Punmia
RETAINING WALL
A retaining wall or retaining structure is used for maintaining the ground surfgaces at
defrent elevations on either side of it. Whenever embankments are involed in construction ,retaining
wall are usually necessary. In the construction of buildins having basements, retaining walls are
mandatory. Similsrly in bridge work, the wing walls and abutments etc. are designed as retaining
walls , to resist earth pressure along with superimposed loads. The material retained or supported by
a retaining wall is called backfill lying above the horizontal plane at the elevation of the top of a wall is
called the surcharge, and its inclination to horizontal is called the surcharge angle
In the design of retaining walls or other retaining structures, it is necessary to compute the
lateral earth pressure exerted bythe retaining mass of soil. The equation of finding out the lateral
earth pressure against retaining wall is one of the oldest in Civil Engineering field. The plastic state of
strees, when the failure is imminent, was invetigated by Rankine in1860. A Lot of theoretical
experiment work has been done in this field and many theory and hypothesis heve benn proposed.
Gravity walls
Cantilever retaining walls
Counterfort retainig walls.
Buttresssed walls.
a. T shaped
b. L shaped
A gravity retaining wall shown in fig 1 is the one in which the earth pressure exrted by the
back fill is resisted by dead weight of wall, which is either made of masonry or of mass concrete .
The stress devlop in the wall is very low ,These walls are no proportioned that no tension is devloped
any where, and the resultant of forces remain withen the middle third of the base.
The cantilever retaining wall resist the horizontal earth pressure as well as other vertical pressure by way of beending of va
ressure by way of beending of varios components acting as cantilever s.A coomon form of cantilever retaining waal
etaining waal
=
=
=
=
=
M=
st
cbc
=
=
=
7.00
18
30
180
0.5
20
25000
230
7
30
1.00
0.50
m
KN/m3
Degree
KN/m3
N/m3
N/mm2
N/mm2
mm
m
m
DESIGN SUMMARY
Stem thickness
Footing width
At footing
#REF! mm
Heel width
2000 mm
4100 mm
Key
#REF!
Reinforcement Summary
At top
Toe width
x
#REF! mm
1700 mm
#REF! mm
STEM: Main
(from top of
Retaining
100% Reinforcement
upto
wall)
m #REF!
m #REF!
m Top
10
10
10
mm@
90
mm c/c
mm@ #REF! mm c/c
mm@ #REF! mm c/c
Distribution
Tamprecture
8
8
mm @ #REF! mm c/c
mm @ #REF! mm c/c
Main
Distribution
10
8
mm@
mm @
Main
Distribution
10
8
TOE:100
0
mm c/c
mm c/c
HEEL:
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
###
### mm
### @ c/c
### mm
### @ c/c
#REF!
### mm
### @ c/c
###
### mm
7000
###
### mm
### @ c/c
###
### mm
### @ c/c
###
### @ c/c
###
###
###
###
#REF!
Toe
Heel
0
###
### mm
### @ c/c
1700
400
4100
400
2000
###
### mm
### @ c/c
mm
10
### @ c/c
10 mm
### @ c/c
10 mm
### @ c/c
Out side
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
mm
@ c/c
###
###
#REF!
mm
@ c/c
2000
1700
### mm ### @ c/c
###
###
###
###
###
###
Earth side
st =
cbc =
m
m*c
m*c+st
j=1k/3
1
R=1/2xc x j x k
0.5
For soil,
30
=
x
q0
fe
Cocrete M =
230 N/mm2
7 N/mm3
13.33
k=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
7.00
18
30
180
0.5
m
kN/m3
Degree
kN/m3
M
415
30
1.00
0.50
20
1sin
1+sin
Ka =
18000 N/m2
mm
effective cover
m
m 500 mm
40
20
wt. of concrete =
x
7
13.33
7
+
13.33 x
0.289 /
3
7
x 0.904 x
230
0.289
1
1
### N/mm2
25 kN/mm2
= 0.289
= 0.904
= 0.913
 0.5
+ 0.5
= 0.33
Kp=
Ka
b =
0.95
8.00
0.333
0.43 )x(
1
+ 1.29 )
0.432
. Eq (1)
3.84
xb
0.43
4.00
1.72
300
1.70
=
4.00  0.30 Let the thickness of base slab
H 1/4
Clear spacing of counter fort =
3.5 x
= 3.50
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
8.00
1/4
= 2.86 m
3.5 x
3.50
= 2.86 m
18
keep them at 3.00 m apart. Let us provide counterfort over toe slab, upto ground level at
3.00 m clear distance.
