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RCC design B.C.

Punmia

RETAINING WALL
A retaining wall or retaining structure is used for maintaining the ground surfgaces at
defrent elevations on either side of it. Whenever embankments are involed in construction ,retaining
wall are usually necessary. In the construction of buildins having basements, retaining walls are
mandatory. Similsrly in bridge work, the wing walls and abutments etc. are designed as retaining
walls , to resist earth pressure along with superimposed loads. The material retained or supported by
a retaining wall is called backfill lying above the horizontal plane at the elevation of the top of a wall is
called the surcharge, and its inclination to horizontal is called the surcharge angle
In the design of retaining walls or other retaining structures, it is necessary to compute the
lateral earth pressure exerted bythe retaining mass of soil. The equation of finding out the lateral
earth pressure against retaining wall is one of the oldest in Civil Engineering field. The plastic state of
strees, when the failure is imminent, was invetigated by Rankine in1860. A Lot of theoretical
experiment work has been done in this field and many theory and hypothesis heve benn proposed.

18.2 TYPE OF RETAINING WALLS

Retaining walls may be classified according to their mode of resisting the earth
pressure,and according to their shape. Following are some of commen types of retaining walls (Fig)
1
2
3
4

Gravity walls
Cantilever retaining walls
Counterfort retainig walls.
Buttresssed walls.

a. T- shaped

b. L- shaped

A gravity retaining wall shown in fig 1 is the one in which the earth pressure exrted by the
back fill is resisted by dead weight of wall, which is either made of masonry or of mass concrete .
The stress devlop in the wall is very low ,These walls are no proportioned that no tension is devloped
any where, and the resultant of forces remain withen the middle third of the base.

The cantilever retaining wall resist the horizontal earth pressure as well as other vertical pressure by way of beending of va

ressure by way of beending of varios components acting as cantilever s.A coomon form of cantilever retaining waal

etaining waal

DESIGN OF COUNTOR FORT RETAINING WALL with

horizontal back fill
Hieght of cantilever wall from ground level
Unit weight of Earth
Angle of repose
Safe Bearing capacity of soil
Coffiecent of friction
Concrete
wt. of concrete
Steel
fe
415 N/mm2
m
13.33
Nominal cover
Foundation depth
Counter forts width

=
=
=
=
=
M=
st
cbc
=
=
=

7.00
18
30
180
0.5
20
25000
230
7
30
1.00
0.50

m
KN/m3
Degree
KN/m3

N/m3
N/mm2
N/mm2
mm
m
m

DESIGN SUMMARY

Stem thickness
Footing width

At footing
#REF! mm
Heel width
2000 mm
4100 mm
Key
#REF!
Reinforcement Summary

At top
Toe width
x

#REF! mm
1700 mm
#REF! mm

STEM:- Main
(from top of
Retaining
100% Reinforcement
upto
wall)

m #REF!

m #REF!

25% Reinforcement upto

m Top

10
10
10

mm@
90
mm c/c
mm@ #REF! mm c/c
mm@ #REF! mm c/c

Distribution
Tamprecture

8
8

mm @ #REF! mm c/c
mm @ #REF! mm c/c

Main
Distribution

10
8

mm@
mm @

Main
Distribution

10
8

mm@ #REF! mm c/c

mm @
180 mm c/c

TOE:100
0

mm c/c
mm c/c

HEEL:-

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

###
### mm
### @ c/c

### mm
### @ c/c
#REF!
### mm
### @ c/c
###
### mm

7000

###

### mm
### @ c/c

###
### mm
### @ c/c

###

### @ c/c
###

###

###
###

#REF!
Toe

Heel
0

###
### mm
### @ c/c

1700

400
4100
400

2000

###

### mm
### @ c/c
mm

10
### @ c/c

10 mm
### @ c/c
10 mm
### @ c/c
Out side
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

mm
@ c/c

###

###

#REF!

mm
@ c/c

2000

1700
### mm ### @ c/c
###
###

###
###
###
###

Earth side

DESIGN OF COUNTERFORT RETAINING WALL

Hieght of cantilever wall from ground level
Unit weight of Earth
Angle of repose
Safe Bearing capacity of soil
Coffiecent of friction
Concrete
Steel
Nominal cover
Foundation depth
Counter forts width assume
1 Design Constants:- For HYSD Bars

st =
cbc =
m

m*c

m*c+st
j=1-k/3
1

R=1/2xc x j x k
0.5
For soil,

30

=
x

q0

fe

Cocrete M =

230 N/mm2

7 N/mm3
13.33
k=

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

7.00
18
30
180
0.5

m
kN/m3
Degree
kN/m3

M
415
30
1.00
0.50

20

1-sin
1+sin

Ka =

18000 N/m2

mm
effective cover
m
m 500 mm

40

20

wt. of concrete =

x
7
13.33
7
+
13.33 x
0.289 /
3
7
x 0.904 x

230
0.289
1
1

### N/mm2

25 kN/mm2

= 0.289
= 0.904
= 0.913
- 0.5
+ 0.5

= 0.33

Kp=

Ka

2 Diamension of various parts:7.00 + 1.00 = 8.00 m

Hence height of wall above base H =
The ratio of length of slabe (DE) to base width b is given by eq.
q0
180
1
=
1
=
=
2.2 y H
2.2 x
18 x 8.00
Keep = 0.43
The width of base is given by Eq.
Ka
b = 0.95 H x
(1- a)x(1+3 a)

b =

0.95

8.00

0.333
0.43 )x(
1

+ 1.29 )

0.432
. Eq (1)

3.84

The base width from the considration of sliding is given by Eq.

