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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 69 (2012) 1314 1323

International Conference on Education and Educational Psychology (ICEEPSY 2012)

Spiritual well-being of INSTED,


Relationship with College Adjustment
Norwati Mansora, Nur Syahidah Khalidb
a

Institute of Education, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Institute of Education, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abstract
This study attempts to discover spiritual well-being of INSTED, IIUM students and its relationship between spiritual well-being
and college adjustment among them. It tries to determine whether spiritual well being is related to his college adjustment in order
to attain good academic achievement. This study employed quantitave method. Sample were derived from three fields of study in
Insitute of Education IIUM namely; Guidance and counseling, Teacher English as a second Language and Islamic Education
The researcher used descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and ANOVA to analyzed the data.The findings of this
study will benefit parents, counselors, teachers and policy maker.
2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

2012 Published
by Elsevier under
Ltd. Selection
and/or peer-review
under
responsibility
Dr. Zafer Bekirogullari
of Research
Cognitive &Counselling,
Selection
and peer-review
responsibility
of Dr. Zafer
Bekirogullari
ofofCognitive
Counselling,
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Conference Services C-crcs.
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Keywords: spiritual well-being; college adjustment; quantitative; descriptive; counselor

1. Introduction
This study focused on the relationship between spiritual well-being and college adjustments among IIUM
students. Spiritual well-being was focused on its effectiveness of influencing students to handle their college life. It
purpose, meaning and value to life. Spirituality wellexperiencing a healthy spiritual growth with a purpose of life. Fehring, Miller & Shaw (1997 as cited in Fisher,
1998.) described spiritual well-being as an indic
simply an indication of their spiritual health. In this study we were concerned with the relationship between spiritual
and be successful while handling many
wellaspects in life as a student. Study conducted by Ratliff (2005) found that more students left their college or
university without completing a degree. Nearly 2.8 million students who entered higher education for the first time,
over 1.6 million left their college or university. Thus, it is very important to understand the complex issues that
to meet individual goals and the willingness to comply with the academic and social demands of the institution, and
interactional factors.

1877-0428 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Dr. Zafer Bekirogullari of Cognitive Counselling, Research & Conference
Services C-crcs.
doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.12.068

Norwati Mansor and Nur Syahidah Khalid / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 69 (2012) 1314 1323

1315

orientati
and the world and their distinctive behaviors and habits as they pursue their personal goals (Corey, 1996). Thus, one
should know the vital goal in life as a Muslim. The final destination of life journey is to be in Jannah or Heaven of
Afterlife. Allah mentioned in surah At-Taghabun verse 9:
And whosever believes in Allah and performs righteous good deeds, He will expiate from him his
sins, and will admit him to Gardens under which rivers flow dwell there in forever.
The greatest aspect of spiritual well-being is being able to give oneself strengths in various aspects of life.
Spirituality is one component of faith development. It is one dimension of how one lives faithfully in this world
practices and guidance from God. The Islamic belief is based on the spiritual relationship which is ultimately
between God and servant. The Muslims who live a life of faith and good deeds justify the purpose of the present life
here and attain the fulfillment of their highest hope for the good pleasure of God is the final bliss of salvation. As
Allah says in surah AlPrevious studies related to this topic, such as psychological and spiritual well-being in college students (Fehring,
Brennan, & Keller, 1987), tried to investigate the relationship between spirituality and psychological mood states in
response to life change, suggesting that spiritual variables may influence psychological well-being. Also, Richter
(2001) has done a study to find the correlation of psychological well-being and Christian spiritual well-being at a
small Christian Liberal Arts College in the Urban Midwest.
Moreover, there are some studies which were focusing on religiosity and belief towards college adjustment, such
as religiosity and its association with positive and negative emotions among college students from Algeria by AbdelKhalek and Naceur in 2007. The study explored the association between religiosity and both positive and negative
emotions and traits. Another study examined the religious belief change and its relationship to religiosity and coping
variables (Edmondson & Park, 2009). Furthermore, another study purposely carried out to identify the relationship
between spiritual well-being and college adjustments in first year college students at a Southeastern University
(Ratliff, 2005).
-being and college
adjustment. Spirituality was measured by the Spiritual well-being scale and college adjustment was measured by
The Students Adaptation to College Questionnaire. Studies on the relationship between spiritual well-being and
college adjustment in Malaysia specifically on Muslim students were wanting. Therefore, we embarked on this
research project to examine the relationship between spiritual well-being and college adjustments among the IIUM
students, in terms of academic adjustment, personal emotional adjustment, social adjustment and attachment.
2. The Samples
The main reason Institute of Education of IIUM was chosen as the population of this research was that because we
were expecting the students from Institute of Education can represent the dynamic of IIUM students who were
unique. Spiritual well-being among the students can be assumed from the development of Islamic values of
education they have gained throughout their courses. The total population was 922 undergraduate students who were
studying at the Institute of Education; but we only picked 130 students to represent the population. They were
chosen through stratified random sampling procedure; 50 students were doing Islamic Education (ISED), 48
students were doing Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) and another 32 from Guidance and Counseling
major (GUIDE). This study was intended to see the significance of the Islamic Education students compared to the
students from other majors as well.
3. Instrumentations
The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ) that was developed by Baker & Siryk in 1984 was
The original questionnaire consists of 70 items but it has been revised into 42; Academic Adjustment (12 items,