3 Stability of wall:Full dimension wall is shown in fig 1a
Let w1 = weight of rectangular portion of stem
w2 = weight of base slab
w3 = weight of soil on heel slab.
The calculation are arrenged in Table
Detail
w1
1
x
0.30 x 7.70 x
25
w2
1
x
0.30 x 4.00 x
25
w3
1
x
2.00 x 7.70 x
18
=
=
=
w =
Ka x y x H2
18
2
x( 8.00 )2
192
0.33
w
PH
0.50
106.8375
60
831.60
998.44
kNm
x
Over turning
998.44
x 364.95
=
192
998.44
512
0.95
<
8
3
192
512
kNm
1.95
>
1.5
kN
Hence
safe
#NAME?
To make safe against sliding A shear key will have provid under base , Also increase
width of base will have to increase..
Pressure distribution
512 =
net moment M = 998.44 Distance x of the point of application of resultant, from toe is
486.44
b
M
=
= 1.33 m
=
x =
364.95
6
w
b
4.00
Eccenticity e =
x
=
 1.33 = 0.67 m
2
2
6e
364.95
6x 0.67
W
Pressure p1 at toe=
1+
=
x
1+
=
b
b
4.00
4.00
486.44 kNm
4.00
= 0.667
6
>
0.667
183 >
kN m2
180
Hence un
safe
Hence un
safe
Hence safe
Hence safe
6e
W
1b
b
The Pressure intencity p1 under E is p1
Pressure p2 at Heel
365.70
x
4.10
170.10  8.30
4.10
The Pressure intencity p2 under B is p2
p1 = 170.10
p = 170.10
170.10  8.30
4.10
1
6x 0.62
=
4.10
8.30 <
kN m2
1.80
= 99.07
kNm2
2.10
= 87.20
kNm2
180
Hence safe
= 3.00 m
The pressure distribution on the heel slab is shown in fig 1b .consider a strip 1 meter
wide.Near the outer edge C. The upward pressure intencity
=
8.30 kN/m2 witch is minimum at C.
Down ward load due to weight of Earth. = 7.70 x
1
x 1.00 x 18 = 138.6 kNm2
Down ward weight of slab per unit area = 0.30 x
1
x 1.00 x 25 =
kNm2
7.5
8.30
Hence net pressure intensities will be P = 138.60 + 7.50
= 137.8 kNm2
Maximum negative bending moment in heel slab.at counter fort is
Pl2
137.8 x
3.00 2'=
M1
=
=
103.35 kNm
12
12
103.35 x
10 6
Effective depth required =
=
= 336 mm
Rxb
0.913
x
1000
137.8 x
3.00
Shear force V
=
= 206.7
kN
2
tc =
For balance section , having
P
=
0.72 %
0.33
N/mm2
,
V
207 x 1000
this is
Hence depth required from shear point of veiw d =
=
= 626 mm
excessive
tc x b
0.33 x 1000
However keep =
tv
500
207
1000
1000
440
0.47
60
N/mm2
mm
d =
> 0.33
500
60
440
#NAME?
x
103.35
10'6
=
mm2
1130
230 x
0.904 x 440
3.14xdia2
=
3.14 x 12 x 12 = 113
using
### mm bars
A
=
4
4
=
1000 / 1130 =
Spacing A x1000 / Ast
113 x
100
mm
100
Hence Provided
mm c/c
12 mm bar, @
Let us check this reinforcement for development length at point of contraflexure is situated at distance
of 0.211.L In over case, the slab is continuous, but we will assume the same position of contraflexure
i.e. at 0.211 x 3.00
=
0.63 m from the face of conunterforts.
l
pL l
L
Shear force at this point is given
 x +
= p
 x
2
2 2
2
Area of steel at supports is given by Ast =
3.00
119886
N
 0.63 =
2
Assuming that all the bars will avilable at point of contraflexure,
M = st x Ast x j x d =
230 x 1130 x 0.904 x 440 =
103350000
Lo = 12
or d, witch ever is more = 440 mm
Ld = 45x = 45
x
12 = 540
mm
M
103350000
Lo
+
=
+ 440 = 1302 > 540
Hence safe
V
119886
Cotinue these bars by a distance lo = d = 440 mm beyond the point of contraflexure. After that, curtail
half bars, and continue the remaining half throughout the length. At the point of curtailment,
length of each bar available =
mm
> Ld = 540 mm Hence safe
630 + 440 = 1070
PL2
3
These bars will be provide at the top face of heel slab. Maximum Passive B.M. =
=
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
=
137.8 x
These bars will be provide at the top face of heel slab. Maximum Passive B.M. =
16
3
3
Ast1
x
=
x 1130 =
847
mm2
4
4
3.14xdia2
=
3.14 x 12 x 12 = 113
using
### mm bars
A
=
4
4
=
1000 / 847 =
Spacing A x1000 / Ast
113 x
133
mm
130
Hence Provided
mm c/c
12 mm bar, @
1000 x 113
Actual Ast
=
=
870
mm2
130
Let us check this reinforcement for development length crierion at point of contraflexur,
M
Where V = Shear at point of contraflexure=
119886 N
+Lo>Ld
Inherent in criterion :
m
V
Distance from face of supports
= 0.63
V
119886
Thus continue all bottom bars to a point distance L o =
440 mm from the point of contraflexure,
i.e. upto a distance = 630
 440 =
190 mm from the center of sports.
