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REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN OF BUILDING STRUCTURES

PART 1

CM ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS
Structural Engineering Third Party Review Value Engineering

CM Engineering Consultants (CMECS) is founded


and managed by Chris Magadia, CEng, MIStructE,
CPEng, MIPENZ, PRC CE (84079).
Our firm provide specialist structural and
earthquake engineering services to the built and
design environment.
Value engineering is at the core of our services
regardless of the size and cost of the project.
Our teams collective experience locally and
abroad gives CMECS the edge to get the work
done the first time on time and within budget.

OUR SERVICES

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

We offer technologically advanced


and cutting edge designs while
working closely with our clients. We
use the most up-to-date software
tools and applications to come up
with the most efficient, optimum
and safe design product.

EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
Our team is well-equipped with an indepth knowledge and understanding on
the complexity of building response to
seismic design. Our expertise ranges from
designing for earthquake-resilient
structures, performance-based design,
complex non-linear time history analysis
and soil-structure interaction.

WIND ENGINEERING
We provide expert advice in designing
buildings for wind-induced actions both
for structural design and assessment for
human comfort. This is backstopped by
our teams involvement in the design of
high-rise and tall buildings where the wind
actions dominate the structural design.

VALUE ENGINEERING
We understand that minimizing
construction costs coupled with an
efficient design is at the forefront of
our clients expectations. We provide
an organized value engineering
services for buildings of any type
without compromising the building
function and our clients needs.

SEISMIC ASSESSMENT AND


RETROFITTING

We provide expert advice on seismic


assessment and strengthening of
buildings. We identify the key
structural weaknesses in a building
and develop cost-effective solutions to
mitigate these earthquake risks.

STRUCTURAL THIRD PARTY REVIEW


We offer independent and systematic
structural third party review
associated with building structural
design. Our team has broad
experience in conducting design
reviews process and are fully aware of
the design issues that may come up
during the design process.

PROJECT
EXPERIENCE

105 STOREY OCEAN HEIGHTS 2 - DUBAI

60 STOREY UBORA TOWER - DUBAI

60 STOREY EMPIRE TOWER ABU DHABI

OFFICE AND COMMERCIAL BUILDING - BGC

PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE
Sharjah Tower

Cost-effective structural system is


achieved by using PT floor system
with PT band beam to reduce the
overall weight of the structure
thereby reducing the seismic
loads on the tower. Dual system
of main core wall and perimeter
columns were used to provide
lateral stability.

Bonnington Tower

With 5 basement deep structure


below ground floor level, we have
utilized the box structure below
to improve the overall structural
efficiency against lateral loadings
thereby reducing the section sizes
of main stability elements. Thin
PT floor plates were utilized as
floor system which bring down
the overall weight of the structure
to a minimum.

Al Rafi Tower

Due to the height of the office tower


standing at more than 400meters above
ground, we have utilized a combination
of structural system to resist lateral
loadings and provide stability. Dual
system of central core wall and
perimeter
columns
are
further
enhanced by the introduction of
outrigger walls and belts at mechanical
floor levels.

PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE
Ocean Heights 2
Dancing Towers

Due to the twisting geometry


of the building envelope and
the eccentric location of the
core walls in plan, we have
combined the core walls with
a steel diagrid structural
system in order to reduce
the weight and improve the
efficiency and performance
of the structure.

One Business Bay

A 35-storey structure with


central core wall and inclined
columns following the profile of
the
buildings
elevation.
Structural cost is optimized by
utilizing thin PT floor plates that
reduce the overall weight of the
structure. The podium structure
monolithically cast with the
superstructure
added
more
stiffness to the overall design.

Even with the challenging architectural


design, we achieve structural efficiency by
balancing the ultimate and serviceability
design requirements of this super tall
building standing more than 450m above
ground. Wind has governed the design but
has to be balanced with the inelastic
requirements of seismic forces.

OUR APPROACH TO SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


Overview of Performance Objectives
1. Resist minor earthquake ground shaking, which is anticipated to occur several times during the life of a building, without damage
to structural and non-structural components.
2. Resist rare earthquake ground shaking , which may occur once in a life of a building, with damage to structural and non-structural
components, but without substantial loss of life.
3. Resist the strongest shaking ever likely to occur at the site with substantial damage but with a very low probability of collapse.

Minimum Design Objective Recommendations


1. Negligible damage for earthquake shaking demands having a return period of about 50 years .
2. Collapse prevention under the largest earthquake shaking that is expected to occur at the site.

Deformation Based Design Philosophy


1.
2.
3.

Control overall building movements


Control story drifts and other internal relative deformations
Control inelastic deformations of structural components and components

OUR APPROACH TO WIND ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


Wind Approach
1. Code-based such as ASCE, Canadian Standards, Australian Standards, British Standards, Indian Standards during
Pre-Concept and early stage of design
2. Wind Tunnel Test Study during end of Schematic Design and final stage of design and most importantly during
Value Engineering Stage

Ocean Heights 2
We achieved 20-30% cost
reduction on structural
quantities after getting the
first results of the wind
tunnel test study. Further
savings were achieved
when we optimized the
structural properties of the
building to reduce the peak
storey forces and
overturning moments
based on wind response.