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Norwati Mansor and Nur Syahidah Khalid / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 69 (2012) 1314 1323

originally 24 items), Social Adjustment (12 items, originally 20 items), Personal-Emotional Adjustment (11 items,
originally 15 items), and Attachment (7 items, originally 8 items). The SACQ was adapted and reduced to 42 items
to attune with the students here due to cultural background and norms. A 5-point Likert-type response scale was
used in this questionnaire, ranging from not at all true of me to very much true of me. Coefficient alphas ranged
between .84 and .88 for the academic adjustment subscale; between .90 and .91 for social adjustment subscale;
between .81 and .85 for the personal/emotional adjustment subscale; between .90 and .91 for the attachment
subscale; and between .93 and .95 for the full scale (Baker and Siryk, 1986).
The Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) developed by Paloutzian and Ellison in 1982 and the adapted Malay
version of Spiritual Well Being scale developed by Imam, Karim, Jusoh and Mamad in 1999 was used for this study.
Previous studies reported high test-retest reliabilities (r = .73 to .99); internal consistency reliabilities (r = .78 to .94);
construct validity and two-factor structure of the scale (Ellison & Smith, 1991, as cited in Imam, et al., 1999). The
-being in a
main conceptualization of spiritual wellreligious and existential sense. The scale includes social psychological and religious aspects. The SWBS consists of
two subscales with ten items each. The subscales were the religious well-being subscale (RWB) and the existential
wellsense of well-being in relation to God. The EWB subscale measured the horizontal dimension to evaluate an
-purpose and life-satisfaction. The EWB items contain no specific religious indications
-point
Likert-type res
To determine the reliability coefficient of the scales, the researcher had conducted a pilot test. Table 1
summarizes the result of the pilot test. The Cronbach alpha for spiritual religious r=.769, spiritual existential
r=.809, academic adjustment r=.752, social adjustment r=.756, personal adjustment r=.804 and attachment r=.654.
There are no much differences compared the standardized items as for spiritual religious r=.775, spiritual existential
r=.811, academic adjustment r=.755, social adjustment r=.762, personal adjustment r=.803 and attachment r=.656.
Thus, the items for this study were reliable.
Table 1
Reliability of the subscales
Items
Spiritual religious
Spiritual existential
Academic adjustment
Social adjustment
Personal adjustment
Attachment

N of items
.769
.809
.752
.756
.804
.654

from pilot study


.776
.720
.645
.760
.836
.452

10
10
12
12
11
7

4. Findings
3.36, which categorized them under
The result shows that the total mean for
religious group. The findings revealed that 34 ISED students, 22 TESL students and 16 GUIDE students scored
under 2-3.3 (lowest level), whereas only 2 ISED students, 1 TESL student and no GUIDE student scored under 6.47.3 (highest level).

Norwati Mansor and Nur Syahidah Khalid / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 69 (2012) 1314 1323

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Table 2
Spirituality level of INSTED students
Level of
spirituality

Total number
ISED

TESL

GUIDE

2-3.3

34

22

16

3.4-4.3

10

17

13

4.4-5.3

5.4-6.3

6.4-7.3

Total

50

48

32

To determine whether there was any significant difference in spiritual well-being between students from Islamic
Education and other courses, One-way ANOVA was employed to analyse the data. The result revealed that a
statistically significant difference was found among three groups of INSTED undergraduate students which are
Islamic Education (ISED), Teaching English (TESL) and Guidance and Counseling (GUIDE) on spiritual
existential, F(2,127) = 4.27, p=.016, and there was no significant difference on spiritual religious, F(2,127) = .36,
p=.70. Table 4.7 shows that the mean spiritual existential is 1.73 for ISED, 2.06 for TESL and 1.81 for GUIDE.
Table 3
Means and Standard Deviations comparing three groups of INSTED undergraduate students

