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Boycott: An Islamic Response to the Occupation of Palestine

By Friends of Al-Aqsa.

Abstract: This article shows how the concept of boycott, divestment and
sanctions (BDS) can be seen from within Islamic history and was common
even during the time of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). It
was something the Prophet (Peace be upon him) endorsed and employed.
Taking the holistic teachings of Islam (Quran, Ahadith and Sunnah) it can
be established that all individuals of consciousness and piety are
encouraged to refrain from assisting oppressors, handling stolen property
and prolonging injustice. We can therefore conclude that BDS is a means
by which Muslims can help the occupied and oppressed Palestinians; who
have had their land and property stolen by Israel which has now built
illegal settlements in their place. These settlements use stolen Palestinian
farmland to grow produce and sell to the world. Do not be amongst those
who buy such stolen produce.
The Holy Quran ..[Believers] help one another in acts of righteousness
and piety, and do not help one another in sin and transgression. Fear
Allah(Al-Maidah 5:3)

Since the Israeli occupation of Palestine began, people of conscience who oppose it
have established various methods to pressure the international community in to
questioning Israel's oppression and occupation of the Palestinians. One of the most
effective approaches has been the boycott, divestment and sanctions movement.
The BDS movement has exposed the extent of the oppression and applied pressure
on Israel to end its oppressive occupation and policies.
Ordinary people are able to participate by boycotting Israeli goods grown in or
manufactured from the illegal settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territories
Many organisations are active and successful in raising awareness by emphasising
the need for an economic, academic and cultural boycott of Israel. This has now
become a global phenomena with millions of ordinary citizens participating.
This article hopes to emphasise why it is imperative for Muslims to participate in and
promote the BDS movement from an Islamic perspective. Islamic history from the
time of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) reveals that boycott in various
forms was a common theme. Three specific incidents are described below which can
help Muslims to better understand the BDS movement.

1. The Boycott of the Prophet and the Banu-Hashim in Makkah

The Makkans tried to silence the Prophet (Peace be upon him) from preaching by
imposing oppressive measures against him, his followers and his tribe the BanuHashim. They finally imposed severe sanctions against them which lasted three
years. This included the banning on intermarriages and trade (including food) with
the Muslims and their associates. This was an example of the implementation of
harsh and calculated policies designed to break the will of the Prophet (Peace be
upon him) and early Muslims.
The lesson from this period of the Prophets (Peace be upon him) life is beneficial for
the Palestinians and their supporters. The Prophet and his supporters were
marginalised and oppressed, resulting in great hardship but they overcame their
plight with endurance, patience and confidence that their just cause would
eventually be successful.
Palestinians, despite being restricted of their rights to freedom of movement,
economy, farming, religion, education and civil liberties; must draw comfort and
steadfastness from the life of the Prophet (Peace be upon him), and the example of
his steadfastness during the oppressive boycott.
This example can also be used by the supporters of the Palestinian cause and those
who seek justice. They should persevere in their cause until justice is obtained.

2. Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) Employs the Boycott

A) Battle of Tabuk & Boycott of the Three Companions.
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) also used boycott in a different way in order to
keep those Muslims whom he loved dearly on the righteous path. Boycott was used
by him almost as a form of therapy and as a lesson for these Muslims, so that they
could correct their actions.
Tabuk was a town strategically positioned between Damascus and Madina. The
possibility of an attack on Madina was very real since the outcome of the Battle of
Mu'ta had been inconclusive. Moreover, senior commanders, including Heraclius
himself, who had just returned the cross to Jerusalem, were still in al-Sham. The
Prophet (Peace be upon him) accordingly called upon his Companions to come
forward and march on Tabuk to check the Byzantine advance.
It was the month of Rajab and the heat was intense. The people were hard pressed
because Madina was experiencing a severe drought. As such, very few crops and
fruits could be cultivated and harvested. Hence, this expedition is also referred to as
Al-'Usra (the expedition of hardship).
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) had issued a call to defend the religion and the
Sahaba responded in large numbers. However, in this expedition, the Munafiqun (the
hypocrites), who had entered Islam either for their advantage or worked against the

