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This study proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm for solving Power Economic Dispatch (PED) considering units with Prohibited Operating Zones (POZ) and Ramp-rate limit (RRL) constraints. The PSO algorithm was developed through the simulation of a simplified social system and has been formed to be robust in solving continuous nonlinear optimization problems in terms of accuracy of the solution and it can outperform the other algorithms. The proposed PSO algorithm is applied for the PED of three unit and six unit thermal systems. The performance of the proposed PSO algorithm is compared with other methods which are presented in the references. The comparison of results shows that the proposed PSO algorithm is indeed capable of obtaining higher quality solutions.

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Economic Dispatch with Prohibited operating zones and Ramp-rate limit

Constraints

S. Prabakaran*, Road Lakshminarayana Rao**

*Assistant professor in EEE, SCSVMV University, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu , India

** M.E. Student in Power System, SCSVMV University, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu , India

ABSTRACT

This study proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization

(PSO) algorithm for solving Power Economic Dispatch

(PED) considering units with Prohibited Operating

Zones (POZ) and Ramp-rate limit (RRL) constraints.

The PSO algorithm was developed through the

simulation of a simplified social system and has been

formed to be robust in solving continuous nonlinear

optimization problems in terms of accuracy of the

solution and it can outperform the other algorithms.

The proposed PSO algorithm is applied for the PED of

three unit and six unit thermal systems. The

performance of the proposed PSO algorithm is

compared with other methods which are presented in

the references. The comparison of results shows that

the proposed PSO algorithm is indeed capable of

obtaining higher quality solutions.

Key words: Evolutionary Programming (EP), Power

Economic Dispatch (PED),Prohibited Operating

Zones (POZ), Particle Swarm Optimization

(PSO),Ramp rate limit constraints (RRL).

I.

INTRODUCTION

optimization problems in a power system for allocating

generation among the committed units to satisfy the

system constraints imposed and minimize the energy

requirements [1]. Power generators may possess some

POZ between theirminimum and maximum generation

limits, because of the practical limitations of power

plant elements and operating in those zones may cause

amplification of vibrations in a shaft bearing, which

must beavoided in practice. The PED problem

becomes a non-convex optimization problem because

theprohibited regions separate the decision space into

disjoint

subsets

constituting

a

non-convex

solutionspace [2]. The economic scheduling is the online economic load dispatch , where it is required to

distribute the load among the generating units, in such

a way to minimize the total operating cost of

in equality constraints. For any specified load

condition , determines the power output of each plant

and each generating unit within the plant which will

minimize the overall cost of fuel needed to serve the

system load[3]. Many conventional methods such as

Lambda iteration method, Newtons method, Gradient

Method, Linear programming method, Interior point

method and Dynamic programming method have been

applied to solve the basic economic dispatch(ED)

problems [4]. In all these methods, the fuel cost

function considered as quadratic in nature. However,

in reality, the input-output characteristics of the

generating units are to be non-linear due to prohibited

operating zones, and ramp rate limit constraints. The

Lambda-iteration method has been applied to many

software packages and used by power utilities for

solving ED problems due to ease of implementation.

Since the lambda iteration method requires a

continuous problem formulation, it cannot be directly

applied to PED problems with discontinuous

prohibited operating zones. For the selection of initial

conditions, Newtons method is very much sensitive

[5]. Gradient method suffers from the problem of

convergence in the presence of inequality constraints.

Linear programming method provides optimal results

in less computational time but results are not accurate

due to linearization of the problem. Interior point

method is faster than the linear programming method,

but it may provide infeasible solution if the step size is

not chosen properly [5]. Dynamic Programming (DP)

method is one of the best conventional approach to

solve the ED problems with non-convex and unit cost

functions. However, the DP method may cause the

problems of the curse of dimensionality or local

optimality [6] in the solution procedure. Practically,

ED problem is non-linear, non-convex type with

multiple local optimal points due to inclusion of

equality, inequality constraints, and prohibited

operating zones. Conventional/classical methods have

failed to solve such type of problems and converge

into local optimal solution [7]. All these methods

assume that the cost curve is continuous and

monotonically increasing. To overcome the problems

of conventional methods for solving ED problems, the

19

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Volume 3 Issue 3, March 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