ISED
TESL
GUIDE
Total

Spiritual religious

Spiritual existential

SD

SD

50
48
32
130

1.4580
1.4833
1.5531
1.4908

.53798
.53089
.39756
.50200

1.7320
2.0625
1.8125
1.8738

.58709
.66224
.38584
.59030

The finding from the analysis of the data showed statistically significant differences in college adjustment
between ISED students and students from TESL and GUIDE. The result on social adjustment, F(2,127) = 3.56,
p=.031, and on personal-emotional adjustment, F(2,127) = 4.22, p=.017. However, there were no significant
differences on academic and attachment. Table 4 shows that the mean social adjustment was 2.50 for ISED, 2.70 for
TESL and 2.40 for GUIDE, whereas the mean personal-emotional adjustment was 2.60 for ISED, 2.94 for TESL
and 2.60 for GUIDE

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Table 4
Means and Standard Deviations comparing three groups of INSTED undergraduate students
Academic
N
ISED
TESL
GUIDE
Total

50
48
32
130

Social

Personal Emotional

Attachment

SD

SD

SD

SD

2.3750

.61428

2.4950

.54200

2.5891

.58837

1.8000

.52588

2.3681
2.3307
2.3615

.43889
.54109
.53309

2.6840
2.3672
2.5333

.53621
.52699
.54676

2.9375
2.5881
2.7175

.77597
.57356
.67712

1.7262
1.7232
1.7538

.52785
.70635
.57254

Analysis of the data using Pearson correlation revealed the strongest positive correlation among spiritual wellbeing and college adjustments, which would be considered a large effect size, was between spiritual well-being and
emotional adjustment scores, r (127) = .34, p<.001, the second large or medium size was between spiritual wellbeing and academic adjustment scores, r (127) = .32, p<.001 while spiritual well-being was also positively
correlated with social adjustment scores. It means that students who had relatively high spiritual well-being were
likely to have high emotional, academic and social adjustment scores.

5. Discussion
The results showed that there were significant differences towards college adjustments between students from the
three departments; especially TESL students compared to Islamic Education and Guidance and Counseling in terms
of spiritual-existential, social adjustment and emotional adjustment. TESL students attained the highest score
compared to students from other departments in terms of spiritual-existential due to their knowledge, belief and
inner-strength to give a positive perspective towards life. As Muslim, they believe in the purpose of life where each
of human being is significant in this world. According to Islam, every Muslim is a vicegerent and is responsible to
keep this world in peace and harmony as well as to spread the word of Allah.
The students from TESL also had shown a better result in social adjustment. TESL students were known for their
social skills and expressiveness as they learnt drama, acting, literature, prose and writing. As IIUM students they
also learned Islamic subjects. They knew that Islam taught us to treat others as our brothers and sisters in Islam.
Consequently, the students can adapt well in college life and get along with others better. Every Muslim is a brother
of every other Muslim. As Allah revealed in surah Al-Hujurat verse 10: "The believers are nothing else than
brothers. So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allah, that you may receive mercy."
Therefore, every one of us should treat and care for our brothers and sisters. As Muslim, we should respect,
offering assistance, give advice, keep a good silaturrahim or relationship and forgive our brothers and sisters with a
pure hearts so that we can live in peace and harmony. As we believe that the good believer is the one who love their
brothers and sisters as Prophet Muhammad said: "None of you truly believes until he loves for his brother what he
loves for himself." [Bukhari & Muslim]
Furthermore, TESL students have shown a slightly higher score in handling personal emotional compared to
ISED and GUIDE. As Muslim, they knew the importance of sticking to their practice, belief and be positive towards
life. Prayers, fast, pay alms (zakat), respect others and observe their attitudes or akhlaq, avoid bad things can keep
the purity of a person especially their heart. Muslim believes that when a heart is pure it will affect the actions,
physical, mental and emotions of a person. He can function well and is consistently in good condition. A hadith
reported by Sahih Bukhari, narrated by Anwhole body of human being:
becomes good but if it
GUIDE students also displayed a good result compared to ISED students but lower than TESL in terms of
spiritual-existential. GUIDE students have shown the lowest score compared to other departments towards social

