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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 1, January 2016, ISSN 2348 8050



Vikas Yadav, 2Dr. Kanika Sharma

ME Research Scholar, Department of ECE, NITTTR Chandigarh, India
Assistant Professor, Department of ECE, NITTTR Chandigarh, India

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a system
composed of a large number of low-cost microsensors. This network is used to collect and send
various kinds of messages to a base station (BS). WSN
consists of low-cost nodes with limited battery power,
and the battery replacement is not easy for WSN with
thousands of physically embedded nodes, which means
energy efficient clustering algorithm should be
employed to offer a long-life work time. To achieve
the aim, we need to develop an energy efficient
hierarchical clustering algorithm to minimize not only
total energy consumption but also to balance WSN
load. Researchers have proposed many algorithms. In
this paper, we propose an Energy Efficient Clustering
Algorithm which introduces Swarm Intelligence
Algorithm to provide the shortest and optimized path
to the cluster heads and it also uses the two step
clustering algorithm; first, the node with the highest
residual energy is selected as the anchor cluster-head
(ACH), and the candidate cluster-heads (CCHs) are
determined according to their residual energy as well
as the distance from the anchor cluster-head; second,
the candidate cluster-heads compete to be the clusterheads via a delayed broadcast mechanism. Simulation
results show that the Proposed Algorithm has a better
performance than other algorithms in prolonging the
lifetime of WSN.

Distinguished from traditional wireless communication

networks, for example, cellular systems and mobile ad
hoc networks (MANET), WSNs have unique
characteristics, for example, denser level of node
deployment, higher unreliability of sensor nodes, and
severe energy, computation, and storage constraints,
which present many new challenges in the
development and application of WSNs. In the past
decade, WSNs have received tremendous attention
from both academic and industry all over the world. A
large amount of research activities have been carried
out to explore and solve various design and application
issues and significant advances have been made in the
development and deployment of WSNs. It is
envisioned that in the near future WSNs will be widely
used in various civilian and military fields, and
revolutionize the way we live, work, and interact with
the physical world.

Keywords: WSN (Wireless Sensor Network), EECA

(Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm), ACH (Anchor
Cluster Head), CCHs (Candidate Cluster Heads),
Clustering, Hierarchical Clustering Algorithms.

I. Introduction to WSN
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been widely
considered as one of the most important technologies
for the twenty - first century. Enabled by recent
advances in microelectronic mechanical systems
(MEMS) and wireless communication technologies,
tiny, cheap, and smart sensors deployed in a physical
area and networked through wireless links and the
Internet provide unprecedented opportunities for a
variety of civilian and military applications. For
example, environmental monitoring, battle field

Fig. 1 Basic Architecture of WSN

II. Clustering in WSN

Clustering techniques have been proposed in Wireless
sensor network in order to achieve high energy
efficiency and assure long network lifetime, for
bandwidth reuse, data gathering, one-to-many, manyto-one, many-to many communication. Clustering is
particularly useful for applications that require
scalability to hundreds or thousands nodes [8].
Clustering can be used to create the hierarchical
structure and clustering minimizes the path cost when
communicating with the base station. In general, when
working with clusters it is possible to identify three
main different elements in the WSN: sensor nodes
(SNs), base station (BS) and cluster heads (CHs).

International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 1, January 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

Sensor nodes: Sensor nodes are the set of sensors

present in the network, arranged to sense the
environment and collect the data. The main task of
sensor nodes in a sensor field is to detect events,
perform quick local data processing, and then transmit
the data. But the greatest constraint it has is the power
consumption, which usually is caused when the sensor
is observing it surroundings, and communicating
(sending and receiving) data.

By using a two-step cluster-head selection mechanism,

EECA always chooses CHs out from nodes with
higher residual energy. EECA not only provides
reasonable distribution of cluster-heads with higher
energy utilization, but also efficiently balances the
energy consumption levels of nodes and prolongs the
network lifetime as compared to the well known
algorithm LEACH [4].

IV. Proposed Algorithm

Base Station: It is the data processing point for the
data received from the sensor nodes and where the data
is accessed by the end-user. It is generally considered
fixed and at a far distance from the sensor nodes.
Cluster head: Cluster head acts as a gateway between
the Sensor nodes and the Base Station. The function of
the cluster head is to perform common functions for all
the nodes in the cluster, like aggregating the data
before sending it to the base station. This structure
formed between the sensor nodes, the sink and the base
station can be replicated as many times as it is needed,
creating the different layers of the hierarchical WSN.