Muslims from within, behaved as Allah willed for them. They exposed themselves by
refusing to undertake what appeared to them a perilous expedition across the
burning hot Arabian Desert without adequate provisions or equipment. The Prophet
(Peace be upon him) granted them exemption.
Thousands of Muslims came forward. They were the ones who feared for the
hereafter, who believed that having Allah on their side was more important than all
the comforts of this life.
Upon the Prophet's (Peace be upon him) return to Madina, as was his Sunnah (the
Prophets way) after returning home from a journey, he went to the Mosque and
offered two rakkah salah (units of prayer). Thereafter, he received the people. From
those who had stayed behind, the Hypocrites came forward first, offered (false)
excuses and took oaths before him. The Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him)
accepted their excuses, took their pledge of allegiance and asked Allah's forgiveness
for them, and left the secrets of their hearts for Allah to judge.i One man amongst the
faithful believers who had not made the journey was Kab ibn Malik (ra).ii
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) ordered the companions to boycott Kab ibn Malik
(ra) and two other Muslims, Murara ibn Ar-Rabi Al-Amri (ra) and Hilal ibn Umaiya AlWaqifi (ra), who also failed to join the expedition. This boycott was not out of anger,
but rather it was intended to ensure that these believing Muslims who were not of the
hypocrites were made to understand the extent of their wrong deed in not joining the
Kab (ra) says: 'The people stopped talking to us and the very land where I lived
appeared strange to me as if I did not know it'. Before forty days had elapsed, a
Nabati (Christian farmer) from al-Sham asked people to lead him to Kab ibn Malik.
They did so. The Nabati handed Kab a letter from the Chief of Ghassanids. In it was
'I have been informed that your friend (the Prophet) has treated you harshly.
Anyhow, Allah does not let you live at a place where you feel inferior and your right is
lost. So join us, and we will console you.'
Evidently, the Byzantine espionage was effective enough to have learned, within
forty days, of the situation in Madina, and contemplated inducing Muslims to defect.
The Muslims knowledge of the Byzantines sinister intents justified their unease and
Kab (ra) says, 'When I read the letter, I said to myself, This is also a test. Then I
took the letter to the oven and made a fire therein by burning it.'
The boycott continued and later the Prophet (Peace be upon him) ordered the three
to abstain from cohabiting with their wives. The boycott lasted for a total of 50 days,
after which Kab and his colleagues were forgiven for their misdeed. Kab ibn Malik's
sincerity and honesty is merely an example of the Sahabas practices.
This is an example of how boycott was used by the Prophet (Peace be upon him) as
a lesson for believers.

B) Thumaamahiii bin Uthaar and Boycott of Makkans

An incident which took place in the 6AH helps Muslims understand the need to
employ BDS against oppressors to help bring about justice.
Thumaamah bin Uthar, the chief of Banu-Hanifa and leader of Yamamah, had killed
several companions and was later apprehended. He was to spend three days in
Medina as a prisoner during which period the Prophet (Peace be upon him) asked
him to accept Islam. Thumaamah declined and despite his refusal and the crime he
committed the Prophet (Peace be upon him) released him and gave him his
Thumaamah bin Uthaar left Medina but returned back and accepted Islam at his own
free will. Thereafter, he headed to Makkah (which was still under the control of
Quresh) to perform Umrah. On witnessing the hatred and malicious plans of the
Quresh, Thumaamah pledged to boycott the Makkans and withhold the sale of
food/Grain from Yamamah.
The ahadith in Sahih Bukhariiv and Sahih Muslim state:
By Allah, you will not get a single grain of wheat from Yamama until it is
permitted by the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him).
The boycott took place and we can conclude that the Prophet (Peace be upon him)
permitted him to use this strategy. However upon the signing the treaty of
Hudaybiyah in 632, the Makkans told the Prophet (Peace be upon him) that this
boycott contravened the treaty and the prophet, because of the treaty of Hudaybiyah,
requested for the boycott to be lifted.
These examples reflect how boycott is not something new and can be traced in
Islamic history. The level of oppression being endured by Palestinians today makes it
imperative for Muslims to undertake similar boycotts now.