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adjustment and the same score with ISED students in terms of emotional adjustment. GUIDE students were
frequently associated with positive life views as they learn how to cope with daily life matters and problem with
some skills and techniques from psychological perspectives. They were trained to be more productive in handling
their own issues and others as well as with optimistic insight. However, as the students were 20-25 years old, they
can be classified as young adulthood. Carl Jung (1955, as cited in Hughes, 1996) categorized young adulthood into
two structures, the acquisition and the development of ego complex. Thus it shows that they were still in the phase
of acquisition and looking for the conformity in life as they were unsure of the future. Therefore, they needed to
seek the purpose of their life, and to find out their interest and the strength of their talent, to enable them to develop.
Existential theory emphasizes on understanding the meaning of life and to be human. A person is in a continuous
phase of life transition and making sense of his or her own existence significantly as well as with others in every
event that happened in their life journey. In accordance to that, Corey (2009) suggested that the dimensions of
human condition such as selfmeaningful relationship with others, the search of the meaning, purpose, values and goals, anxiety, and awareness of
death are the essentials for human to understand their existence.
The students are in the process of learning to view life positively. People have an intrinsic motivation to grow in
positive ways and as they take it as a growth process; they learn from mistakes and want to improve for better. This
is from the person centered perspective on human nature. Person centered theory views human on four belief, such
as people are trustworthy, move toward self-actualization, have inner resources to move to positive direction and can
respond to their uniquely perceived world (Capuzzi and Gross, 2007). Thus, those students still believe that people
can move forward and can make a great achievement, no matter what hardship they have to face; they believe they
can make it through and find their own way. Nevertheless, GUIDE students and ISED students were not having
much difference in the result of all items. We can assume that the students have been effected by their knowledge
which they learned throughout their formal courses, and informal as well.
Meanwhile, the students seemed to have significant difference in handling emotional adjustment during the
college or university life. It has been proven in a study about adjustment among students in Malaysia by Abdullah et
al. (2009) where some of the respondents were found to be at the low level for the Personal-Emotional Scale which
indicated that many subjects in this study were exposed to psychological and somatic problems in adjusting
themselves to campus life. As shown in the result, the students were experiencing problems with financial, mood

mean=2.78.
Social adjustment is quite a common problem in college life. They may not face so many problems as reported by
Hertel (2002) in his study that the students will have a greater social adjustment if they received more social support
from high school track, parents, and have knowledge about college life before entering their first year as well as
good financial resources. The students verified the most social adjustment at that moment wa

Briefly, by the time this study was conducted among the students, most of them were so busy preparing for their
final exam. Some may have not gone back home for a long time. They felt stressed out with lots of work and
ampus due to their packed schedule for
are afraid to talk
to their lecturers regarding their study or assignments. Teacher roles can affect the achievement of students, where
build a good relationship with students in order to improve their performance academically and to conduct the role
of lecturer is not only to teach but also to educate, nurture and cultivate this young generation.
Even though there were no significance difference in terms of academic adjustment and attachment, it shows that
they were experiencing the same condition in handling their academic and the sense of attachment to the university
and home. Many students have problems in coping with their life and to maintain their academic result in college.
They will have a lower level of attachment to the college if they were avoiding problems and did not try to solve the
problems including academic, friends and personal-emotional adjustments (Gefen, 2010). They were also under
tremendous pressure as they were expected not only to succeed but also become excellent in their classes and