0.7HKa
0.7
x 8.00 x 0.333
b =
=
=
6.55
m
(
1
- 0.43 )x 0.5
(1-)
This width is excessive. Normal practice is to provide b between 0.5 to 0.6 H .
Taking maximum value of H = 0.5
b
= 0.50 x 8.00 =
4.00
m
Hence Provided b =
m
for design purpose
4.00
The wall will be unsafe against sliding. This will be made safe by providing a shear Key at base .
Width of toe slab =

xb

0.43

4.00

Hence width of heel slab

1.72
300
1.70

=
4.00 - 0.30 Let the thickness of base slab
H 1/4
Clear spacing of counter fort =
3.5 x
= 3.50
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

m Provided toe slab = 1.70

m
mm
= 0.30 m for design purpose
= 2.00 m
= 300 mm
= 0.3 m
x

8.00

1/4

= 2.86 m

Clear spacing of counter fort =

3.5 x

3.50

= 2.86 m

18

keep them at 3.00 m apart. Let us provide counterfort over toe slab, upto ground level at
3.00 m clear distance.
3 Stability of wall:Full dimension wall is shown in fig 1a
Let w1 = weight of rectangular portion of stem
w2 = weight of base slab
w3 = weight of soil on heel slab.
The calculation are arrenged in Table
Detail
w1
1
x
0.30 x 7.70 x
25
w2
1
x
0.30 x 4.00 x
25
w3
1
x
2.00 x 7.70 x
18

=
=
=
w =

Earth pressure
p

Ka x y x H2

18
2

x( 8.00 )2

192

0.33

w
PH

0.50

106.8375
60
831.60
998.44

kN-m
x

Over turning

998.44

force(kN) lever arm

57.75
1.85
30
2
277.2
3
total
MR
364.95

x 364.95
=
192

998.44
512
0.95

<

8
3

192

512

kN-m

1.95

>

1.5

kN

Hence
safe

#NAME?

To make safe against sliding A shear key will have provid under base , Also increase
width of base will have to increase..
Pressure distribution
512 =
net moment M = 998.44 Distance x of the point of application of resultant, from toe is
486.44
b
M
=
= 1.33 m
=
x =
364.95
6
w
b
4.00
Eccenticity e =
x
=
- 1.33 = 0.67 m
2
2
6e
364.95
6x 0.67
W
Pressure p1 at toe=
1+
=
x
1+
=
b
b
4.00
4.00

486.44 kN-m
4.00
= 0.667
6
>

0.667

183 >
kN -m2

180

Hence un
safe
Hence un
safe

In order to make it safe, increase the length of toe slab DE to

1.80
m, So that total wiodth is =
The revised computations are arranged in table
force(kN) lever arm Moment about toe (KN-m)
Detail
w1
58
1
x
0.30 x 7.70 x
25
=
1.95
113
w2
31
1
x
0.30 x 4.10 x
25
=
2.05
63
w3
277
1
x
2.00 x 7.70 x
18
=
3.1
859
total
M
1035.00
w = 365.70
R
kN-m
1035
512.00
=
523.00
net moment M =
Distance x of the point of application of resultant, from toe is
523.00
b
4.10
M
=
= 1.43 m
=
= 0.683
x =
365.70
6
6
w
b
4.10
Eccenticity e =
x
=
- 1.43 = 0.62 m
< 0.683
2
2
6e
365.70
6x 0.62
170.1 < 180
W
Pressure p1 at toe=
1+
=
x
1+
=
b
b
4.10
4.10
kN -m2
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

Hence safe
Hence safe

6e
W
1b
b
The Pressure intencity p1 under E is p1
Pressure p2 at Heel

365.70
x
4.10

170.10 - 8.30
4.10
The Pressure intencity p2 under B is p2
p1 = 170.10

p = 170.10

170.10 - 8.30
4.10

1-

6x 0.62
=
4.10

8.30 <
kN -m2

1.80

= 99.07

kN-m2

2.10

= 87.20

kN-m2

180

Hence safe

Clear spacing between counter fort

= 3.00 m
The pressure distribution on the heel slab is shown in fig 1b .consider a strip 1 meter
wide.Near the outer edge C. The upward pressure intencity
=
8.30 kN/m2 witch is minimum at C.
Down ward load due to weight of Earth. = 7.70 x
1
x 1.00 x 18 = 138.6 kN-m2
Down ward weight of slab per unit area = 0.30 x
1
x 1.00 x 25 =
kN-m2
7.5
8.30
Hence net pressure intensities will be P = 138.60 + 7.50
= 137.8 kN-m2
Maximum negative bending moment in heel slab.at counter fort is
Pl2
137.8 x
3.00 2'=
M1
=
=
103.35 kN-m
12
12

103.35 x
10 6
Effective depth required =
=
= 336 mm
Rxb
0.913
x
1000
137.8 x
3.00
Shear force V
=
= 206.7
kN
2
tc =
For balance section , having
P
=
0.72 %
0.33
N/mm2
,
V
207 x 1000
this is
Hence depth required from shear point of veiw d =
=
= 626 mm
excessive
tc x b
0.33 x 1000
However keep =

tv

500
207
1000

mm providing effective cover =

x
x

1000
440

0.47

60
N/mm2

mm

d =

> 0.33

500

60

440

#NAME?

x
103.35
10'6
=
mm2
1130
230 x
0.904 x 440
3.14xdia2
=
3.14 x 12 x 12 = 113
using
### mm bars
A
=
4
4
=
1000 / 1130 =
Spacing A x1000 / Ast
113 x
100
mm

100
Hence Provided
mm c/c
12 mm bar, @
Let us check this reinforcement for development length at point of contraflexure is situated at distance
of 0.211.L In over case, the slab is continuous, but we will assume the same position of contraflexure
i.e. at 0.211 x 3.00
=
0.63 m from the face of conunterforts.
l
pL l
L
Shear force at this point is given
- x +
= p
- x
2
2 2
2
Area of steel at supports is given by Ast =

3.00
119886
N
- 0.63 =
2
Assuming that all the bars will avilable at point of contraflexure,
M = st x Ast x j x d =
230 x 1130 x 0.904 x 440 =
103350000
Lo = 12
or d, witch ever is more = 440 mm
Ld = 45x = 45
x
12 = 540
mm
M
103350000
Lo
+
=
+ 440 = 1302 > 540
Hence safe

V
119886
Cotinue these bars by a distance lo = d = 440 mm beyond the point of contraflexure. After that, curtail
half bars, and continue the remaining half throughout the length. At the point of curtailment,
length of each bar available =
mm
> Ld = 540 mm Hence safe
630 + 440 = 1070
PL2
3
These bars will be provide at the top face of heel slab. Maximum Passive B.M. =
=
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
=