OUR APPROACH TO WIND ANALYSIS AND DESIGNcontinuation


Factors affecting the Wind Tunnel Test Study
1. Structural Properties i.e. Natural Frequencies, modal characteristics, mode of vibrations
2. Damping Ratio
3. Wind Climate and Surroundings

Of the 3 factors above, Structural Engineers have more control on the Structural
Properties of buildings.
Even with irregular structures, it is always possible to arrive at regular structural
response which reduce the effect of vortex shedding, resonance response,
modal couplings thereby reducing structural quantities required to limit
displacements and human comfort wind-induced accelerations.
Damping ratio can also be rationalized to optimize the response of the structure.

OUR APPROACH TO WIND ANALYSIS AND DESIGNcontinuation


Wind Tunnel Test Results
1. Wind-Induced Accelerations
2. Wind Tunnel Forces and Overturning Moments
3. Deflections resulting from Wind Tunnel Forces and Overturning Moments

Most of the time, wind governs the design of tall buildings and this is due to the
fact that structural members are obtained to satisfy human comfort and
serviceability requirements rather than ultimate design during seismic activities.

It is where our knowledge and vast experience on dealing with high-rise and
super-tall buildings will come handy and beneficial to the project.

OUR APPROACH TO WIND ANALYSIS AND DESIGNcontinuation


SAMPLE CASE STUDY ON THE SENSITIVITY OF STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES
Description

Mode 1 Period

Frequency

Accelerations
(along/cross
wind)

Remarks

Assume
Frequency of
46/Height used
in the
preliminary
design

6.53 sec

0.153 hertz

2.5/17 milli-g

Increase 50% on
Mode 1 Period

9.795 sec

0.102 hertz

3.6/16.2 milli-g

Decrease 50%
on Mode 1 Period

3.265 sec

0.306 hertz

1.3/18.3 milli-g

Increase in along
but decrease in
cross wind
acceleration
Decrease in
along but
increase in cross
wind acceleration

As can be seen from the table above as the structure becomes more flexible
with lower frequency the cross wind response becomes more favourable with
reduction in the accelerations and vice versa for rigid structures. It then
becomes a tug-of-war between ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state
as the structure cannot be too rigid for the purpose of serviceability and cannot
be too flexible for the purpose of ultimate design. Hence, a balanced approach
is always desirable in the design of tall building.

WHAT WE ACHIEVED IN THE THIRD PARTY REVIEW PROJECTS


ACICO TWIN TOWERS
We were able to reduce core wall thickness and column sizes
Wind Induced Acceleration is reduced
We were able to improve structural efficiency

AL DURRAH TOWER
We were able to reduce core wall thickness and column sizes
We were able to improve structural efficiency

BIN YOUSIF TOWER


We were able to reduce core wall thickness and column sizes
We were able to reduce slab thickness and beam flexural and shear reinforcement
We were able to improve structural efficiency

CONRAD HOTEL
We were able to reduce core wall thickness and column sizes
We were able to reduce slab thickness and beam flexural and shear reinforcement
We were able to improve structural efficiency

FAIRMONT HOTEL AND SERVICED APARTMENTS

Removal of 10 perimeter columns


Removal of Corridor Beams
Reduction of Concrete Grade for Vertical Elements
Reduce size of perimeter columns
Reduce thickness of core wall
Optimise outrigger walls at selected floors
Reduce mega-truss support to only one storey deep

THIRD PARTY REVIEW METHODOLOGY FOR HIGH RISE


BUILDINGS
Stage 1 Understanding of the Project
Meeting with Client to understand the Projects Aspirations i.e. cost and programme
Meeting with Architect to understand the Projects design (in and out)

Stage 2 Review of Structural Behaviour (based from original structural model)


Review the Structural Design Criteria to check if there are room for relaxation within the codes/regulations
Review the Serviceability Limit State of Design
Review the Ultimate Limit State of Design
Review any potential value engineering savings from existing design

Stage 3 Validate and Verify the Structural Behaviour (based from CMECS structural
model)
Validate and Verify the Serviceability Limit State of Design
Validate and Verify the Ultimate Limit State of Design
Validate and Verify any potential VE Savings identified in Stage 2

Stage 4 Value Engineering Workshops


Submit any potential VE savings to Client, Architect and Structural Engineer
Upon approval, CMECS prepare VE documentations i.e. sketches, calculations etc
Prepare Value Engineering Report for formal submission to Project Team

Stage 5 Suggestions and Recommendations


Meetings with Client, Architect, Structural Engineer to discuss the outcome of the design review
Discuss any suggestions and recommendations, including Value Engineering, resulting from the outcome of the design review
Prepare Final Report containing detailed design review and conclusion