researcher put into their step by using modern meta heuristic searching techniques, including simulated

annealing (SA) [8], Modified Hopfield network

method [9], Genetic Algorithm method (GA) [10],

Evolutionary Programming method [11-15], Tabu

search algorithm (TSA)[16], Particle swarm

optimization method(PSO) [17-20] have been applied

to solve the complex non-linear ED problems. But

some of the methods do not always guarantee a global

optimal solution.

In Simulate annealing method, annealing

schedule is very closely related to performance

optimization. However, a poor tuning of the annealing

schedule may inadvertently affect the performance of

simulated annealing. Hop field neural network method

requires external training routines. Recent researchers

have identified some deficiencies in GA performance

[10]. The immature convergence of GA degrades its

performance and reduces its search capability that

leads to a higher probability towards obtaining only the

local optimal solutions [17] .The another drawback of

GA is immature convergence leading to local minima

and the complicated process in coding and decoding

the problem [21]. Evolutionary programming method

for ED problem is more efficient than GA method in

computation time and can generate a high-quality

solution with a shorter calculation. Particle swarm

optimization is one of the latest versions of natural

inspired algorithms which characteristics of high

performance and easy implementation. PSO has a

character of parallel searching mechanism, so it has

high probability to determine the global (or) near

global optimal solutions for the non-linear ED

problems. The main drawback of the conventional

PSO is its premature convergence, especially while

handling the problems with more local optima and

heavier constraints [21]. A PSO algorithm is proposed

to solve non-linear ED problems taking into

consideration of power balance constraint, generator

operating limits, ramp rate limits and prohibited

operating zones.

II.

PROBLEM FORMULATION

the total generation cost of thermal generating units

while satisfying various system constraints, including

power balance equation, generator power limits,

prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limit

constraints.

The problem of PED is multimodal, non-differentiable

and highly non-linear. Mathematically, the problem

can be stated as in (1) [2, 20]

N

Min FT Fi Pi

i i

(1)

generating units in the system. Fi Pi is the fuel cost

function of unit i and Pi is the output power of unit i.

Generally, the fuel cost of generation unit can be

expressed as

Fi Pi ai Pi2 bi Pi ci Rs hr

(2)

Subject to

a) Real power balance constraint

n

Pi PD PLoss

(3)

i 1

transmission loss.

The transmission loss (PL) can be expressed in a

quadratic function of generation (Using B-loss

coefficient matrix).

N N

i 1 j 1

i 1

(4)

units and Bij , Boi , Boo are the B loss coefficients

(b) Generator operating limits

The power output of each unit i restricted by its

maximum and

minimum limits of real power

generation and is given by

Pi m in Pi Pi m ax

(5)

Where Pi max and P i min are the maximum and

minimum generation limits on ith unit respectively.

(c) Prohibited operating zone constraints

The generators may have the certain range where

operation is restricted due to the physical limitation of

steam valve, component, vibration in shaft bearing

etc., The consideration of POZ creates a discontinuity

in fuel cost curve and converts the constraint as below

Pi m in Pi Pi ,1

Pi Piu, k 1 Pi Pi ,Lk

(6)

u

L

Pi , zi Pi Pi m ax

Where,,

and ,

are the lower and upper boundary

th

of K prohibited operating zone of unit i, k is the index

of the prohibited operating zone, and Zi is the number

of prohibited operating zones (Figure1)

i = 1,2,3,..,N

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Volume 3 Issue 3, March 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

zones

(d) Ramp rate limit constraints

The generator constraints due to ramp rate limits of

generating units are given as

(1) As generation increases

Pi (t ) Pi (t 1) URi

(7)

Pi (t 1) Pi (t ) DRi

(8)

be modified as

Max( Pi min , Pi (t 1) DRi ) Pi (t ) Min( Pi max, Pi (t 1) URi ) (9)

From eqn. (9), the limits of minimum and maximum

output powers of generating units are modified as

Pi min Max( Pi min , Pi (t 1) DRi )

(10)

Pi max Min ( Pi max, Pi (t 1) URi )

(11)

the time interval (t), Pi(t-1), is the output power of

generating unit i in the previous time interval (t-1), URi

is the up ramp limit of generating unit i and DRi is the

down ramp limit of generating unit i.