137.8 x

These bars will be provide at the top face of heel slab. Maximum Passive B.M. =

16

3
3
Ast1
x
=
x 1130 =
847
mm2
4
4
3.14xdia2
=
3.14 x 12 x 12 = 113
using
### mm bars
A
=
4
4
=
1000 / 847 =
Spacing A x1000 / Ast
113 x
133
mm

130
Hence Provided
mm c/c
12 mm bar, @
1000 x 113
Actual Ast
=
=
870
mm2
130
Let us check this reinforcement for development length crierion at point of contraflexur,
M
Where V = Shear at point of contraflexure=
119886 N
+Lo>Ld
Inherent in criterion :
m
V
Distance from face of supports
= 0.63

Assuming that all bars are available at point of contraflexure,

M = st x Ast x j x d =
230 x 870 x 0.904 x 440 =
79531705
Lo = 12
or d, witch ever is more = 440 mm
Ld = 45x = 45
x
12 = 540
mm as before
M
79531705
+Lo>Ld =
+ 440 = 1103 > 540
Hence safe

V
119886
Thus continue all bottom bars to a point distance L o =
440 mm from the point of contraflexure,
i.e. upto a distance = 630
- 440 =
190 mm from the center of sports.
At this point half bars can be discontinued. Since this distance is quite small,
it is better to continue these bars upto center of counterfors.
Reinforcement near B :- The c/c spacing of reinforcement near B may be increased, because P decrease
due to increase in upward soil reaction. Consider a strip 1 m wide near B
Upward soil reaction at B is =
87.2
kN/m2
As found earlier.
Net downward load p' = weight of earth + weight of counterforts - upward soil reaction
25 ) - 87.2 = 63.9
kN/m2
Net downward load p' = 138.60 +( 0.50 x
= 63.90 / 137.8 = 0.464 of load intencity at C
Hence spacing of steel bars = 100
/ 0.464 = 200 mm c/c at the top face, near supports
Spacing of steel bars at the bottom face, at mid span=
133
/ 0.464 =
300 mm c/c
0.12
Distribution steel =
x
1000 x
500
=
600
mm2
100
3.14 x ( 12 )'2
D2
Using ### mm bars, Area
=
=
=
113
mm2
4
4

Spacing =
Shear reinforcement.
% of steel provided =
Permissible shear stress for
Safe if tv< tc

1000

x 113
= 188 mm say =
600
shear stress at C = tv =
0.47

100 x 1130
1000 x 440
0.26 % steel provided tc
Here
0.47 > 0.21

180

0.26 %

= 0.21 N/mm2 (See Table 3.1)

Hence shear reinforcement required

Vc = tc b x d=
0.21 x 1000 x
440 =
###
or
N
Consider a section distance x1 from face of counterfort, where shear force is =
92.4
1.50 - x1
=
207
1.50
Hence shear stirrups are required upto distance =
0.80
The position is given by=

mm c/c

or x1 = 1.50 -

92.4 kN
92.4 kN
0.70

= 0.80

The requirement is there form a strip of unit width paassing through C,

such that shear force at the counterforts isd
= 92.4
kN
2
Net down ward pressure at C = 137.80 kN/m ,
Net down ward pressure at B = 63.90
kN/m2
Lt net down ward pressure at B1=w1 x 3/2=1.5w1
This is equal to = 92.4
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

w=

92.40
=
1.50

w1= 137.80

y1 =

2.10

61.6

However at Y1 from C,

kN/m2

137.80 2.00

64

y1

137.8

- 36.95 Y1

Hence shear reinforcement is required in triangular portion on the other side of counterforts shown hatched in fig .
However, we will provide shear strirrups in reangular portion x1 x y1=

0.80 x

2.10 = 1.68 m on

either side of counterforts.

mm wire
3.14 x (
8
)'2
D
Using 8 mm bars, Area
=
=
=
201
mm2
4
4
Asv.ssv.d
201 x 230 x 440
Sv=
=
=
178
mm
V - Vc
207 - 92.40 )x 1000
mm
lgd strirrups @
4
Hence provided thes 8
170 mm c/c either side of each counterforts.
Let us provide

legged

stirrups

of

5 Design of toe slab :Since the toe slab is also large, provide counterforts over it, upto ground level at
3.00 m clear distance face to face. The toe slab will thus bend like a contious slab.
=
500 mm or
Assume total depth of toe slab
0.5
m
Total weight of toe slab =
1
1
x
25 = 12.50 kN//m2
0.50 x
x
Net upward pressure intencity at
D = 170.10 - 12.50 = 157.60 kN//m2
Similarly Net upward pressure intencity at E = 99.07 - 12.50 = 86.57 kN//m2
Cosidering strip of unit width at D.
wl2
157.60 x
3.00 2
Max. negative B.M.
=
= 118.2 x 10'6
kN/m2
12
12
118.20
x 10 6

Effective depth required =

=
= 359.8
mm
Rxb
0.913
x
1000
157.6 x 3.00
Shear force V
=
= 236.4
kN
2
Taking a permissible stress tc = 0.30 N/mm2
assuming % steel
0.5 % table 3.1
The depth of slab required from shear point of view is given by d= V / (b x tc)
236 x 1000
d
=
= 788 mm
1000 x 0.300
This is excessive ,However we will keep the same depth as that of heel
and provide shear strirrups to take up excessive shearing stress.
mm providing effective cover =
However keep = 500
60 mm d = 500 - 60 = 440
Area of steel at supports, at bottom is Ast

118.20
x
10'6
=
230 x 0.904 x 440
=
3.14 x 12 x
4
1000 / 1292 =
113 x
80 mm c/c

1292

mm

3.14xdia2
12
= 113
4
=

Spacing A x1000 / Ast

87.5
mm
Hence Provided
12 mm bar, @
1000 x 113
Actual Ast
=
=
1413
mm2
80
Let us check this reinforcement for development length crierion at point of contraflexur,
M
+Lo>Ld Where the point of contraflexure occure at = 0.63 m
Inherent in criterion :
distance x rom supports
V
Hence shear force at the point of contraflexure is V =
3.00
w L
V=
- x
- 0.63 =
137112.0
= 157.6 x
2
2
M=
=
129239020
230 x 1413 x 0.904 x 440
Lo = 12
or d, witch ever is more = 440 mm

using

### mm bars

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

Ld

= 45x = 45
x
12 = 540
mm
M
129239020.21
+Lo>Ld =
+ 440 = 1383 > 540
Hence safe

V
137112
Hence satisfied , continue these bars, at the bottom of toe slab, beyond the point of contraflexure
630 + 440.0 = 1070 mm
by a distance of Lo= 440.0 mm i.e. by a distance of
from the face of counterforts
3
x 118.20 x 10'6 = 88.65 x 10 6
N-m
4
3
3
Area of Bottom steel Ast2 =
Ast1
x
=
x 1292 =
969
mm2