At this point half bars can be discontinued. Since this distance is quite small,
it is better to continue these bars upto center of counterfors.
Reinforcement near B : The c/c spacing of reinforcement near B may be increased, because P decrease
due to increase in upward soil reaction. Consider a strip 1 m wide near B
Upward soil reaction at B is =
87.2
kN/m2
As found earlier.
Net downward load p' = weight of earth + weight of counterforts  upward soil reaction
25 )  87.2 = 63.9
kN/m2
Net downward load p' = 138.60 +( 0.50 x
This is about
= 63.90 / 137.8 = 0.464 of load intencity at C
Hence spacing of steel bars = 100
/ 0.464 = 200 mm c/c at the top face, near supports
Spacing of steel bars at the bottom face, at mid span=
133
/ 0.464 =
300 mm c/c
0.12
Distribution steel =
x
1000 x
500
=
600
mm2
100
3.14 x ( 12 )'2
D2
Using ### mm bars, Area
=
=
=
113
mm2
4
4
Spacing =
Shear reinforcement.
% of steel provided =
Permissible shear stress for
Safe if tv< tc
1000
x 113
= 188 mm say =
600
shear stress at C = tv =
0.47
100 x 1130
1000 x 440
0.26 % steel provided tc
Here
0.47 > 0.21
180
0.26 %
Vc = tc b x d=
0.21 x 1000 x
440 =
###
or
N
Consider a section distance x1 from face of counterfort, where shear force is =
92.4
1.50  x1
=
207
1.50
Hence shear stirrups are required upto distance =
0.80
The position is given by=
mm c/c
or x1 = 1.50 
92.4 kN
92.4 kN
0.70
= 0.80
w=
92.40
=
1.50
w1= 137.80
y1 =
2.10
61.6
However at Y1 from C,
kN/m2
137.80 2.00
64
y1
137.8
 36.95 Y1
Hence shear reinforcement is required in triangular portion on the other side of counterforts shown hatched in fig .
However, we will provide shear strirrups in reangular portion x1 x y1=
0.80 x
2.10 = 1.68 m on
legged
stirrups
of
5 Design of toe slab :Since the toe slab is also large, provide counterforts over it, upto ground level at
3.00 m clear distance face to face. The toe slab will thus bend like a contious slab.
=
500 mm or
Assume total depth of toe slab
0.5
m
Total weight of toe slab =
1
1
x
25 = 12.50 kN//m2
0.50 x
x
Net upward pressure intencity at
D = 170.10  12.50 = 157.60 kN//m2
Similarly Net upward pressure intencity at E = 99.07  12.50 = 86.57 kN//m2
Cosidering strip of unit width at D.
wl2
157.60 x
3.00 2
Max. negative B.M.
=
= 118.2 x 10'6
kN/m2
12
12
118.20
x 10 6
118.20
x
10'6
=
230 x 0.904 x 440
=
3.14 x 12 x
4
1000 / 1292 =
113 x
80 mm c/c
1292
mm
3.14xdia2
12
= 113
4
=
using
### mm bars
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
Ld
= 45x = 45
x
12 = 540
mm
M
129239020.21
+Lo>Ld =
+ 440 = 1383 > 540
Hence safe
V
137112
Hence satisfied , continue these bars, at the bottom of toe slab, beyond the point of contraflexure
630 + 440.0 = 1070 mm
by a distance of Lo= 440.0 mm i.e. by a distance of
from the face of counterforts
3
x 118.20 x 10'6 = 88.65 x 10 6
Nm
4
3
3
Area of Bottom steel Ast2 =
Ast1
x
=
x 1292 =
969
mm2
4
4
3.14xdia2
=
3.14 x 12 x 12 = 113
using
### mm bars
A
=
4
4
=
1000 / 969 =
Spacing = A x1000 / Ast
113 x
117
mm
110
Hence Provided
mm c/c
12 mm bar, @
1000 x 113
Actual Ast
=
=
1028
mm2
110
Let us check this reinforcement for development length crierion at point of contraflexur,
M
+Lo>Ld Where V = Shear at point of contraflexure= 137112 N
Inherent in criterion :
V
Assuming that all bars provided at top face,are available at point of contraflexure,
M = st x Ast x j x d =
230 x 1028 x 0.904 x 440 =
93992015
Lo = 12
or d, witch ever is more = 440 mm
Ld = 45x = 45
x
12 = 540
mm
as before
M
93992015
+Lo>Ld =
+ 440 = 1126 > 540
Hence safe
V
137112
Thus continue all bottom bars to a point distance L o =
440 mm from the point of contraflexure,
i.e. upto a distance = 630
 440 =
190 mm from the center of sports.
