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10/14/2013

Section 6:
Body Composition
ACSM Guidelines:  Chapter 4 (pp. 62‐72)
ACSM Manual:  Chapters 4

HPHE 4450
Dr. Cheatham

Outline
• Importance of Body Composition
• General Principles
– Basic principles

• Anthropometric Methods
– Body Mass Index (BMI)
– Circumferences / Waist to Hip Ratio
– Skinfold Measurements

• Densitometry Methods
– Hydrostatic (Underwater) Weighing
– Plethysmography (Air Displacement)

• Other Methods
– Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)
– Dual Energy X‐Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)

• Interpretation of Results

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Introduction
• Definition: Relative proportion of fat and fat‐
free tissue in the body.
• Clinical significance: Obesity is correlated to an 
increased risk of:
– Coronary artery disease (CAD)
– Non–insulin‐dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
– Hypertension (HTN)
– Certain cancers
– Hyperlipidemia (high blood cholesterol)

Why do we measure BC?
• Excess body fat is associated with:
– Hypertension, Type 2 Diabetes, Stroke, CAD, Hyperlipidemia

• To assess the decrease in body fat weight that occurs 
in response to a weight management program.  
• To help athletes determine the best body composition 
for performance. 
• To monitor fat and fat‐free weight in patients with 
disease. 
• To track long‐term changes that occur in body fat and 
fat‐free mass with aging.

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Basic Principles

Basic Principles

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 females) • Obesity – Surplus of adipose tissue resulting from excessive energy intake relative to  energy expenditure BC Techniques • Definition: Measurement of the human body • Categories include: – Height and weight (body mass index [BMI]. desirable. waist‐to‐hip  ratio [WHR]) – Circumferences and girths – Skinfolds – Bioelectrical impedance analysis – Hydrostatic weighing • Purpose: To evaluate body weight and composition  in the health and fitness field. often to establish an  individual’s target. or optimal weight 4 .10/14/2013 Terminology • Percent Body Fat (%BF) – The percentage of the bodyweight that is adipose tissue • Fat Weight (FW) – The total weight of the adipose tissue • Fat‐Free Weight (FFW) – The total weight of everything that is not fat • Lean Body Mass (LBW) – More so refers to the weight of muscle • Overweight – Deviation in body weight from some standard or “ideal” weight in relation to  height • Overfat – Undesirable percent body fat (difference males vs.

10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Body Mass Index (BMI) • Body mass index = __Weight in kg__  (Height in meters)2 • Statistics: – For most people.0 – In increased risk of hypertension. obesity‐related health problems  increase beyond a BMI of 25. CAD and  mortality rate are associated with a BMI  30 • Limitations: – It is difficult for clients to interpret weight loss and gain – There is no differentiation between fat weight and fat‐ free weight – There is only a modest correlation with percent body fat  determined by hydrostatic weight Anthropometry ‐ Body Mass Index (BMI) 5 . TC/HDL ratio.

10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Body Mass Index (BMI) Anthropometry ‐ Body Mass Index (BMI) 6 .

 Table 4.10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Circumferences • Uses: – Pre‐post changes in body measurements • Useful for weight management programs/motivation for  clients/patients – Waist circumference used along with BMI can be used  as an estimate of disease risk (ACSM Manual.2) – Estimate % BF (limited accuracy) – Calculate Waist‐to‐Hip Ratio • Advantages: – Easily learned – Quickly administered – Quantifies changes in muscle with specific training  (muscle girth size) – Easy to document changes in body size Anthropometry ‐ Waist Circumference 7 .

10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Circumferences ‐ Sites Anthropometry ‐ Circumferences ‐ Sites 8 .

 representing the person’s  distribution of body fat • WHR =      Waist circumference (cm) Hip circumference (cm) • Waist circumference alone may be used as an  indicator of health risk • Truncal adiposity increases the risk of chronic  disease 9 .10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Circumferences ‐ Procedures Anthropometry ‐ Waist‐to‐Hip Ratio • Definition – Comparison between the circumference of the  waist and hips.