The Proposed Algorithm aims to enhance the network

lifetime. It follows the following steps to implement
the Proposed Algorithm:

Network Model.
Initialization of Parameters.
Network Formation.
Cluster Head Selection.
Simulated Results.

i) Network Model
In this work, we consider a data collection scenario in
a WSN that consists of a large number of nodes
uniformly distributed over a vast area. To make the
network model clear, some assumptions are made as
a) There is a data sink located far away from the
area concerned. Sensors and the data sink are
all stationary once deployed.
b) Each cluster-head has to transmit the received
data to the data sink through a multi-hop route

Fig. 2 Clustering in WSN

c) Sensors can control the amount of

transmission power according to the distance

III. Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm (EECA)

An energy-efficient clustering algorithm (EECA) is a
two-step cluster-head selection mechanism. First, the
node with the highest residual energy in the network is
selected as the anchor CH (ACH), and the CCHs are
determined according to the residual energy of the
nodes. Second, CCHs compete for the CH roles
through a delayed broadcast mechanism. With EECA,
the CHs are always chosen out from the nodes with
higher residual energy in each round. Higher energy
utilization rate is achieved and the network lifetime is
consequently prolonged. Moreover, EECA guarantees
that there are CHs serving for the network at each
round, and the distribution of CHs is more balanced

d) Links are symmetric, and sensors can compute

the approximate distance to other sensors,
based on received signal strength and
transmitting power.
e) All nodes are able to reach the sink, and nodes
have no location information.
ii) Initialization of Parameters
First of all we initialize the network parameters to
form a network. 300 nodes are used for data
transmission with initial energy 0.5 Joules. The data
packet size is 2000 bits.


International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 1, January 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

Table 1. Simulation Parameter



Sensing Field

1000 1000

Number of Sensor
Sensor Transmission

v) Simulated Results
The simulation is done on the MATLAB platform and
the following results are derived.
The figure below shows the graph of live nodes versus
no. of rounds for the Proposed Algorithm:


Data Sink Location


Nodes Initial Energy






Fig. 3 Network Lifetime of the Proposed Algorithm







Data Packet Size l


Control Packet Size l0


From the graphical representation we can see that the

network lifetime is significantly increased. We can see
that the network is alive to the 552 rounds of the
network lifetime.
Now the comparison graph of the various algorithms
and the proposed Algorithm is shown in fig. 4. Figure
shows the comparison of LEACH, EECA and the
Proposed Algorithm as we see that the Proposed
Algorithm outperforms over the two other algorithms.
The graph is between number of alive nodes and the
number of rounds.
The comparison shows that the Proposed Algorithm
shows the 22.22% improvement over the LEACH and
it shows 10% improvement over the EECA (Energy
Efficient Clustering Algorithm).

iii) Network Formation

The formation of network is done by randomly placed
nodes and data sink is stationary at point (1000, 1000).
The size of the network is taken as 100m100m.
This is a random network and it is being included the
large area of the network.
iv) Cluster Head Selection
The Proposed Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm is
an Improved Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm
based on the EECA as in [4]. But this proposed
algorithm is used for Multi-Hop Inter-Cluster
communication. It uses the Swarm Intelligence
Algorithm which provides the shortest and optimized
path for the data transmission.
Selection of ACH and CCHs: The node with
the highest residual energy is selected as the
anchor cluster head (ACH) and candidate
cluster heads (CCHs) are selected according to
their residual energy and the distance from the
anchor cluster head and the candidate cluster
head is compete to be a cluster head by a
delayed broadcast mechanism. The utilization
rate of residual energy consumption is shown
in the figure

Fig. 4 Comparison of Network Lifetimes of LEACH,

EECA and Proposed Algorithm

V. Conclusion
In this paper, we proposed an Energy Efficient
Clustering Algorithm considering the two step cluster
head selection mechanism in the network. The
Proposed Algorithm outperforms in terms of network
lifetime as compare to EECA and LEACH.
As a result the Proposed Algorithm is 22.22% and
10.00% improved in terms of network lifetime as

International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 1, January 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

compared to LEACH and EECA respectively. This

shows the promising performance of the Proposed

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