At this point half bars can be discontinued. Since this distance is quite small,
it is better to continue these bars upto center of counterfors.
Reinforcement at E :At a section distance 1 meter from E,
170.1 8.30
upward soil pressure
= 170.1 x 0.80 = 138.50 kN/m2
4.10
12.50
Net upward pressure = 138.5
= 126.0 kN/m2
This is about
= 126.0 / 157.60 = 0.80 of w at D
Spacing of bottom steel = 87.5 / 0.80 =
109
mm
say
= 100
3
4
x M1
x 113
600
Shear reinforcement
shear force at D
shear force
Shear stress tv =
Spacing =
1000
% of steel provided =
Permissible shear stress tc for
Safe if tv< tc
=
=
188
mm say =
236.4
236.40 x
=
1000 x
kN
1000
=
440
100 x 1413
= 0.32 %
1000 x 440
0.32 % steel provided tc = 0.24
Here
0.54 > 0.24
180
0.54
tc
mm c/c
N/mm2
= 0.24
N/mm2
Vc = tc b x d=
0.24 x 1000 x
440 = 105600 N
or 105.6 kN
Consider a section distance x1 from face of counterfort, where shear force is = 105.6 kN
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
105.6
1.50  x2
=
236.40
1.50
Hence shear stirrups are required upto distance =
0.80
or x2 = 1.50 
0.70
= 0.80
The requirement is there form a strip of unit width paassing through D, Let us consider a strip through E1,
distance y2 from D, such that shear force at the counterforts is
105.6 kN. To find the position of Y2
consider the net pressure distribution below the toe.
Self weight of toe slab
=
12.50
Hence net pressure intencity below D an dE are
= 170.1
below D
12.50 = 157.6
kN/m2, and below E
99.1  12.50 =
Let the net pressure intencity at E1 = w2 x 3/2 = 1.5 w2 kN/m2
Shear force at the counterforts at E1 = w2 x 3/2 =1.5m w2 kN/M2
w2=
105.60
=
1.50
70.4
kN/m2
.(1)
157.60 86.6
y2
=
157.6 1.80
Equating the two we get, = 157.60  39.46 Y2
=
70.4 y2 =
This is > than DE
DE =
Hence shear force at E is more than
= 105.6 kN/m2
Actual shear forceat E =
1.50 x 86.57 = 129.8 kN/m2
Considered a section distence Z from the face of dounterforts (Point E), where S.F. is
105.60
1.50 Z
The position of Z is given =
= or Z = 1.50 =
129.85
1.50
However at Y2 from D,
w2= 157.60 
Hence shear stirrups are to be procided for a region DEE2D1, where EE2
86.6
39.46 Y2
(2)
2.20 m
1.80 m
105.6 kN
1.22
= 0.30
0.30 m only.
However, we will provide shear strirrups for whole of rectangular area (shown dotted),
0.80
8
m and length DE
= 0.30 m
mm wire
3.14 x (
8
)'2
D
Using 8 mm bars, Area
=
=
=
402
mm2
4
4
Asv.ssv.d
402 x 230 x 440
Sv=
=
=
311
mm
V  Vc
236.4  105.60 )x 1000
mm
lgd strirrups @
8
Hence provided thes 8
300 mm c/c either side of each counterforts.
