STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

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STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

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..ASD..

Mn = S.Fy

The working (applied) moment is calculated from:

M = Mn / factor of safety = S.[Fy / f.o.s]

Fy / f.o.s depends

on class of section

(pages 9,10,11 and 12 EC-2001):

M = Sx0.64F y

M = Sx0.72F y rectangular

M = Sx 0.58 F y

M = Seff x 0.58 F y

(lateral torsional buckling):

Lu act = actual laterally unbraced (unsupported) length of the

compression flange of the beam

20 bf

1380 Af

T-section

Lu =

or Lu =

Cb

bf

F yf

d Fy

tf

where

Af = bf t f

rt =

1/6 d

t f bf3 16 dt w3

+

12

12

t f bf + 16 dt w

tw

If Lu act Lu

there is no lateral torsional buckling (LTB)

And the moment is calculated according to compact or noncompact section

If Lu < Lu act

there is LTB, thus M = SxF LTB

2

2

+ FLTB

0.58Fy = 1.4t/cm2

where FLTB = FLTB

1

2

FLTB1 =

800 Af

Cb

Lu act d

FLTB 2

LTB

1.4t/cm2

FLTB 1

2

1.4t/cm

.

1.4t/cm2

FLTB2 = 0.58 F y

FLTB2 = [ 0.64

FLTB2 = [

If

( Lu act / rT ) 2 F y

1.176 x10 5 C b

12000

]Cb

( Lu act / rT ) 2

Lu act

rt

< 84

Cb

Fy

] Fy

If 188

C b Lu act

Cb

84

rt

Fy

Fy

If 188

C b Lu act

<

Fy

rt

V = Aweb .qb

qb depends on

the ratio h/tw

Aweb = d x tw

h

105

tw

F yw

105

h

159

If

<

F yw

F yw tw

If

q b = 0.35 F yw

q b = [1.5

If

159

h

<

F yw tw

qb = [

( h / tw ) F yw

212

] 0.35 F y

119

] 0.35 F y

( h / tw ) F y

:

rolled

0.35Fy

..LRFD..

Mu = .Mn

Mn depends on

class of section

resistance

factor =0.85

f=Fy

f=Fy

f=Fy

f<Fy

plastic

elastic

plastic

I-section

M=Mp

plastic

section

Mn=Zx Fy

plastic

My<M<Mp

M=My

Mn=Sx Fy

M<My

(1)

(pages 9,10,11 and 12 EC-2001):

Flange

web

rolled

welded

d w 127

C 16.9

C 15.3

compact

Fy

Fy

tf

tf

tw

Fy

16.9 C

23 15.3 C

21 127 d w 190

Non<

<

<

Fy

tf

Fy

tf

Fy

tw

Fy

Fy

Fy

compact

d w 190

C

23

C

21

>

>

>

slender

tf

Fy

tf

Fy

tw

Fy

C

tf

C

tf

tw

dw

welded

tw

dw

rolled

M n = M p = Z .F y

M n = M r = S .( F y F r )

taking the effect of reduced section into consideration

0.7t/cm2 (rolled)

1.16t/cm2 (welded)

Where:

S = elastic section modulus (given in the tables),

.. For I-section only, Zx 1.10 Sx

Seff = effective elastic section modulus for

reduced slender section,

Fr = compressive residual stresses in the flange.

:

Fy

Flange

(welded built-up

Fr

Mr = S. (Fyf Fr) or (Fyw)

web

) hybrid section

. flange

(A.y)

)

C.G.

f=Fy

stress

.(

f=Fy

d/2

s

t

I-section

plastic

M=Mp

= ZFy

M=My

= SFy

d 2

d

) / 2 ( b s )( t ) 2 / 2 ] x 2 xF y

2

2

d

d

Z = b ( ) 2 ( b s )( t ) 2

2

2

M p = [ b(

(2)

(lateral torsional buckling):

plastic range

My

Mr

Mp

inelastic range

elastic range

Lp

Lr

compression flange of the beam

80 r y

1380 Af 1

Lr =

Lp =

,

[1 + 1 + ( 2.X .FL ) 2 ]

F yf

d FL

2

where:

ry radius of gyration of I-section

about y-axis

0.104 rT d 2

X =(

) , Af = bf t f

Af

rT =

t f bf3 16 dt w3

+

12

12

t f bf + 16 dtw

bf

tf

1/6 d

d

tw

T-section

M n = M p = Z .F y

Lb Lp

]

M n = C b M p ( M p M r )[

L

L

r

p

Lb L p

plastic range

Lr L p

Mp

Mn

M p M n

M p Mr

inelastic range

Mr

elastic range

Lp

Lb

Lr

1380 Af 2

20700 2

M n = M cr = C b S x (

) +(

)

d Lb

( Lb / rT ) 2

Where:

Mp = z.Fy

Mr = S.FL

FL = smaller value of (Fyw) or (Fyf Fr)

Fr = 0.7t/cm2 (rolled) , 1.16t/cm2 (built-up)

Cb = is the modification factor for non-uniform

moment diagram (page 20 EC-2001) or.

M1

M

+ 0.3 ( 1 ) 2 2.3

M2

M2

12.5 M max

Cb =

2.3

2.5 M max + 3 M a + 4 M b + 3 M c

C b = 1.75 + 1.05

M2

big

+ve

M2

-ve

0.75L

0.5L

M1

small

M1

Mc

Mmax

Mb

Ma

0.25L

Vu = .Vn

Vn depends on

the ratio h/tw

resistance

factor =0.85

If

h

112

F yw

tw

Vn = 0.6 F yw Aw

112

h 140

<

F yw tw

F yw

140

h

If

<

260

F yw tw

Vn = 0.6 F yw Aw (

If

112 /

Vn = 0.6 F yw Aw (

F yw

h / tw

9500

)

( h / tw ) 2

Taking Aweb = d x tw

tw

h d

tw

shear yielding

rolled

welded

inelastic buckling

in shear

elastic buckling

in shear

112

F yw

140

F yw

260

h d

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