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HYBRID POWERTRAIN

INTRODUCTION:
Hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that will compete in the
Hybrid Vehicle challenge organised by ISIE 2nd time in
India. Teams from all over India will design, build, and
test performance hybrid vehicle to compete in a series
of static and dynamic events. The static events are the
business presentation and the engineering design, and
the dynamic events are acceleration-electric power,
acceleration-IC engine, autocross skid pad, and
endurance.
In this paper there will be information
on chosen hybrid powertrain desired performance
targets and design criteria.

Types of Hybrid:
Generally there are two types of hybrid system
1.)
Series Hybrid vehicle 2.) Parallel Hybrid
vehicle
In series hybrid electric motor is directly connected to
wheels and IC engine generates electric power and
drives the electric motor while in parallel hybrid vehicle
both IC engine and electric motor drives the wheels via
transmission system so that individual can drive either
independently or by combining their power

REQUIRED TYPE OF HYBRID:


As stated in rulebook
performed two times

Acceleration

test

will

be

ACCELERATION TEST 1: accelerate vehicle by IC


Engine.
ACCELERATION TEST 2: accelerate vehicle by electric
motor only
Therefore, PARALLEL HYBRID IS THE OPTION

DESIGN OF POWERTRAIN:
As per track specification RPM BHOPAL it contains only
few straights rather it has more curves. Therefor
majorly vehicle will run in low powerband of rpm of
engine and low power band of engine gives less power
and consumes more fuel or in other words it has high
value of BSFC then compared to in high torque band of
rpm therefore, to get good acceleration during exiting
turns electric motor will provide its torque to common
intermediate shaft combining with IC engines torque
which will accelerate vehicle more during exiting turns
i.e. provide boost to accelerate vehicle fast

Intermediate shaft contains 2 ratchet sprockets


and coupled with CVT (continuously variable
transmission) this arrangement of sprockets is done to
add torque from both electric motor and IC engine and
the power is being transmitted to CVT and then to
LSD(limited slip differential) and then to tyres through
half shafts

CALCULATIONS:
Finding gear ratios is most important part in powertrain
design. In order to calculate appropriate gear ratios we
need objective and conditions available. So as per track
specifications we have decided to keep its maximum
velocity to be 63 km/hr for IC engine drive and for only
electric drive maximum velocity be 39 km/hr
SOURCE

MOTOR

ENGINE

MAX. TORQUE
MAX. RPM
POWER
PR. BY CHAIN
SPROCKETS

4 N-m@3000
3000
2HP
3.4:1

12.8 N-m@2600
3300
6.5HP
2.0:1

SPECIFICATIONS:

CONTINOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION


INITIAL REDUCTION=3.7:1
FINAL REDUCTION=0.7:1

MAXIMUM VELOCITY BY INDIVIDUAL DRIVE


.BY ENGINE V=63Km/hr=17.50m/s

MAX RPM OF WHEEL (NW)


W=V/R= (2N)/60
W=radial velocity of wheel
V=velocity of vehicle m/s

R=radius of wheel in meter


N=revolution/minute
Therefore N= (V*60)/ (6.28*R)
Here, Radius of wheel is 0.254
NW=658.311
GEAR RATIO (G.R) =N1/N2
N1 engine rpm; N2 wheel rpm
OVERALL GR=3200/658.311=4.86
LET FINAL REDUCTION BE (FR)
OVERALL GR=2*0.7*FR
FR=3.47

CALCULATING PRIMARY REDUCTION FOR MOTOR


DRIVE

SINCE maximum velocity by electric drive is to be


39km/hr=10.84
N= (V*60)/ (6.28*0.254=407.75
Overall GR =N1/N2
N1 motor rpm; N2 wheel rpm at 39km/hr
Overall GR=3OOO/407.75=7.36
OGR= (PR2*0.7*3.4) = 7.36
PR2 primary reduction for motor drive
PR2=3.092

PRIMARY REDUCTION FOR ENGINE (PR1=2.0:1)


AND FOR MOTOR (PR2=3.09:1)
FINAL REDUCTION (FR) = 3.4

NOW
CALCULATING TRACTIVE EFFORT
TRACTIVE
EFFORT
(Ft)=ROLLING
RESISTANCE+AIR DRAG RESISTANCE+GRADIENT
RESISTANCE+FORCE REQUIRED TO ACCELERATE
VEHICLE

ROLLING RESISTANCE (Rr) =K*W


resistance
;W=weight of vehicle

K=Rolling

AIR
DRAG
RESISTANCE(Ra)=Ka*A*V^2
;Ka=coefficient of air resistance
;A=frontal area of
vehicle
V is velocity in km/hr

GRADIENT RESISTANCE (Rg) =Wsin


inclination of road surface ; W is weight

; is

As per track there is no slop therefore resistance due to


gradient is zero therefore Rg=0
To calculate initial acceleration there is no air drag as
much so Ra=0
Rr=K*W=0.020*2100=42N
NOW TRACTIVE EFFORT DEVELOPED BY ENGINE
POWER
Ft= (Tw)/R
Tw=torque at wheels=Te**OG
engine ; = transmission efficiency

; Te=torque of

;OGR= overall gear ratio


Tw=12.50*0.88*(2*3.7*3.4)=283.40Nm
TRACTIVE EFFORT Ft=283.40/0.254=1115.7N
AVAILABLE FORCE TO ACCELERATE BY ENGINE=FtFr=1115.7-42=1073.7N

TRACTIVE EFFORT
MOTOR(Ft)

DEVELOPED

BY

ELECTRIC

Ft=(Tw)/R
Tw=torque at wheels=Te**OGR
motor ;n = transmission efficiency

;Te=torque of

;OGR= overall gear ratio


Tw=4.2*0.88*(3.4*3.7*3.4)=158.08Nm
TRACTIVE EFFORT Ft=158.08/0.254=622.36N
AVAILABLE FORCE TO ACCELERATE BY ELECTRIC
MOTOR=Ft-Fr=622.36-42=580.362N
ACCELERATION
BY ENGINE ONLY (a)=1073.7/280=3.83m/s^2
BY MOTOR ONLY (a)=622.36/280=2.222m/s^2

USE OF RACHET SPROCKETS: to couple power from


engine and motor together to common shaft with
rachet sprocket is used. Rachet sprocket transfer the
power in one direction.This is done if power is given
from engine to common intermediate shaft then it has
nothing to do with motor i.e. motor will not be driven by
engine because of one way power transfer
and
similarly when power is given to intermediate shaft
there will be no effect on engine shaft.Here the torque
from engine and motor will add when boths RPM will
match and if rpm of motor exceeds that of engine then
suddenly load from the engine will decrease which

gives a chance is throttle the engine rpm to accelerate


vehicle
Therefore by this arrangement it is
possible to transfer power to wheels individualy as well
as both combined
Differential will be used is LIMITED SLIP DIFFERENTIAL
(LSD) containing 48 teeths as choosen by finding final
reduction to be 3.4:1

NO.OF TEETHS ON SPROCKETS


Primary reduction for engine=2.0:1
Teeth on driver sprocket=12
Teeth on driven sprocket=24
Primary reduction for motor drive=3.09:1
Teeth on driver sprocket=12
Teeth on driven sprocket=36