4
4
3.14xdia2
=
3.14 x 12 x 12 = 113
using
### mm bars
A
=
4
4
=
1000 / 969 =
Spacing = A x1000 / Ast
113 x
117
mm

110
Hence Provided
mm c/c
12 mm bar, @
1000 x 113
Actual Ast
=
=
1028
mm2
110
Let us check this reinforcement for development length crierion at point of contraflexur,
M
+Lo>Ld Where V = Shear at point of contraflexure= 137112 N
Inherent in criterion :
V
Assuming that all bars provided at top face,are available at point of contraflexure,
M = st x Ast x j x d =
230 x 1028 x 0.904 x 440 =
93992015
Lo = 12
or d, witch ever is more = 440 mm
Ld = 45x = 45
x
12 = 540
mm
as before
M
93992015
+Lo>Ld =
+ 440 = 1126 > 540
Hence safe

V
137112
Thus continue all bottom bars to a point distance L o =
440 mm from the point of contraflexure,
i.e. upto a distance = 630
- 440 =
190 mm from the center of sports.
At this point half bars can be discontinued. Since this distance is quite small,
it is better to continue these bars upto center of counterfors.
Reinforcement at E :At a section distance 1 meter from E,
170.1 8.30
upward soil pressure
= 170.1 x 0.80 = 138.50 kN/m2
4.10
12.50
Net upward pressure = 138.5
= 126.0 kN/m2
= 126.0 / 157.60 = 0.80 of w at D
Spacing of bottom steel = 87.5 / 0.80 =
109
mm
say
= 100

Spacing of top steel

/ 0.80 =
146
mm
say
= 140
= 117
0.12
Distribution steel
=
x 1000 x
500 =
600
mm2
100
3.14 x ( 12 )'2
D2
Using ### mm bars, Area
=
=
=
113
mm2
4
4
Again, positive B.M.

3
4

x M1

x 113
600
Shear reinforcement
shear force at D
shear force
Shear stress tv =

Spacing =

1000

Beam Ht.x beam wt.

% of steel provided =
Permissible shear stress tc for
Safe if tv< tc

=
=

188

mm say =

236.4
236.40 x
=
1000 x

kN
1000
=
440

100 x 1413
= 0.32 %

1000 x 440
0.32 % steel provided tc = 0.24
Here
0.54 > 0.24

180

0.54
tc

mm c/c

N/mm2
= 0.24

N/mm2

N/mm2 (See Table 3.1)

Shear reinforcement required

Vc = tc b x d=
0.24 x 1000 x
440 = 105600 N
or 105.6 kN
Consider a section distance x1 from face of counterfort, where shear force is = 105.6 kN
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

105.6
1.50 - x2
=
236.40
1.50
Hence shear stirrups are required upto distance =
0.80

or x2 = 1.50 -

0.70

= 0.80

m on either side of each counterforts.

The requirement is there form a strip of unit width paassing through D, Let us consider a strip through E1,
distance y2 from D, such that shear force at the counterforts is
105.6 kN. To find the position of Y2
consider the net pressure distribution below the toe.
Self weight of toe slab
=
12.50
Hence net pressure intencity below D an dE are
= 170.1
below D
12.50 = 157.6
kN/m2, and below E
99.1 - 12.50 =
Let the net pressure intencity at E1 = w2 x 3/2 = 1.5 w2 kN/m2
Shear force at the counterforts at E1 = w2 x 3/2 =1.5m w2 kN/M2
w2=

105.60
=
1.50

70.4

This is equal to = 105.6

kN/m2

.(1)

157.60 86.6
y2
=
157.6 1.80
Equating the two we get, = 157.60 - 39.46 Y2
=
70.4 y2 =
This is > than DE
DE =
Hence shear force at E is more than
= 105.6 kN/m2
Actual shear forceat E =
1.50 x 86.57 = 129.8 kN/m2
Considered a section distence Z from the face of dounterforts (Point E), where S.F. is
105.60
1.50 Z
The position of Z is given =
= or Z = 1.50 =
129.85
1.50
However at Y2 from D,

w2= 157.60 -

Hence shear stirrups are to be procided for a region DEE2D1, where EE2

86.6

39.46 Y2

(2)

2.20 m
1.80 m

105.6 kN
1.22

= 0.30

0.30 m only.

However, we will provide shear strirrups for whole of rectangular area (shown dotted),

for width DD1,= x2 =

0.80
8

m and length DE

= 0.30 m

mm wire
3.14 x (
8
)'2
D
Using 8 mm bars, Area
=
=
=
402
mm2
4
4
Asv.ssv.d
402 x 230 x 440
Sv=
=
=
311
mm
V - Vc
236.4 - 105.60 )x 1000
mm
lgd strirrups @
8
Hence provided thes 8
300 mm c/c either side of each counterforts.
Let us provide

legged

stirrups

of

6 Design of stem (vertical slab)

The stem acts as a continuous slab. Considred 1 m strip at B .
ph
= KayH1
The intencity of earth pressure is given by.
=
0.33 x
18 x 7.50 = 45.0
Hence revised H1=
8.00 - 0.50 = 7.50
2
L2
45.00 x(
)
3
ph
B.M. =
x
=
=
33750000
N-mm
12
12
33750000

Effective depth required =

=
=
192
mm
Rxb
0.913
x
1000
Providing effective cover =
60 mm, so total depth
= 192 + 60 = 252
mm
However provide total depth d = 300 mm and effective thickness = 300 60
= 240
this increased thickness will keep the shear stress within limit so that additional shear
reinforcement not required.
67.50 x 1000
45.0
x
3
tc
Shear force V =
=
67.5
kN
=
= 0.28