Supplementary Ahadith
A) Purchasing Stolen Products Shares the Same Sin
He who buys the stolen property, with the knowledge that it is stolen, shares in the
sin and shame of stealing. (Musannaf ibn abi shaybah, Musnad Ishaq, Mustadrak
Hakim, As sunan ul Kubra wash shubul Iman by Imam Bayahqi).
B) Role of Muslims in Forbidding Oppression
He who amongst you sees something abominable should modify it with the help of
his hand and if he has not strength enough to do it, then he should do it with his
tongue and if he has not strength enough to do it, (even) then he should (abhor it)
from his heart, and that is the least of faith (Muslim).
Narrated 'Abdullah bin Umar: Allah's Apostle said, "A Muslim is a brother of another
Muslim, so he should not oppress him, nor should he hand him over to an oppressor.

Whoever fulfilled the needs of his brother, Allah will fulfil his needs; whoever brought
his (Muslim) brother out of a discomfort, Allah will bring him out of the discomforts of
the Day of Resurrection, and whoever screened a Muslim, Allah will screen him on
the Day of Resurrection." (Bukhari)
C) Easing Someone s Distress
Whoever eases a distress of the world for a mummin. Allah will ease distress of the
Day of Rising for him (Tabrani)
The Arabic word used for distress is Kurbah, which is something which places a
person into tremendous anxiety and hardship. To ease it, the Arabic word is Nafasa
which is to relax and reduce the burden. Moreover, Ibn Rajab mentions an example
for this Hadith that it means to loosen a strangling cord so that the person can
breathe. Going one step further will deliver the most reward, not only removing the
distress, worry and unhappiness but also to deliver peace, assurance and
D) Prohibition to Help Oppressors
Narrated Muawiya bin Suwald: I heard Al-Bara' bin 'Azib saying, "The Prophet orders
us to do seven things and prohibited us from doing seven other things." Then AlBara' mentioned the following:-- (1) To pay a visit to the sick (inquiring about his
health), (2) to follow funeral processions, (3) to say to a sneezer, "May Allah be
merciful to you" (if he says, "Praise be to Allah!"), (4) to return greetings, (5) to help
the oppressed, (6) to accept invitations, (7) to help others to fulfil their oaths.
(Bukhari Hadith No. 753, Vol. 7)
E) Seeking Equality, Freedom and Justice for All
Anas (ra) narrates that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) took an oath said, By the
Holy Being in whose power is my life, none of you can be a true believer unless you
desire for your brother what you desire for yourself. (Bukhari and Muslim)

Bukhari op. cit Vol V Hadith 702


'.......When I heard that the Prophet of Allah (Peace be upon him) was on his way back to Madina, I got deep
in my concern, and began to think of false excuses, saying to myself, 'How can I avoid his anger tomorrow?'
And I took the advice of wise members of my family. When it was said that Allah's Apostle (Peace be upon
him) had come near, all the evil false excuses vanished from my mind and I knew well that I could never come
out of this problem by forging a false statement. Then I decided firmly to speak the truth. ....So when I came to
Allah's Apostle (Peace be upon him) I greeted him. He smiled a smile of an angry person and then said, 'Come
on.' So I came walking till I sat before him. He said to me, 'What stopped you from joining us. Had you not
purchased an animal for carrying you?' I answered, 'Yes, O Allah's Apostle, but by Allah, if I were sitting before
any person from among the people of the world other than you, I would have avoided his anger with an
excuse...if today I tell a lie to seek your favour, Allah would surely make you angry with me in the near future.
But if I tell you the truth, though you will get angry because of it, I hope for Allah's forgiveness. Really, by Allah,
there was no excuse for me. 'Kab continues, 'Then I remained in that state (i.e. without my wife) for ten more
nights after that till my period of fifty nights was completed starting from the time when Allah's Apostle
prohibited the people from talking to us. When I had offered my Fajr (morning dawn) prayers on the fifth

morning on the roof top of my house, and while I was sitting in the condition which Allah describes in the
Qur'an (i.e. my very soul seemed straitened to me and even the earth seemed narrow to me for all its
spaciousness), I heard the voice of one who had ascended the mountain of Sala' calling with his loudest voice.
Kab ibn Malik! Be happy, by receiving good tidings. I fell down in prostration before Allah, realising that relief
has come'.