– Android (male pattern) • Trunk/abdominal fat • Increased risk for hypertension.10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Waist‐to‐Hip Ratio • The pattern of body fat  distribution is an important  predictor of the health risks  of obesity.1 (Buttocks/Hips) 10 . dyslipidemia.1 (Waist) ACSM Box 4. CAD.  diabetes.  premature death – Gynoid (female pattern • Hip and thigh Anthropometry ‐ Waist‐to‐Hip Ratio ACSM Box 4.

 by  measuring skinfold  thickness we can  estimate body density  and % body fat • Accuracy (± 4‐5%) 11 .10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Waist‐to‐Hip Ratio Waist Measurement Hip Measurement Anthropometry ‐ Skinfold Assessment • Principle – ~33% of our total body  fat lies directly  beneath the skin  (subcutaneous) – Therefore.

10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Skinfold Assessment ‐ Sites Anthropometry ‐ Skinfold Assessment ‐ Sites 12 .

or one-third of the distance between the anterior axillary line and the nipple (women) 13 . one-half the distance between the anterior axillary line and the nipple (men).10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Skinfold Assessment ‐ Sites Anthropometry ‐ Skinfold – Sites (Chest) Diagonal fold.

mid-way between the proximal border of the patella and the inguinal crease (hip) 14 .10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Skinfold – Sites (Abdomen) Correct location WRONG orientation Vertical fold. on the anterior midline of the thigh. 2 cm to the right side of the umbilicus Anthropometry ‐ Skinfold – Sites (Thigh) Vertical fold.

on the posterior midline of the upper arm. with the arm held freely to the side of the body Anthropometry ‐ Skinfold – Sites (Suprailiac) Diagonal fold. in line with the natural angle of the iliac crest taken in the anterior axillary line immediately superior to the iliac crest 15 .10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Skinfold – Sites (Tricep) Vertical fold. halfway between the acromion and olecranon processes.

10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Skinfold – Sites (Midaxillary) Vertical fold. 1 to 2 cm below the inferior angle of the scapula 16 . Correct location WRONG orientation Anthropometry ‐ Skinfold – Sites (Subscapular) Diagonal fold (at a 45 degree angle). on the midaxillary line at the level of the xiphoid process of the sternum.

10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Skinfold – Sites (Calf) Vertical fold. perpendicular to long axis of site 1 cm above  the site to be measured – Release the scissor grip of the caliper but support  its weight while measuring no longer than 1 to 2  seconds to the nearest 0.5 mm – Measure each site at least two times. rotating  through the sites (should be within 1 to 2 mm) – Use the average of each skinfold site for use in the  regression formula 17 . at the maximum circumference of the calf on the midline of its medial border Anthropometry ‐ Skinfolds Assessment ‐ Procedures • Technique: – Firmly grasp all subcutaneous fat (without muscle) – Use two fingers (thumb and index) about 8 cm  apart.

10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Skinfolds Assessment ‐ Procedures Anthropometry ‐ Skinfolds Assessment ‐ Procedures 18 .

Anthropometry ‐ Skinfolds Assessment ‐ Procedures Note:  Make sure to carry body density out to three decimal places.10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Skinfolds Assessment ‐ Procedures Note:  Make sure to carry body density out to three decimal places. 19 .

2 (Brozek) • % Fat = (495 / Body Density) – 450 (Siri) Anthropometry ‐ Skinfolds Assessment ‐ Procedures 20 .10/14/2013 Anthropometry ‐ Skinfolds Assessment ‐ Procedures • Converting Body Density to % Body Fat – Generalized Equations: • % Fat = (457 / Body Density) – 414.

10/14/2013 Hydrostatic Weighing • Measurement of Density – Density = mass/volume • Mass = The bodyweight we measure in air on  the scale • Volume = Why we are doing hydrostatic  weighing • Use of hydrostatic weighing to measure  volume – Based on Archimedes Principle: • "When a solid body is partially or completely  immersed in water. % body fat is calculated • Accuracy (± 3%) 21 . the more muscle/bone.“ • By knowing the density of water. it is easy to go  from weight to volume. the apparent loss in weight  will be equal to the weight of the displaced  liquid. muscle and bone is more dense than  fat – Therefore.  we can measure BODY DENSITY – From body density. Hydrostatic Weighing • Considered the “Gold Standard” (Sort of) • Measurement of Body Density – Underwater. the more the  subject will weigh underwater or vice versa – By weighing the subject in the air AND underwater.