1000 x 240
2
this is less than =
tc
=
0.3
N/mm2 at 0.5% reinfocement (see Table 3.1)

Area of steel near conuterforts is

Reinforcement corresponding to p

=
=
=

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

33750000
230 x 0.904 x 240
0.50 %
is = pbd/100
0.50 x
1000 x 240

677

mm2

1200

mm2

=
Using ### mm bars, Area

Spacing =

1000

=
x
1200

D2
4
113

100
3.14 x (
4
94

=
12

)'2

mm say =

1200

mm2

113

mm2

90

mm c/c

113
100As
100 x 1256
= 1256 mm2 and
=
= 0.52
90
bd
1000 x 240
Let us check these bars for devlopment length, near points of contraflexure, so as to satisfy the criterion
M
For fixed beam or slab carrying U.D.L. , the point of
+ Lo > Ld
=
contraflexure is at a distance of 0.211 L
V
Actual AS provided= 1000

contraflexure point = 0.211 x 3.00 = 0.63 m from the face of counterforts ,

shear force at this point given by V= pL/2(l/2-x)+(L/2)
pL
L
l
3
l
V =
= p x
- x = 67.5 x
- 0.63
-x +
2
2
2
2
2
= 58.7 kN
Assuming that all the bars will be available at the point of contrflexure,
st x Ast x jc x d
M =
= 230 x 1256 x 0.904 x 240 =
62661343
Lo = 12 or D , whichever is more
= 240 mm
Ld = 45 =
45
x
12
= 540 mm
M
62661343
+
Lo
+ 240 =
1307
mm > 540
Hence safe
=
V
58.70 x 1000
It is thus essencial to continue all the bars upto a point distance=
240 mm beyond
point of contraflexure, i.e. upto a point 240 + 630 = 870 mm say = 900 mm from the
face of counterforts. These bars are to be provided at the inner face of stem slab.
3 x M1
3
Maximum positive B.M.
=
=
x
33750000
=
25312500
N-mm
4
4
3x Ast
3
Area of steel =
=
= 1256 =
942
mm2
4
4
3.14 x ( 12 )'2
D2
Using ### mm bars, Area
=
=
=
113
mm2
4
4

Spacing =

1000

x 113
942

120

mm say =

120

mm c/c

113
100As
100 x 942
= 942 mm2 and
=
= 0.1
120
bd
1000 x 942
Let us check these bars for devlopment length, near points of contraflexure, so as to satisfy the criterion
M
Assuming that all reinforcement is extended upto poin
+ Lo > Ld
=
of contraflexure.
V
Actual AS provided= 1000

st x Ast x jc x d
M =
= 230 x 942 x 0.904 x 240 =
46996007
Lo = 12 or D , whichever is more
= 240 mm
Ld = 45 =
45
x
12
= 540 mm
V
= 58.7 As before
46996007
M
+
Lo
+ 240 =
1041
mm > 540
Hence safe
=
V
58.70 x 1000
The spacing of reinforcement at B, found above can be increased with height .
The pressure ph and hence the bending moment decreaases linearly with height.

Ast

Hence the spacing of bars can be increase gradually to say

0.12
Distribution reinforcement
=
x 1000 x

100
3.14 x ( 10 )'2
D2
Using ### mm bars, Area
=
=
4
4

Spacing =
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

1000

79

218

mm say =

300

mm2

360

79

mm2

200

mm c/c

Spacing =

360

218

mm say =

200

mm c/c

7 Design of main counterfort.

Let us assuming thickness of counterforts is =
500 mm. The counterfort will thus
be spaced @
300
x
50
= 350 cm c/c. They will thus receive earth pressure from
3.5 m
a width of 3.5 m
and down ward reaction from heel slab for width of
At any section at depth h below the top A, the eerth pressure acting on each counter forts will be
1
=
x
18.00 x
h
x
3.5
=
21 h kN/m
3
similarly, net down ward pressure on heel at c is
= 7.50
x
18
+ 0.50 x
25
- 8.30 = 139.2 kN/m2
and that at B = 7.50
x
18
+ 0.50 x
25
- 87.2 =
60.3 kN/m2
At C,
At B,

Hence reaction transferrred to each counterfort are will be

= 139.2
x
3.50 = 487.20
kN/m
= 60.3
x
3.50 = 211.05
kN/m
The variations of horizontal and vertical forces on counterfort are shown in fig.

The critical section for the counterfort will be F, since below this, enormous depth will be available to resist bending.

Pressure intencity at h = 7.00 m is =

21
x 7.00 = 147 kN/m
1
Shear force at F =
x
147 x 7.00 =
514.5
kN
2
3
B.M.
= 514.5
x
7
/
=
1200.5 kN-m or 1200500000 N-mm
Conterforts act as a T beam. However, even as a reactangular beam, depth required
1200500000

Effective depth required =

=
= 1622
mm
Rxb
0.913
x
500
Providing effective cover =
60 mm, so total depth
= 1622 + 60 = 1682 mm
However provide total depth d = 1700 mm and effective thickness = 1700 60
= 1640
Angle of face AC is given by Tan =
= 15
2.00 / 7.50 =
0.3
=
0.259
and
sin
cos = 0.966
= AF1 sin =
7
x 0.259 = 1.82 m or
1820 mm
2120
+
300 =

Depth FG = 1820
Asssuming that the steel reinforcement is provided in
2 layer with
20 mm space
20
between them and providing a nominal cover 30 mm and main bars of
mm dia
30
the effective depth will be
=
2120 -(
+
20
+
12 + 10 = 2048 mm
1200500000
Area of steel at supports, at bottom is Ast =
=
2820
mm
230 x 0.904 x 2048
3.14xdia2
=
3.14 x 20 x 20
using
### mm bars
A
=
= 314
4
4
314 =
No. provode these in
2
layers
No. of bars 2820 /
9
Depth F1C1

Effective shear force

Effective shear force

=
=

tv

area of steel

100xAs
b xd

514500

M
d'

tan
-

where d'