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assignments and present


students admitted that they
were not satisfied with their study in terms of exam results, assignments and presentations, while having difficulties
to focus in their study due to less interests in subjects that they took for their courses.
The findings showed that students will tend to study only for exam without passion and it caused them to be
stressed out and attained lower result. The students may have other problems in college life adjustment. The
findings showed that there were some students who were having difficulties in personal-emotional adjustment and
social adjustment. Thus, these factors can affect their academic adjustment as well. A study by Abdullah et al.
(2009) confirmed that students will get better CGPA if they can adjust well in campus life, as there is a positive
relationship between personal-emotional adjustment and academic achievement.
The students seemed to have an equal spiritual well-being as they showed no significant difference in spiritualreligious, and it indicated that all of IIUM students were Muslims, and their beliefs and knowledge about religion
were affecting their perspectives about life. Socio culture perspective will affect oneself as it will affect individuals
to behave in a particular way where the religion, the rituals, the belief in good and bad, heaven and hell, life after
death also influence the human behavior (Chandrashekar et al., 2007). Nonetheless, Muslims without doubt know
that only Allah is the Creator, Provider and Sustainer of this life here and hereafter. Muslims believe there is no God
worthy of worship except Allah, nor is there a Lord besides Him, upon Him we rely and to Him we turn in
repentance and have faith about sin and rewards in every action that everyone will be responsible in the life after
death as every single person will be placed in hell or heaven.
The findings also showed a significant difference in terms of spiritual-existential items, where basically the items
refer to life purpose and satisfaction, relationship with others and situations around us. Apparently, the students
came from different family backgrounds, orientations, cultures, norms, personalities and psychological traits which
can contribute to their perspective towards life and people. Personality especially plays an important role in
. It is a system of enduring, inner characteristics of individuals that
contributes to consistency in their thoughts, feelings and behavior that differ across people (Derlega, Winstead and
Jones, 2005). Meanwhile, psychological traits of individuals are different among people that can influence his or her
interactions and adaptations to the intra-physic, physical and social environment (Larsen and Buss, 2008). Even
though their religion is the same; these students had different dimensions and background that reacted with their
spiritual well-being in various ways.
We have identified that there were significant relationships between spiritual well-being and college adjustment in
terms of academic, social and emotional among the students. These three elements are inter-related to each other and
can affect one another. Md Yassin and Dzulkifli (2009) found that an increase in psychological problems may lead
to a decrease in academic achievement among students. Thus, academic achievement can be affected by emotional
state.
Spiritual well-being brings a positive impact to human emotion and can keep human in tranquil state. Furthermore,
Hassan (2009) stated that emotion
in handling their feeling is closely related to their success in the field of education. Thus, the purpose of education is
to develop the students potentials as the process of education is not by empowering the academic merely, but also to
Spiritual well-being also was found to have a positive relationship with academic and social adjustment among
students. Bryant, Choi and Yasuno (2003) have identified an association between spirituality and college
experiences in changing positive perception. It showed that spirituality gives understanding of life where it redefined
according to what is meaningful to individual (Brown & Parrish, 2011). Thus, Koszycki, Raab, Aldosary, and
Bradwejin (2010), in their study to evaluate the efficacy of a multifaith spiritually based intervention for generalized
anxiety disorder, found that spirituality has shown a positive impact on improvement of social adjustment among the
patients whom participated in the study. In addition, French, Eisenberg, Vaughan, Purwono and Suryanti (2008), in
their study had shown a correlation between spirituality and social competence among students in Indonesia.
In conclusion, the analysis revealed significant differences among the students towards spiritual well-being and
college adjustments, especially spiritual existential, social adjustment and personal emotional adjustment. As the
students were still in their young age they still needed to adjust in some matters such as social skills, emotional
turbulence and in the stage of learning about themselves and academic interest. They had shown the same average
score in terms of spiritual religious, academic adjustment and attachment. As Muslim, they shared the same values

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1321

and belief. However, everyone has their own background and life style that can affect their view about life, the
purpose of living and existence.
There were also significant correlations among academic adjustment, social adjustment and personal emotional
adjustment and spiritual wellnot significant with attachment. IIUM students may portray a good character as Muslims as the integration of
knowledge they have gained in university. The study revealed that Islamic Educational students were not necessarily
good in college adjustments due to their knowledge and spiritual well-being. Students from other specialization such
as Teaching English and Guidance and Counseling have shown better result in terms of personal and social
adjustments as well as spiritual well-being.
6. Conclusion
Education in Islam is to impart moral values and spiritual elements to make a good person academically and
spiritually strong. According to Islam the success of a person is not just in this worldly life but also in the hereafter.
The Qur an also mentioned many lessons and knowledge to educate human being especially how to be
or servant of Allah and to ponder about the creation of this world to know about Allah the greatest Creator of all that
exist in this world.
Every faculty of human being such as hearing, sight, mind, touch and smell has been placed in human soul or
spirit. Human soul is an essence and can produce consciousness and intelligence which recognizes its own self and
the Creator; and it knows spiritual realities. Therefore, spirituality of a human cannot be against its own nature
where it is always in the relation with its Creator. The soul possesses intelligences which provide humans with great
faculties in order to survive in life and it is able to distinguish between bad and good. That is how human can attain
an ultimate success of life. It has been assured by Allah S.W.T in surah As-shams verse 7-10:
By the Soul, and the proportion and order given to it; And its enlightenment as to its wickedness
and its righteous; Truly he succeeds that purifies it, And he fails that corrupts it!
Islamic educational philosophy and system based on a rational conception of God and man, where the belief in
God or tawhid will guide human in understanding the concept of God and the signs of His greatest power from His
creations of this universe, where human can take benefits. The purpose of this Tawhidic knowledge is to keep wellbeing in this world and well-being in hereafter (Hassan, 1996). Hassan (1996) said that this concept will keep human
in a balance. Thus, all the human problems can be solved by keeping on the right track with its own nature that is to
recognize and acknowledge its own Creator.
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