Let us provide
legged
stirrups
of
1000 x 240
2
this is less than =
tc
=
0.3
N/mm2 at 0.5% reinfocement (see Table 3.1)
=
=
=
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
33750000
230 x 0.904 x 240
0.50 %
is = pbd/100
0.50 x
1000 x 240
677
mm2
1200
mm2
=
Using ### mm bars, Area
Spacing =
1000
=
x
1200
D2
4
113
100
3.14 x (
4
94
=
12
)'2
mm say =
1200
mm2
113
mm2
90
mm c/c
113
100As
100 x 1256
= 1256 mm2 and
=
= 0.52
90
bd
1000 x 240
Let us check these bars for devlopment length, near points of contraflexure, so as to satisfy the criterion
M
For fixed beam or slab carrying U.D.L. , the point of
+ Lo > Ld
=
contraflexure is at a distance of 0.211 L
V
Actual AS provided= 1000
Spacing =
1000
x 113
942
120
mm say =
120
mm c/c
113
100As
100 x 942
= 942 mm2 and
=
= 0.1
120
bd
1000 x 942
Let us check these bars for devlopment length, near points of contraflexure, so as to satisfy the criterion
M
Assuming that all reinforcement is extended upto poin
+ Lo > Ld
=
of contraflexure.
V
Actual AS provided= 1000
st x Ast x jc x d
M =
= 230 x 942 x 0.904 x 240 =
46996007
Lo = 12 or D , whichever is more
= 240 mm
Ld = 45 =
45
x
12
= 540 mm
V
= 58.7 As before
46996007
M
+
Lo
+ 240 =
1041
mm > 540
Hence safe
=
V
58.70 x 1000
The spacing of reinforcement at B, found above can be increased with height .
The pressure ph and hence the bending moment decreaases linearly with height.
Ast
100
3.14 x ( 10 )'2
D2
Using ### mm bars, Area
=
=
4
4
Spacing =
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
1000
79
218
mm say =
mm2
360
79
mm2
200
mm c/c
Spacing =
360
218
mm say =
200
mm c/c
The critical section for the counterfort will be F, since below this, enormous depth will be available to resist bending.
Depth FG = 1820
Asssuming that the steel reinforcement is provided in
2 layer with
20 mm space
20
between them and providing a nominal cover 30 mm and main bars of
mm dia
30
the effective depth will be
=
2120 (
+
20
+
12 + 10 = 2048 mm
1200500000
Area of steel at supports, at bottom is Ast =
=
2820
mm
230 x 0.904 x 2048
3.14xdia2
=
3.14 x 20 x 20
using
### mm bars
A
=
= 314
4
4
314 =
No. provode these in
2
layers
No. of bars 2820 /
9
Depth F1C1
=
=
tv
area of steel
100xAs
b xd
514500
M
d'
tan

where d'
1200500000
2120
d
cos
2048
2120
0.966 =
x 0.27 = 361606.132075
361606.13207547
= 0.341138 N/mm2
500 x
2120
100 x
9
x 314
= 0.3 % tc = 0.21
500
x
2120
N/mm2
thus the shear stress tv is more than permisssible shear stress tc. However, the vertical
and horizontal ties provided in counterforts will bear the excess shear stress.
the height h where half of the reinforcement can curtailed will be equal to H H =
8.00 = 2.8
below A, i.e. at point H. To locate the position of point of curtailmenton AC, draw Hl parallel to FG.
Thus half bars can be curtailed at l. However these should be extent by a distance 12 =
240
beyond l, i.e. extented upto l. The location of H corresponding to l1 can be locate by drawing line l1H1
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
parallel FG. It should be noted that l1G should not less than 45 F =
curtailed, if desired,
Design of Horizontal ties:The vertical stem has a tendency to saprate outfrom the counterforts, and hence
should be tie to it by horizontalties. At any depth h below the top, force causing sepration
1
x
18 h x 3.00 =
18
h kN/m
3
here
h
=
7
force =
18
x
7
= 126 kN/m
steel required
using
### mm
spacing
126
=
2
x 1000
230
548
mm
legged ties, As
2x3.14
x(
4
10
286
mm
1000
x 157
548
)2= 157
mm2
300 mm at top
Similar to the stem slab, heel slab has also tendency to seprate out from counterforts,
due to net down ward force, unless tied properly by vertical ties.
487.20 x 3.00
The down wars force ar C will be
417.6
kN/m
3.50
211.05 x 3.00
The down wars force ar B will be
180.9
kN/m
see fig.
3.50
Near end C, the heel slab is tied to counterforts with the help of main reinforcement of counterforts.
417.6 x 1000
=
=
1816
mm
steel required at C
230
2x3.14
using
### mm 2
legged ties, As =
x( 12 )2= 226
mm2
4
1000 x 226
=
=
124
mm
say
120
mm
spacing of ties
1816
180.9 x 1000
steel required at B
=
=
787
mm
230
2x3.14
using
### mm 2
legged ties, As =
x( 12 )2= 226
mm2
4
1000 x 226
=
=
287
mm
say
280
mm
spacing of ties
787
280
Thus the spacing of vertical tie can be increase gradually from
120
mm c / c at C to
8 Design of front counterforts :Refer fig 1 The upward pressure intencity varies from
170.1 kN/m2 at D,
to 99.07 kN/m2 at E.