In the sixth year after the hijrah, the Prophet, may the blessings of God be on him, decided to expand the
scope of his mission. He sent eight letters to rulers in the Arabian peninsula and surrounding areas inviting
them to Islam. One of these rulers was Thumamah ibn Uthal.
Thumamah was one of the most powerful Arab rulers in pre-Quranic times. This is not surprising since he was
a chieftain of the Banu Hanifah and one of the rulers of al-Yamamah whose word no one dared to challenge or
When Thumamah received the Prophet's letter, he was consumed by anger and rejected it. He refused to
listen to the invitation of truth and goodness. More than that, he felt a strong desire to go and kill the Prophet
and bury his mission with him.
Thumamah waited and waited for a convenient time to carry out his design against the Prophet until
eventually forgetfulness caused him to lose interest. One of his uncles, however, reminded him of his plan,
praising what he intended to do.
In the pursuit of his evil design against the Prophet, Thumamah met and killed a group of the Prophet's
companions. The Prophet thereupon declared him a wanted man. Not long afterwards, Thumamah decided to
perform Umrah. He wanted to perform Tawaf around the Kabah and sacrifice to the idols there. So he left al-
Yamamah for Makkah. As he was passing near Madinah, an incident took place which he had not anticipated.
Groups of Muslims were patrolling the districts of Madinah and outlying areas on the lookout for any strangers
or anyone intent on causing trouble. One of these groups came upon Thumamah and apprehended him but
they did not know who he was. They took him to Madinah and tied him to one of the columns in the mosque.
They waited for the Prophet himself to question the man and decide what should be done with him.
When the Prophet was about to enter the mosque, he saw Thumamah and asked his companions, 'Do you
know whom you have taken?"
"No, messenger of God," they replied.
"This is Thumamah ibn Uthal al-Hanafi," he said. "You have done well in capturing him."
The Prophet then returned home to his family and said, "Get what food you can and send it to Thumamah ibn
Uthal." He then ordered his camel to be milked for him. All this was done before he met Thumamah or had
spoken to him.
The Prophet then approached Thumamah hoping to encourage him to become a Muslim. "What do you have
to say for yourself?" he asked.
"If you want to kill in reprisal," Thumamah replied, "you can have someone of noble blood to kill. If, out of
your bounty, you want to forgive, I shall be grateful. If you want money in compensation, I shall give you
whatever amount you ask."
The Prophet then left him for two days, but still personally sent him food and drink and milk from his camel.
The Prophet went back to him and asked, "What do you have to say for yourself?" Thumamah repeated what
he had said the day before. The Prophet then left and came back to him the following day. "What do you have
to say for yourself?" he asked again and Thumamah repeated what he had said once more. Then the Prophet
turned to his companions and said, "Set him free."
Thumamah left the mosque of the Prophet and rode until he came to a palm grove on the outskirts of
Madinah near al-Baqi' (a place of luxuriant vegetation which later became a cemetery for many of the
Prophet's companions). He watered his camel and washed himself well. Then he turned back and made his
way to the Prophet's mosque. There, he stood before a congregation of Muslims and said: "I bear witness that
there is no god but Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His messenger." He then went
to the Prophet, upon whom be peace, and said: "O Muhammad, by God, there was never on this earth a face
more detestable than yours. Now, yours is the dearest face of all to me." "I have killed some of your men," he
continued, "I am at your mercy. What will you have done to me?"