The ramp rate limits of the generating units with all

possible cases are shown in Figure 2.

concept of velocity. Velocity of each agent could be

modified by the following equation (12)

III.

implemented by adding a random number or a vector

from a certain distribution (e.g., a Gaussian

distribution in the case of classical EP) to a parent. The

degree of variation of Gaussian mutation is controlled

by its standard deviation, which is also known as a

strategy parameter in an evolutionary search . EP is

near global stochastic optimization method starting

from multiple points, which placed emphasis on the

behavioural linkage between parents and their

offspring rather than seeking to emulate specific

genetic operators as observed in nature to find an

optimal solution.

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a

population based stochastic optimization technique

which can be effectively used to solve the non-linear

and non-continuous optimization problems. It inspired

by social behaviour of bird flocking or fish schooling.

The PSO algorithm searches in parallel using a group

of random particles similar to other AI-based

optimization techniques.

Eberhart and Kennedy suggested a particle

swarm optimization based on the analogy of swarm of

bird and school of fish [15]. PSO is basically

developed through simulation of bird flocking in twodimensional space. The position of each agent is

represented by XY axis position, and also the velocity

is expressed by Vx (velocity of X axis) and Vy

(velocity of Y axis). Modification of the agent

(particle) position is realized by the position and

velocity information. Bird flocking optimizes a certain

objective function. Each agent knows its best value so

far (pbest) and its XY position. This information is the

analogy of personal experiences of each agent.

Moreover, each agent knows the best value so far in

the group (gbest) among pbests. This information is

the analogy of knowledge of how other agents around

them have performed. The particles are drawn

stochastically toward the position of present velocity

of each particle, their prior best performance and the

best previous performance of their neighbour [16-17].

Each agent tries to modify its position using the

following information:

1. The current position (x, y),

2. The current velocities (Vx, Vy),

3. The distance between the current position and pbest,

4. The distance between the current position and gbest.

evolution of finite state machines, in order to solve a

prediction task. Since then, several modifications,

enhancements and implementations have been

i 1,2,..., n; d 1,2,..., m

(12)

21

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Volume 3 Issue 3, March 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

number of units and the w be the inertia weight

factor. Suitable selection of the inertia weight factors

provides a balance between global and local

explorations, thus requires fewer iteration on average

to find a sufficiently optimal solution [15]. In general,

the inertia weight w is set according to equation (13)

w wmax

wmax wmin

* iter

itermax

(13)

Where

P

: Current searching point

P t+1

:Modified searching point

Vt

: Current velocity

V t+1

: Modified velocity

V pbest : Velocity based on pbest

Vgbest : Velocity based on gbest

t

IV.

Where,

Wmin and Wmax are the minimum and maximum

weight factors respectively.

Wmax =0.9; Wmin =0.4

iter

:Current number of iterations

iter max:

Maximum

no

of

iterations

(generations)

1 , 2

: Acceleration constant, equal to 2

rand ( ), Rand ( ) : Random number value between 0

and 1

: Velocity of agent i at iteration t

pbest i : pbest of agent i

gbest

: gbest of the group

Using the above equation, a certain velocity, which

gradually gets close to pbest and gbest, can be

calculated. The current position can be modified by

equation (14)

SOLVING PED PROBLEM

solving PED problem is given as follows and the

general flowchart of PSO is shown in Figure 4.

Step 1. Generate an initial population of particles with

random positions and velocity within the

solution space

Step 2. Calculate the value of the fitness function for

each particle

Step 3. To compare the fitness of each particle with

each pbest. If the current solution is better than

its pbest, then replace its pbest by the current

solution.