Down ward weight of 500 mm thick toe slab =
0.5 x
25 =
12.5 kN/m2
hence net w at D =
kN/m2
170.1  12.5 =
157.6
kN/m2
and at E =
99.07  12.5 =
86.6
The center to center spacing of counterforts, 500 mm wide is
3.50 m.Hence upward force transmitted
551.6
to counterforts at D 157.6
x 3.50
=
kN/m and at E
86.6 x
3.50 = 303
The counterforts bent up as cantilever about face FE. Hence DF will be in compression while D1E1 will be
in tension, and main reinforcement will be provide at bottom face D1E1
(
B.M.
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
=
=
551.6 + 303.0 )x
1.80 =
769
kN/m
2.0
2
303 +
x 551.6
1.80
x
= 0.99 m from E
551.6
303
+
3
0.99 =
759000000
769
x
759
KNm
OR
759000000
500 x 0.913
1289
mm
No of bars
Effective shear force
V
and tv
100xAs
b xd
since
tv
Vc
V1
=
=
area of steel
using
>
### mm
= tcxbxd
=
V
=

2767
491
D2
4
No
3.14 x (
4
25
)'2
mm2
M
From fig 4 tan=
tan
d'
759
0.90
= 481.5
kN
769 x
1.32
1.80
482 x 1000
N/mm2
=
0.730
500 x 1320
100 x
6
x 491
= 0.45 % tc =
500
x
1320
tc
shear reinforcement is required
2x3.14
legged ties, As =
x( 12 )2= 226
4
0.280 x
500 x
1320 = 184800
Vc
= 481500
184800 = 296700
230 x
226 x 1320
=
=
231
296700
491
0.90
1.80
481500
0.280
N/mm2
mm2
sv.Asv.d
subject to a maxi.
mm
300 mm
Vs
However providethese @ 230 mm c/c provide 2 x
12 mmbars on top for holding.
9 Fixing effect in stem, toe and heel :At the junction of stem, toe and heel slab fixing moment are included,which
are at right angles to their normal direction of bending. These moment are not determine , but
normal reinforcement given below may be provided.
(I) In stem@ 0.8x0.3 =0.24% of cross section, to be provided at inner face,
sv
100
3.14 x ( 10 )'2
D2
Using ### mm bars, Area
=
=
=
4
4
79
mm2
x
79
= 109 mm say = 100
mm c/c
720
Length embedment in stem, above heel slab =
45 x 10
=
450 mm
(II) In toe slab @ 0.12% to be provided at the lowae face
0.12
Ast
=
x 1000 x 500 =
600
mm2
100
3.14 x ( 10 )'2
D2
Using ### mm bars, Area
=
=
=
79
mm2
4
4
Spacing =
1000
x
79
= 131 mm say = 130
mm c/c
600
Length embedment in stem, above toe slab =
45 x 10
=
450 mm
(III) In heel slab @ 0.12% to be provided in upper face
0.12
Ast
=
x 1000 x 500 =
600
mm2
Spacing =
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
1000
Ast
100
x
=
D2
4
79
x
=
500
3.14 x (
4
600
10
mm2
)'2
79
mm2
x
= 131 mm say = 130
mm c/c
600
Length embedment in stem, above heel slab =
45 x 10
=
450 mm
Each of above reinforcement should anchored properly in adjoining slab, as shown in fig 5
Spacing =
1000
1000
10. Design of shear key:The wall is in unsafe in sliding, and hence shear key will have to be provided, as shown in fig. 6
Let the depth of key =a intensity of passive pressure P p devloped in front of key depend upon
the soil pressure P in front of the key
Pp
K
P = 3.00 x 99.07 = 297.20 kN/m2
=
p
total passive pressure Pp = Pp x a =
297.20 a
18
Sliding force at level D1C1
=
0.33 x
x(
8
+
a
)2
2.00
or PH
=
3.00 x(
8
+
a
)2
.(2)
Weight of the soil between bottom of the base and D 1C1 = 4.10 ax 18 = 73.80 a
364.95 + 73.80 a
Refer force calculation table
W =
Hence equilibrium of wall, permitting F.S. = 1.5
against sliding we have
w+Pp
0.5 x ( 364.95 + 73.80 a)+ 297.20 a
1.5
=
=
PH
3
x( 8.00 + a2
)
0.5 x ( 364.95 + 73.80 a)+ 297.20 a
1.5 x(
8
+
a)2
=
3
x
1.5
2
+ a)
8
= 182.48 +
36.9 a+ 297.20 a
a)
=
2
64 +
16 a + a
=
2
a
=
or a =
or a =
Hence keep depth of key =
Now size of key =
400 x
PH =
3.00 x(
=
3.00 x(
PH =
211.68
=
297.20
=
118.88
W = 364.95 +
= 364.95 +
=
394.5
2
40.55
74.24
58.24
a2
0.4054
400
400
8.00
8.00
kN
a
kN
73.80
73.80
4.5
+ 74.244 a
a16 a + 40.55  64
a 23.45
+
 58.24 a
23.45
m say
=
410 mm
mm. and width of key
400 mm
mm
+
a
)2
+
0.40 )2
=
297.20
Hence
a
x 0.40
0.40
kN
kN
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
mm
Eq (1)
y at base .