1200500000
2120

d
cos

2048
2120
0.966 =

x 0.27 = 361606.132075

361606.13207547
= 0.341138 N/mm2
500 x
2120
100 x
9
x 314
= 0.3 % tc = 0.21
500
x
2120

N/mm2

thus the shear stress tv is more than permisssible shear stress tc. However, the vertical
and horizontal ties provided in counterforts will bear the excess shear stress.
the height h where half of the reinforcement can curtailed will be equal to H H =
8.00 = 2.8
below A, i.e. at point H. To locate the position of point of curtailmenton AC, draw Hl parallel to FG.
Thus half bars can be curtailed at l. However these should be extent by a distance 12 =
240
beyond l, i.e. extented upto l. The location of H corresponding to l1 can be locate by drawing line l1H1
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

parallel FG. It should be noted that l1G should not less than 45 F =

900 mm similarly, other bars can be

curtailed, if desired,
Design of Horizontal ties:The vertical stem has a tendency to saprate outfrom the counterforts, and hence
should be tie to it by horizontalties. At any depth h below the top, force causing sepration
1
x
18 h x 3.00 =
18
h kN/m
3

here
h
=
7
force =
18
x
7
= 126 kN/m

steel required

using

### mm

spacing

126

=
2

x 1000
230

548

mm

legged ties, As

2x3.14
x(
4

10

286

mm

1000

however provide 200

Design of vertical ties:-

x 157
548

mm c/c at bottom and gradualy increase to

)2= 157

mm2

300 mm at top

Similar to the stem slab, heel slab has also tendency to seprate out from counterforts,
due to net down ward force, unless tied properly by vertical ties.
487.20 x 3.00
The down wars force ar C will be
417.6
kN/m
3.50
211.05 x 3.00
The down wars force ar B will be
180.9
kN/m
see fig.
3.50
Near end C, the heel slab is tied to counterforts with the help of main reinforcement of counterforts.
417.6 x 1000
=
=
1816
mm

steel required at C
230
2x3.14
using
### mm 2
legged ties, As =
x( 12 )2= 226
mm2
4
1000 x 226
=
=
124
mm
say
120
mm

spacing of ties
1816
180.9 x 1000
steel required at B
=
=
787
mm
230
2x3.14
using
### mm 2
legged ties, As =
x( 12 )2= 226
mm2
4
1000 x 226
=
=
287
mm
say
280
mm

spacing of ties
787
280
Thus the spacing of vertical tie can be increase gradually from
120
mm c / c at C to
8 Design of front counterforts :Refer fig 1 The upward pressure intencity varies from
170.1 kN/m2 at D,
to 99.07 kN/m2 at E.
Down ward weight of 500 mm thick toe slab =
0.5 x
25 =
12.5 kN/m2
hence net w at D =
kN/m2
170.1 - 12.5 =
157.6
kN/m2
and at E =
99.07 - 12.5 =
86.6
The center to center spacing of counterforts, 500 mm wide is
3.50 m.Hence upward force transmitted
551.6
to counterforts at D 157.6
x 3.50
=
kN/m and at E
86.6 x
3.50 = 303
The counterforts bent up as cantilever about face FE. Hence DF will be in compression while D1E1 will be
in tension, and main reinforcement will be provide at bottom face D1E1
(

Total upward force

acting at x

B.M.

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

=
=

551.6 + 303.0 )x
1.80 =
769
kN/m
2.0
2
303 +
x 551.6
1.80
x
= 0.99 m from E
551.6
303
+
3
0.99 =
759000000
769
x
759
KN-m
OR

759000000
500 x 0.913

1289

mm

Providing effective cover =

80 mm, so total depth
= 1289 + 80 = 1369 mm
However provide total depth d = 1400 mm and effective thickness = 1400 80
= 1320
mm above groud level,to point F1 as shown in fig 4
Thus project the counterforts
400
759000000
Area of steel near conuterforts is
=
= 2767
mm2
230 x 0.904 x 1320

Using ### mm bars, Area

No of bars
Effective shear force
V
and tv
100xAs
b xd
since
tv

Vc
V1

=
=

area of steel

using

>

### mm

= tcxbxd
=
V

=
-

2767
491

D2
4

No

3.14 x (
4

25

)'2

mm2

provide these in one layer and continue by a

distance of 45 beyond E

M
From fig 4 tan=
tan
d'
759
0.90
= 481.5
kN
769 x
1.32
1.80
482 x 1000
N/mm2
=
0.730
500 x 1320
100 x
6
x 491
= 0.45 % tc =
500
x
1320
tc
shear reinforcement is required
2x3.14
legged ties, As =
x( 12 )2= 226
4
0.280 x
500 x
1320 = 184800
Vc
= 481500
184800 = 296700
230 x
226 x 1320
=
=
231
296700

491

0.90
1.80
481500

0.280

N/mm2

mm2

sv.Asv.d
subject to a maxi.
mm
300 mm
Vs
However providethese @ 230 mm c/c provide 2 x
12 mmbars on top for holding.
9 Fixing effect in stem, toe and heel :At the junction of stem, toe and heel slab fixing moment are included,which
are at right angles to their normal direction of bending. These moment are not determine , but
normal reinforcement given below may be provided.
(I) In stem@ 0.8x0.3 =0.24% of cross section, to be provided at inner face,

sv

in vertical direction,for a length 45

0.24
Ast
=
x 1000 x 300 =
720
mm2

100
3.14 x ( 10 )'2
D2
Using ### mm bars, Area
=
=
=
4
4

79

mm2

x
79
= 109 mm say = 100
mm c/c
720
Length embedment in stem, above heel slab =
45 x 10
=
450 mm
(II) In toe slab @ 0.12% to be provided at the lowae face
0.12
Ast
=
x 1000 x 500 =
600
mm2

100
3.14 x ( 10 )'2
D2
Using ### mm bars, Area
=
=
=
79
mm2
4
4

Spacing =

1000

x
79
= 131 mm say = 130
mm c/c
600
Length embedment in stem, above toe slab =
45 x 10
=
450 mm
(III) In heel slab @ 0.12% to be provided in upper face
0.12
Ast
=
x 1000 x 500 =
600
mm2