Step 4. Compare the fitness of all the particles with

gbest. If the fitness of any particle is better

than gbest, then replace gbest.

Step 5. Modify the velocity and position of all

particles according to equations (12) & (14).

Step 6. Repeat the steps 2-5 until a criterion is met.

Start

Pid(t 1)

Pid(t )

Vid(t 1)

(14)

Generate an initial population of particles with

random positions and velocity

equation (12) is corresponding to diversification in the

search procedure. The second and third terms of that

are corresponding to intensification in the search

procedure. The PSO method has a well-balanced

mechanism to utilize diversification and intensification

in the search procedure efficiently. Figure 3 shows the

concept of modification of a searching point by PSO.

particle

Compare the fitness function of each particle and

assign the Pbest value

assign the gbest value

using eqn (7) and (9)

No

Reach

maximum

iteration

Yes

.

Figure 3. Concept of modification of a searching point

by PSO

Stop

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Volume 3 Issue 3, March 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

V.

approach, two different test systems are considered

such as three and six units with Ramp rate limits and

Prohibited operating zones constraints. Results of the

proposed approach are compared with EPand other

methods, which are presented in the literatures. 100

trails runs were performed and observed the variations

during the evolutionary process to reach convergence

characteristics and optimal solutions. The B-loss

coefficient matrix of power system network was

employed to calculate the transmission line losses. The

software was written in MatLab language and executed

on the third generation Intel Core i3 processor based

personal computer with 4 GB RAM. From the

comparison of results, the proposed PSO is found to be

better in solving the non-linear PED problems.

Test System 1:

A three-unit system is considered and the

system load demand is 300MW. The dimension of

population is 100*3 and number of generations are

100. 100 trail runs are conducted, and the best

solutions are shown in Table 1 that satisfies the system

constraints. The results of the proposed PSO method

are compared with EP, GA and2PNN methods. From

the comparison of the results, the fuel cost obtained by

the proposed PSO is better than the other methods.

Table 1. Results of three unit system with POZ and

RRL

Method

GA[17]

2PNN[22]

EP

PSO

P1(MW)

194.265

165.00

199.53

190.50

P2(MW)

50.00

113.40

75.68

85.77

P3(MW)

79.627

34.05

38.19

34.8

Pi(MW)

323.892

312.45

313.40

311.16

PL(MW)

24.011

12.45

13.40

11.16

Fuel

Cost($/hr)

3737.16

3652.60

3641.70

3631.1

PSO method gives minimum fuel cost than the other

methods.

Table 2. Results of six unit system with POZ and RRL

Method

GA[17]

BBO[23]

HHS[24]

EP

PSO

P1(MW)

474.80

447.3997

449.9094

431.31

457.26

P2(MW)

178.63

173.2392

172.7347

170.33

160.72

P3(MW)

262.20

263.3163

262.9643

241.50

247.53

P4(MW)

134.28

138.006

136.03

147.98

131.52

P5(MW)

151.90

165.4104

166.967

182.64

170.50

P6(MW)

Pi(MW

)

PL(MW)

74.18

87.0797

86.8778

101.48

106.62

1276.0

1275.446

1275.487

1275.2

1274.1

13.02

12.446

12.4834

12.69

11.15

Fuel Cost

($/hr)

15459

15443.09

15448.37

15451

15433

VI.

CONCLUSION

successfully to solve PED problems. The proposed

PSO algorithm has been proved to have superior

features in terms of achieving better optimal solution

for reducing the fuel cost of the generating units. The

non-linear characteristics of the generators such as

ramp rate limits and prohibited operating zones are

considered for the selected test systems. The numerical

results shows that the effectiveness of the proposed

algorithm over the other methods.

REFERENCES

Test system 2

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buses and 46 transmission lines [17]. The load

demand is 1263MW. The losses are calculated using

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taken as 100. 100 trial runs were conducted and the

best solutions are shown in Table2. The results

obtained by the proposed PSO method is compared

with EP, GA , BBO , and HHS methods. From the

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24

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