design purpose
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
ound level at
..(1)
..(2)
AME?
Hence un
safe
Hence un
safe
4.10
Hence safe
Hence safe
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
Hence safe
nimum at C.
kNm2
kNm2
this is
excessive
mm
AME?
mm2
Nmm
Hence safe
M1
mm2
Nmm
as before
Hence safe
ause P decrease
kN/m2
kN/m2
kN
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
61.6
counterforts.
ground level at
ontious slab.
table 3.1
mm
mm2
N
Nmm
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
Hence safe
mm2
Nmm
as before
Hence safe
kN/m2
mm
mm
table
3.1
cement required
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
through E1,
osition of Y2
kN/m2
kN
.(1)
(2)
counterforts.
kN/m2
mm
ditional shear
N
mm2
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
of contrflexure,
Nmm
Hence safe
mm beyond
mm from the
Nmm
As before
Hence safe
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
mm
mm2
mm
N
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
er bars can be
counterforts,
ounterforts.
mm
kN/m2 at E.
force transmitted
kN/m
E
Nm
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
mm
table
3.1
subject to a maxi.
300 mm
ine , but
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
shown in fig 5
as shown in fig. 6
ey depend upon
.(2)
alculation table
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
1.80
2.00
7.50
7.00
3.00
0.3
1.70
B
1.80
C
2.00
0.50
4.10
E1
B1
C1
x1
137.80
x1
y2
157.60
w2
FIG. 1
C1
y2
y2
8.30
87.20
99.07
x2
x2
4.00
###
1.00
63.90
86.57
C1
D1
2.00
FIG. 2
w1
0.40
21 h kn/m
7.00
8.00
7.50
0.50
1.00
0.5
D1
1.40
E1
G1
147.00
F1
551.6
kN/m
B
C
0.5
FIG.
2.00
168.00
211.05
kN/m
487.2
1.80
kN/m
D
FIG. 3
300
C
4.10
10 mm
100 mm c/c
450
D1
10 mm
130 mm c/c
99.07
Pp
450
2.00
0.50
170.10
1.00
kN/m
F2
C1
FIG.
FIG.
300
12 mm
10 mm
20 mm
300 mm c/c
300 mm c/c
5 Nos.
12 mm
10 mm
240 mm c/c
20 mm
265 mm c/c
4 Nos.
0
12 mm
10 mm
180 mm c/c
230 mm c/c
12 mm
2 lgd vertical ties
8000
120
to
0 mm c/c
12 mm
10 mm
120 mm c/c
200 mm c/c
10 mm
12 mm
0 mm
12 mm
110 mm c/c
3
900
200 mm c/c
0 mm c/c
2x12 mm
180 mm c/c
12 mm
Holding bars
2
500
2
2000
1800
3
12 mm
130 mm c/c
400
400
100 mm c/c
12
mm 2 lgd
230 mm c/c
12 mm
12 mm
130 mm c/c
80 mm c/c
400
25 mm
400
12 mm
180 mm c/c
0 mm
6 No.Bars
0 mm c/c
0 mm c/c
mm
0
0
0
0
mm
Front counterforts
mm
0
0
0
0 mm
M10
M15
M20
M25
M30
M35
M40
1.2
2.0
2.8
3.2
3.6
4.0
4.4
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
5.0
7.0
8.5
10.0
11.5
13.0
14.5
16.0
500
700
850
1000
1150
1300
1450
1600
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
400
500
600
800
900
1000
1100
1200
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
60
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
Modular ratio m
M10