Spacing =

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

1000

Ast

100

Using ### mm bars, Area

x
=

D2
4
79

x
=

500

3.14 x (
4

600
10

mm2
)'2

79

mm2

x
= 131 mm say = 130
mm c/c
600
Length embedment in stem, above heel slab =
45 x 10
=
450 mm
Each of above reinforcement should anchored properly in adjoining slab, as shown in fig 5

Spacing =

1000

1000

10. Design of shear key:The wall is in unsafe in sliding, and hence shear key will have to be provided, as shown in fig. 6
Let the depth of key =a intensity of passive pressure P p devloped in front of key depend upon
the soil pressure P in front of the key
Pp
K
P = 3.00 x 99.07 = 297.20 kN/m2
=
p
total passive pressure Pp = Pp x a =

297.20 a
18
Sliding force at level D1C1
=
0.33 x
x(
8
+
a
)2
2.00
or PH
=
3.00 x(
8
+
a
)2
.(2)
Weight of the soil between bottom of the base and D 1C1 = 4.10 ax 18 = 73.80 a
364.95 + 73.80 a
Refer force calculation table
W =
Hence equilibrium of wall, permitting F.S. = 1.5
against sliding we have
w+Pp
0.5 x ( 364.95 + 73.80 a)+ 297.20 a
1.5
=
=
PH
3
x( 8.00 + a2
)
0.5 x ( 364.95 + 73.80 a)+ 297.20 a
1.5 x(
8
+
a)2
=
3
x
1.5
2
+ a)
8
= 182.48 +
36.9 a+ 297.20 a

a)
=
2
64 +
16 a + a
=
2
a
=
or a =
or a =
Hence keep depth of key =
Now size of key =
400 x
PH =
3.00 x(
=
3.00 x(
PH =
211.68
=
297.20
=
118.88
W = 364.95 +
= 364.95 +
=
394.5
2

40.55

74.24
58.24
a2
0.4054

400
400
8.00
8.00
kN
a
kN
73.80
73.80

4.5
+ 74.244 a
a16 a + 40.55 - 64
a -23.45
+
- 58.24 a
23.45
m say
=
410 mm
mm. and width of key
400 mm
mm
+
a
)2
+
0.40 )2
=
297.20
Hence
a
x 0.40

0.40

kN

Actual force to be resisted by the key at F.S. 1.5 is

= 1.5PH - W
= 1.5
x 211.68 0.5 x 394.5 = 120.29
120.29 x 1000
=
N/mm2
shear stress =
0.30
400 x 1000
120.29 x 200 x 1000
Bending stress =
1/6
x 1000 x(
400 )2
=
0.90
N/mm2
Hence safe
The details reinforcement shown in fig 7
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

kN

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

mm

Eq (1)

y at base .

design purpose

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

ound level at

..(1)

..(2)

AME?

Hence un
safe
Hence un
safe
4.10

ent about toe (KN-m)

Hence safe
Hence safe
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

Hence safe

nimum at C.
kN-m2
kN-m2

this is
excessive
mm

AME?

mm2

N-mm

Hence safe

After that, curtail

Hence safe
M1
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

M1

mm2

N-mm

as before
Hence safe

ause P decrease

kN/m2

ace, near supports

kN/m2
kN
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

61.6

counterforts.

ground level at
ontious slab.

table 3.1

mm

mm2

N
Nmm

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

Hence safe

mm2

N-mm

as before
Hence safe

kN/m2
mm
mm

table
3.1

cement required

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

through E1,
osition of Y2

kN/m2
kN
.(1)

(2)

counterforts.

kN/m2

mm

ditional shear
N
mm2

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

of contrflexure,
N-mm

Hence safe
mm beyond
mm from the

N-mm

As before
Hence safe

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

mm

mm2

mm
N

ever, the vertical

ear stress.
m
mm

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

er bars can be

forts, and hence

counterforts,

ounterforts.

mm
kN/m2 at E.

force transmitted
kN/m

E
N-m
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

mm

table
3.1

subject to a maxi.
300 mm

ine , but

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

shown in fig 5

as shown in fig. 6

ey depend upon

.(2)

alculation table

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

0.3
`
0.3

1.80

2.00

7.50
7.00
3.00

0.3
1.70
B

1.80

C
2.00

0.50

4.10

E1

B1

C1

x1

137.80

x1

y2
157.60

w2
FIG. 1

C1

y2

y2

8.30

87.20

99.07

x2

x2

4.00

###

1.00

63.90

86.57

C1

D1

2.00

FIG. 2

w1

0.30 A
F1
h
G.Level

0.40

21 h kn/m
7.00

8.00
7.50

0.50

1.00

0.5
D1

1.40

E1

G1

147.00
F1

551.6
kN/m

B
C

0.5

FIG.
2.00

168.00

211.05

kN/m

487.2

1.80

kN/m
D
FIG. 3

300

C
4.10

10 mm
100 mm c/c

450

D1

10 mm
130 mm c/c

99.07

Pp

450

2.00

0.50

170.10

1.00

kN/m

F2

C1

FIG.

FIG.

DESIGN OF COUNTOR FORT RETAINING WALL with horizontal back fill

300

300

12 mm

10 mm

20 mm

300 mm c/c

300 mm c/c

5 Nos.

12 mm

10 mm

240 mm c/c

20 mm

265 mm c/c

4 Nos.

0
12 mm

10 mm

180 mm c/c

230 mm c/c

12 mm
2 lgd vertical ties

8000

120

to

0 mm c/c
12 mm

10 mm

120 mm c/c

200 mm c/c
10 mm

12 mm

0 mm
12 mm

110 mm c/c
3

900

200 mm c/c

0 mm c/c
2x12 mm

180 mm c/c

12 mm

Holding bars
2
500

2
2000

1800

3
12 mm
130 mm c/c

400
400

100 mm c/c
12

mm 2 lgd

230 mm c/c
12 mm

12 mm

130 mm c/c

80 mm c/c

400
25 mm

400

12 mm
180 mm c/c

0 mm

6 No.Bars

0 mm c/c

0 mm c/c

mm

0
0
0
0

mm

Cross -section mid way between counterfoorts

Front counterforts

mm

0
0
0

0 mm

M-10

M-15

M-20

M-25

M-30

M-35

M-40

1.2

2.0

2.8

3.2

3.6

4.0

4.4

Table 1.16.. Permissible stress in concrete (IS : 456-2000)