REVIEW OF DESIGN CRITERIA


Review the Design Parameters and Loadings
Enhance the design parameters and assumptions used in the design i.e. material properties, stiffness modifiers
Enhance the loadings used in the analysis i.e. weight of materials, superimposed loadings, lateral loadings
Enhance all loadings on all areas not only in typical floors/areas
Enhance all loading combinations used in the design of structural elements
Enhance the wind drift limit according to actual serviceability requirements i.e. H/300 to H/500 as required
Approximately 5-10% optimization can be achieved

Review the Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec


Enhance Ec Value due to Age of Concrete
Enhance Ec Value due to contribution of steel in concrete
Approximately 5-10% increase in stiffness is achieved

Review the Method of Analysis and Design


Enhance the structural models and the assumptions taken
Enhance the behaviour of the structure based on above exercise
Approximately 5-10% optimization can be achieved

Review Seismic Loadings


Enhance the results by improving the overall weight of the structure
Enhance the results using response spectrum analysis
Enhance the results using time-specific RSA

Review Wind Loadings


Enhance the results by improving the global behaviour of the structure
Enhance the results by using Wind Tunnel Test
Enhance the results by improving modal properties of the structure

ACICO TWIN TOWER PROJECT SAMPLE THIRD PARTY REVIEW


Description of the Project
Acico Twin Towers is a complex of two towers along Sheikh Zayed Road in Dubai, UAE. Nikko Hotel Dubai is the taller of the two,
standing at 270 m (886 ft). It is a hotel tower with 60 floors. It will be operated by Nikko Hotels International. The shorter tower is
Acico Office Tower. It has 55 floors and stands at 204 m (656 ft). Construction began in 2005 and was completed in 2010.

We have value engineered the twin tower by optimizing the stiffness of the core
walls. The original wall thickness is 1000mm all the way up to satisfy human
comfort criteria but we were able to reduce the thickness to 700mm and still
achieve the human comfort criteria by enhancing the overall behaviour of the
structure by balancing the stiffness of the structure.

AL DURRAH TOWER 2 SAMPLE THIRD PARTY REVIEW


Description of the Project
The building was originally proposed as a supertall building named Al Durrah Tower II. The design was a 330m twisting tower with
more than 75 storeys for residential use, costing about US$140 million. This design was regarded as a major addition to the Dubai
skyline, but at the same time, the height of the project was a concern to the Dubais Department of Civil Aviation. In response to this
issue, the project was scaled back to 194 metres with 51 stories. We were involved in the third party review of both versions (75
storeys and 51 storeys).

We have value engineered another landmark in Dubai - the Al Durrah Tower.


On this project, we helped the Client achieved cost savings by recommending
another wind tunnel test results based on new structural properties proposed
by us. The results are reduced wind response and therefore reduced quantities.

CONRAD HOTEL SAMPLE THIRD PARTY REVIEW


Description of the Project
Located along Sheikh Zayed Road in Dubai, this mixed-use tower will contain a 19-story, 559-key, five-star hotel Located along Sheikh
Zayed Road in Dubai, this 180,000-SM mixed-use development consists of a 49-story tower, 250m tall, on top of a 6-story podium
containing hotel support services and office lobby.

We have value engineered this tower by changing the design assumptions taken
by the original design consultant. Structural system was appropriately
recommended to arrive at the most efficient lateral stability system both for
seismic and wind.

ACICO TWIN TOWER PROJECT SAMPLE THIRD PARTY REVIEW


Sample Sketch showing our Recommendations on this Project

FAIRMONT HOTEL AND SERVICED APARTMENTS SAMPLE


VALUE ENGINEERING ACHIEVED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Removal of 10 perimeter columns


Removal of Corridor Beams
Reduction of Concrete Grade for Vertical Elements
Reduce size of perimeter columns
Reduce thickness of core wall
Optimise outrigger walls at selected floors
Reduce mega-truss support to only one storey deep

HOW DID WE ACHIEVED THIS?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Enhanced the Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete, Ec


Balanced the mass distribution
Balanced the stiffness distribution
Dynamic Analysis using Response Spectrum Analysis
Optimised the demand capacity ratio of structural elements
Improved the analysis model by using SAP Software

ADVANCED FINITE ELEMENT MODELING


CMECS Structural Engineering Team takes pride of its wide array of accumulated experience in the region and everywhere in the
world. This is coupled with the latest technology systems to generate solutions for complex structural solutions.
The team is well equipped with strong analysis and design capabilities with the support of the powerful and latest finite element
software such as ETABS, SAP2000, STRAND, SAFE, STAAD etc.
The team has worked and successfully designed number of complex projects in the past with aspiration to become iconic landmarks.
This is achieved while working in collaboration with famous architects worldwide.

Super Computer used to model


and analyze complex structures.
The time of running the analysis
is substantially reduced with this
64bit solver computer and high
efficiency is achieved. The team
also takes advantage of the
computer speed to offer
numerous structural solutions to
its client.