009 * age) .(RV +100) ) BWAIR = Bodyweight in air in grams BWUW = Bodyweight underwater in grams Tare = Chair weight (and any other apparatus) in grams H2O Density = Density of water at specific temperature RV = Residual volume in mL Residual Volume (males) = (0.45 Residual Volume (females) = (0.017 * age) .10/14/2013 Hydrostatic Weighing More Muscle Same Weight More Fat Hydrostatic Weighing BWAIR Body Density = (( BWAIR – (BWUWW – Tare) H2O Density ) .3.027 * Ht) + (0.2 (Brozek) 22 .3.032 * Ht) + (0.24 x FVC % Body Fat = (457  body density) – 414.90 Residual Volume (both) = 0.

 alcohol.10/14/2013 Air Displacement Plethysmography Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis • Premise: – The volume of fat‐free tissue is proportional to the  electrical conductivity of the body  – Fat (tissue with little water: 14% to 22%) is a poor  electrical conductor – Lean tissue (mostly water: >90%) is a good electrical  conductor • Accuracy is highly variable – Greatly affected by caffeine. fluid intake 23 .

10/14/2013 Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis 24 .

 height.10/14/2013 BIA Procedures • Conditions: – No eating or drinking within 4 hours of the test – No exercise within 12 hours of the test – Urinate completely within 30 minutes of the test – No alcohol consumption in the previous 48 hours  – No diuretics in the previous 7 days – Limited use of diuretic agents before the test BIA Procedures • Pre‐Test Procedures: – Record age. weight. gender. activity level. frame  size • Performing the test: – Calibrate the instrument – Prepare the subject for the test by having them lie  down on the table • Have subject remove all jewelry. allow to dry Attach electrodes and wires Allow values to stabilize (~30 seconds) Enter information into BIA software 25 . right sock and shoe • Arms and legs should not touch each other – – – – Clean electrode sites with alcohol pad.

10/14/2013 BIA Procedures Other Methods • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and  Computed Tomography (CT) 26 .

10/14/2013 Other Methods • Dual‐Energy X‐Ray  Absorptiometry Summary of Methods 27 .

10/14/2013 Interpretation of Data • Based on BMI: Interpretation of Data • Based on Circumferences: – Pre‐ to Post‐Changes – Waist Circumference – Waist‐to‐Hip Ratio WHR Waist Circumference 28 .

 any technique that  provides a calculation of %BF – Pre‐ to Post‐Changes – Population Norms – Calculations of Fat‐Weight.10/14/2013 Interpretation of Data • Based on Skinfolds. Fat‐Free Weight. BIA. Ideal  Body Weight Interpretation of Data 29 .

25) • Fat‐Free Weight: – FFW = BW x (1‐%BF) – OR FFW = BW ‐ FW – % BF needs to be in decimal form • Ideal Body Weight: – IBW = FFW / (1 – Desired %BF) – Desired %BF must be in decimal form 30 .e.10/14/2013 Interpretation of Data • % BF Population Norms – See previous slide – % BF considered satisfactory for health: • Men:  10 to 22% • Women:  20 to 32% Interpretation of Data • Fat Weight: – FW = BW x % BF – % BF needs to be in decimal form (i. 25% = 0.

9 19 21 20 20 14 18 16 21 19 24 25 27 30 30 22 25 5 JP‐7.10/14/2013 Interpretation of Data • Ideal Body Weight (cont’d) – How do you pick a desired %BF? • Use population norm charts • Based on attainable or incremental goals • Based on %BF considered satisfactory for health Practice Problem Male #1 45 90. Brozek 22 31 .

10/14/2013 Practice Problem • Calculate the following: – Body Density – % Body Fat – Fat‐Weight (kg) – Fat‐Free Weight (kg) – Ideal Body Weight • Use a % desired body fat of 18% 32 .