Permission stress in compression (N/mm2) Permissible stress in bond (Average) for
plain bars in tention (N/mm2)
Bending cbc
Direct (cc)
concrete
(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
in kg/m2
Kg/m2 (N/mm2)
Kg/m2
--M 10
3.0
300
2.5
250
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50

5.0
7.0
8.5
10.0
11.5
13.0
14.5
16.0

500
700
850
1000
1150
1300
1450
1600

4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0

400
500
600
800
900
1000
1100
1200

0.6
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

60
80
90
100
110
120
130
140

Modular ratio m

M-10

M-15

M-20

M-25

M-30

M-35

M-40

31
(31.11)

19
(18.67)

13
(13.33)

11
(10.98)

9
(9.33)

8
(8.11)

7
(7.18)

Modular Ratio

cbc N/mm
m cbc

kc
(a) st =
jc
140
N/mm2 Rc
(Fe 250) P (%)
c
kc
(b) st = j
c
190
Rc
N/mm2
Pc (%)
kc
(c ) st =
jc
230
Rc
N/mm2
(Fe 415) P (%)
c
kc
(d) st =
jc
275
Rc
N/mm2
(Fe 500)

M-15
18.67
5
93.33
0.4
0.867
0.867
0.714
0.329
0.89
0.732
0.433
0.289
0.904
0.653
0.314
0.253
0.916
0.579

M-20
13.33
7
93.33
0.4
0.867
1.214
1
0.329
0.89
1.025
0.606
0.289
0.904
0.914
0.44
0.253
0.916
0.811

M-25
10.98
8.5
93.33
0.4
0.867
1.474
1.214
0.329
0.89
1.244
0.736
0.289
0.904
1.11
0.534
0.253
0.916
0.985

M-30
9.33
10
93.33
0.4
0.867
1.734
1.429
0.329
0.89
1.464
0.866
0.289
0.904
1.306
0.628
0.253
0.914
1.159

M-35
8.11
11.5
93.33
0.4
0.867
1.994
1.643
0.329
0.89
1.684
0.997
0.289
0.904
1.502
0.722
0.253
0.916
1.332

M-40
7.18
13
93.33
0.4
0.867
2.254
1.857
0.329
0.89
1.903
1.127
0.289
0.904
1.698
0.816
0.253
0.916
1.506

(d) st =
275
N/mm2
(Fe 500)

Pc (%)

0.23

0.322

0.391

0.46

0.53

0.599

100As

M-15
0.18
0.22
0.29
0.34
0.37
0.40
0.42
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.44

bd
< 0.15
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.75
3.00 and above

M-20
0.18
0.22
0.30
0.35
0.39
0.42
0.45
0.47
0.49
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51

M-25
0.19
0.23
0.31
0.36
0.40
0.44
0.46
0.49
0.51
0.53
0.55
0.56
0.57

M-30
0.20
0.23
0.31
0.37
0.41
0.45
0.48
0.50
0.53
0.55
0.57
0.58
0.6

M-35
0.20
0.23
0.31
0.37
0.42
0.45
0.49
0.52
0.54
0.56
0.58
0.60
0.62

M-40
0.20
0.23
0.32
0.38
0.42
0.46
0.49
0.52
0.55
0.57
0.60
0.62
0.63

200
1.20

1.30
1.25

Table 3.2. Facor k

Over all depth of slab

300 or more

1.00

275
1.05

250
1.10

225
1.15

M-15
1.6

c.max

M-20
1.8

M-25
1.9

M-30
2.2

M-35
2.3

M-40
2.5

Table 3.4. Permissible Bond stress Table bd in concrete (IS : 456-2000)

Grade of concrete M-10
bd (N / mm2)
--

M-15
0.6

M-20
0.8

M-25
0.9

M-30
1

M-35
1.1

M-40
1.2

M-45
1.3

concrete
M 15
M 20
M 25
M 30
M 35
M 40
M 45
M 50

bd (N / mm2)
kd = Ld
0.6
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

58
44
39
35
32
29
27
25

H.Y.S.D. Bars
bd (N / mm2)
kd = Ld
0.96
1.28
1.44
1.6
1.76
1.92
2.08
2.24

60
45
40
36
33
30
28
26

M-50
1.4

Value of angle

Value of angle

Degree

sin

cos

tan

tan

Degree

sin

cos

10

0.17

0.98

0.18

0.18

10

0.17

0.98

11

0.19

0.98

0.19

0.19

11

0.19

0.98

12

0.21

0.98

0.21

0.21

12

0.21

0.98

13

0.23

0.97

0.23

0.23

13

0.23

0.97

14

0.24

0.97

0.25

0.25

14

0.24

0.97

15

0.26

0.97

0.27

0.27

15

0.26

0.97

16

0.28

0.96

0.29

0.29

16

0.28

0.96

17

0.29

0.96

0.31

0.31

17

0.29

0.96

18

0.31

0.95

0.32

0.32

18

0.31

0.95

19

0.33

0.95

0.34

0.34

19

0.33

0.95

20

0.34

0.94

0.36

0.36

20

0.34

0.94

21

0.36

0.93

0.38

0.38

21

0.36

0.93

22

0.37

0.93

0.40

0.40

22

0.37

0.93

23

0.39

0.92

0.42

0.42

23

0.39

0.92

24

0.41

0.92

0.45

0.45

24

0.41

0.92

25

0.42

0.91

0.47

0.47

25

0.42

0.91

30

0.50

0.87

0.58

0.58

30

0.50

0.87

35

0.57

0.82

0.70

0.70

35

0.57

0.82

40

0.64

0.77

0.84

0.84

40

0.64

0.77

45

0.71

0.71

1.00

1.00

45

0.71

0.71

50

0.77

0.64

1.19

1.19

50

0.77

0.64

55

0.82

0.57

1.43

1.43

55

0.82

0.57

60

0.87

0.50

1.73

1.73

60

0.87

0.50

65

0.91

0.42

2.14

2.14

65

0.91

0.42