to express this equation in the

form, [ ]

, where the integrand is a differential equation in eulerian

coordinates. o. This gives the following differential equation to be satisfied by the field

variables in order that the basic law of dynamics may be satisfied:

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

The principle of conservation of energy amounts to an application of the first law of

thermodynamics to a fluid element as it flows. In this way, the expression of the

statement that the rate of change of total energy is equal to the rate at which work is

being done plus the rate at which heat is being added becomes.

This equation may be converted to one involving eulerian derivatives only by use of

Reynolds transport theorem.

The next step is to convert the two surface integrals into volume integrals so that the

arbitrariness of V may be exploited to obtain a deferential equation only.

Then the quantity inside the brackets in the integrand must be zero, which results in the

following deferential equation:

This equation may be made considerably simpler by using the equations which have

already been derived:

The rotation of a fluid element about its own axis and the shearing of a fluid element

and to identify the tensor quantities that represent these physical quantities.

CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS

The nine elements of the stress tensor ij will be related to the nine elements of the

deformation-rate tensor ekl by a set of parameters. All these parameters except two will

be evaluated analytically, and the remaining two, which are the viscosity coefficients,

must be determined empirically.

The expression for the shear-stress tensor becomes

The second constitutive relation involves the heat-flux vector qj, which is due to

conduction alone

VISCOSITY COEFFICIENTS

It was pointed out in the previous section that the parameters and , which appear in

the constitutive equations for stress, must be determined experimentally. From the

definition of this flow field the components of the stress tensor

establish its significance, the average normal stress component p will be calculated.

This average normal stress is the mechanical pressure in the fluid and it is equal to

one-third of the trace of the stress tensor.

Induced by the stresses that result from the motion of the fluid

pressure is proportional to the divergence of the velocity vector

NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

The equation of momentum conservation together with the constitutive relation for a

Newtonian fluid. Having obtained an expression for the stress tensor:

Gives (are known as the Navier-Stokes equations), they represent three scalar

equations corresponding to the three possible values of the free subscript j.

incompressible and the dynamic viscosity may be assumed to be constant.

become

In the special case of negligible viscous effects (are known as Euler equations and the

fluid is called inviscid)

ENERGY EQUATION

The term

which appears in the equation of energy conservation may now

be evaluated explicitly.

Using the fact that in the first two terms of the stress tensor i=j for the nonzero elements

remaining two terms are collectively called the dissipation function and are denoted by

(it is a measure of the rate at which mechanical energy is being converted into

thermal energy).

In terms of the dissipation function, the total work done by the surface stresses is given

by

The equations that govern the motion of a Newtonian fluid are the continuity equation

(1.3a), the Navier-Stokes equations (1.9a), the energy equation (1.11), and equations

of state.

If the fluid is at rest, the velocity components will all be zero, so that the Navier-Stokes

equations (1.9a) become

If the body force fj is now set equal to the gravitational force, the equation of

hydrostatics is obtained. If gravity acts in the negative z direction, fj= -gez, where ez is

the unit vector in the z direction. Then

energy equation becomes

Where Cp is the specific heat at constant pressure, which is the appropriate process

for this case. Then the energy equation (equation of heat conduction) becomes

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

The Navier-Stokes equations are, mathematically, a set of three elliptic, second-order

partial deferential equations. The appropriate types of boundary conditions are

therefore Dirichlet or Neumann conditions on a closed boundary. Physically, this

usually amounts to specifying the velocity on all solid boundaries. Within the continuum

approximation the experimentally determined boundary condition is that there is no slip

between the fluid and a solid boundary at the interface.

If thermal effects are included, a boundary condition on the temperature is also

required. As in the case of heat-conduction problems, this may take the form of

specifying the temperature or the heat flux on some boundary.

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