M15
M20
M25
M30
M35
M40
31
(31.11)
19
(18.67)
13
(13.33)
11
(10.98)
9
(9.33)
8
(8.11)
7
(7.18)
cbc N/mm
m cbc
kc
(a) st =
jc
140
N/mm2 Rc
(Fe 250) P (%)
c
kc
(b) st = j
c
190
Rc
N/mm2
Pc (%)
kc
(c ) st =
jc
230
Rc
N/mm2
(Fe 415) P (%)
c
kc
(d) st =
jc
275
Rc
N/mm2
(Fe 500)
M15
18.67
5
93.33
0.4
0.867
0.867
0.714
0.329
0.89
0.732
0.433
0.289
0.904
0.653
0.314
0.253
0.916
0.579
M20
13.33
7
93.33
0.4
0.867
1.214
1
0.329
0.89
1.025
0.606
0.289
0.904
0.914
0.44
0.253
0.916
0.811
M25
10.98
8.5
93.33
0.4
0.867
1.474
1.214
0.329
0.89
1.244
0.736
0.289
0.904
1.11
0.534
0.253
0.916
0.985
M30
9.33
10
93.33
0.4
0.867
1.734
1.429
0.329
0.89
1.464
0.866
0.289
0.904
1.306
0.628
0.253
0.914
1.159
M35
8.11
11.5
93.33
0.4
0.867
1.994
1.643
0.329
0.89
1.684
0.997
0.289
0.904
1.502
0.722
0.253
0.916
1.332
M40
7.18
13
93.33
0.4
0.867
2.254
1.857
0.329
0.89
1.903
1.127
0.289
0.904
1.698
0.816
0.253
0.916
1.506
Grade of concret
(d) st =
275
N/mm2
(Fe 500)
Pc (%)
0.23
0.322
0.391
0.46
0.53
0.599
bd
< 0.15
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.75
3.00 and above
M20
0.18
0.22
0.30
0.35
0.39
0.42
0.45
0.47
0.49
0.51
0.51
0.51
0.51
M25
0.19
0.23
0.31
0.36
0.40
0.44
0.46
0.49
0.51
0.53
0.55
0.56
0.57
M30
0.20
0.23
0.31
0.37
0.41
0.45
0.48
0.50
0.53
0.55
0.57
0.58
0.6
M35
0.20
0.23
0.31
0.37
0.42
0.45
0.49
0.52
0.54
0.56
0.58
0.60
0.62
M40
0.20
0.23
0.32
0.38
0.42
0.46
0.49
0.52
0.55
0.57
0.60
0.62
0.63
200
1.20
300 or more
1.00
275
1.05
250
1.10
225
1.15
Grade of concrete
c.max
M20
1.8
M25
1.9
M30
2.2
M35
2.3
M40
2.5
M15
0.6
M20
0.8
M25
0.9
M30
1
M35
1.1
M40
1.2
M45
1.3
58
44
39
35
32
29
27
25
H.Y.S.D. Bars
bd (N / mm2)
kd = Ld
0.96
1.28
1.44
1.6
1.76
1.92
2.08
2.24
60
45
40
36
33
30
28
26
M50
1.4
Value of angle
Value of angle
Degree
sin
cos
tan
tan
Degree
sin
cos
10
0.17
0.98
0.18
0.18
10
0.17
0.98
11
0.19
0.98
0.19
0.19
11
0.19
0.98
12
0.21
0.98
0.21
0.21
12
0.21
0.98
13
0.23
0.97
0.23
0.23
13
0.23
0.97
14
0.24
0.97
0.25
0.25
14
0.24
0.97
15
0.26
0.97
0.27
0.27
15
0.26
0.97
16
0.28
0.96
0.29
0.29
16
0.28
0.96
17
0.29
0.96
0.31
0.31
17
0.29
0.96
18
0.31
0.95
0.32
0.32
18
0.31
0.95
19
0.33
0.95
0.34
0.34
19
0.33
0.95
20
0.34
0.94
0.36
0.36
20
0.34
0.94
21
0.36
0.93
0.38
0.38
21
0.36
0.93
22
0.37
0.93
0.40
0.40
22
0.37
0.93
23
0.39
0.92
0.42
0.42
23
0.39
0.92
24
0.41
0.92
0.45
0.45
24
0.41
0.92
25
0.42
0.91
0.47
0.47
25
0.42
0.91
30
0.50
0.87
0.58
0.58
30
0.50
0.87
35
0.57
0.82
0.70
0.70
35
0.57
0.82
40
0.64
0.77
0.84
0.84
40
0.64
0.77
45
0.71
0.71
1.00
1.00
45
0.71
0.71
50
0.77
0.64
1.19
1.19
50
0.77
0.64
55
0.82
0.57
1.43
1.43
55
0.82
0.57
60
0.87
0.50
1.73
1.73
60
0.87
0.50
65
0.91
0.42
2.14
2.14
65
0.91
0.42
Much more than documents.
Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.
Cancel anytime.