"There is now no blame on you, Thumamah," replied the Prophet. "Becoming a Muslim obliterates past
actions and marks a new beginning."
Thumamah was greatly relieved. His face showed his surprise and joy and he vowed, "By God, I shall place my
whole self, my sword, and whoever is with me at your service and at the service of your religion."
"O Rasulullah," he went on, "when your horsemen captured me I was on my way to perform Umrah. What do
you think I should do now?"
"Go ahead and perform your Umrah," replied the Prophet, "but perform it according to the laws of God and
His messenger." The Prophet then taught him how to perform Umrah according to Islamic rules.
Thumamah left to fulfill his intention. When he reached the valley of Makkah, he began shouting in a loud,
resonant voice:
"Labbayk Allahumma labbayk. Labbayka Laa shareeka Laka labbayk. Innal hamda wan ni'mata Laka wall mulk.
Laa shareeka Lak. (Here I am at Your command O Lord, Here I am. Here I am. No partner have You. Here I am.
Praise, bounty and Dominion belong to You. No partner have You.")
He was thus the first Muslim on the face of the earth to enter Makkah reciting the Talbiyah.
The Quraysh heard the sound of the Talbiyah and felt both anger and alarm. With drawn swords, they set out
towards the voice to punish the one who had thus assaulted their preserve. As they came closer to him,
Thumamah raised his voice even higher while reciting the Talbiyah and looked upon them with pride and
defiance. One of the Quraysh young men was particularly incensed and was about to shoot Thumamah with an
arrow when the others grabbed his hand and shouted:
"Woe to you! Do you know who this is? He is Thumamah ibn Uthal, ruler of al-Yamamah. By God, if you should
harm him, his people would cut our supplies, with dire consequences for us."
Swords were replaced in their scabbards as the Quraysh went up to Thumamah and said:
"What's wrong with you, Thumamah? Have you given in and abandoned your religion and the religion of your
"I have not given in," he replied, "but I have decided to follow the best religion. I follow the religion of
Muhammad. "
He then went on: "I swear to you by the Lord of this House that after my return to al-Yamamah, no grain of
wheat or any of its produce shall reach you until you follow Muhammad."
Under the watchful eyes of the Quraysh, Thumamah performed Umrah as the Prophet, peace be upon him,
had instructed him. He dedicated his sacrifice to God alone.
Thumamah returned to his land and ordered his people to withhold supplies from the Quraysh. The boycott
gradually began to have effect and became more and more stringent. Prices began to rise. Hunger began to
bite and there was even fear of death among the Quraysh. Thereupon, they wrote to the Prophet, saying:
"Our agreement with you (the treaty of Hudaybiyyah) is that you should maintain the bonds of kinship but you
have gone against that. You have cut the bonds of kinship. You have killed and caused death through hunger.
Thumamah ibn Uthal has cut our supplies and inflicted harm on us. Perhaps you would see fit to instruct him
to resume sending us what we need."
The Prophet immediately sent a messenger instructing Thumamah to lift the boycott and resume supplies to
the Quraysh. This Thumamah did.
Thumamah spent the rest of his life in the service of his religion, abiding by the undertaking he had given to
the Prophet. When the Prophet died, many Arabs began leaving the religion of God in great numbers.
Musaylamah, the impostor, began calling the Banu Hanifah to believe in him as a Prophet. Thumamah
confronted him and said to his people:
"O Banu Hanifah, beware of this grievous matter. There is no light or guidance in it. By God, it will only bring
distress and suffering to whoever joins this movement and misfortune even to those who do not join.
"O Banu Hanifah, two prophets do not come at the same time and there shall be no Prophet after Muhammad
and no Prophet to share in his mission."

He then read out to them the following verses of the Quran: "Ha Mim. The revelation of this Book is from God
the Almighty, the Knowing. He forgives sins and accepts repentance. He is severe in punishment and has a long
reach. There is no god except Him. To Him is the journey's end." (Surah Ghafir; verses 1-3).
"Can you compare these words of God with the uttering of Musaylamah?" he asked.
He then gathered together all those who had remained in Islam and began to wage a jihad against the
apostates and to make the words of God supreme. The loyal Muslims of Banu Hanifah needed additional help
to stand against the armies of Musaylamah. Their arduous task was completed by the forces dispatched by
Abu Bakr but at the cost of many a Muslim life.

Sahih Bukhari, Chapter No:59 Chapter Name: Military expeditions with the Prophet (Maghazi) Hadith No:
658 & In Sahih Muslim, Chapter No: 19, Chapter Name: Binding the Prisoners and putting them in
confinement and justification of setting them free without any ransom. Hadith No: 4361