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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 3, March 2016, ISSN 2348 8050


S. Yamuna
UG Scholar
IFET College of Engineering
Department of ECE
Villupuram, India

A. Devi
Assistant professor
IFET College of Engineering
Department of ECE
Villupuram, India

Energy efficiency is the important factor for todays
wireless communication industry. In this paper, has
investigated the energy-efficient resource allocation in
LTE-based MIMO-OFDMA systems with users QoS
guarantees. Our motivation was to improve energy
efficiency in cellular mobile system, Satisfy users rate
requirements of quality of service (QoS). In accordance
with use the fundamental principle of green radio and
tradeoff between power consumption, latency and reliable
for OFDMA based WDC system. In this work, total RF
transmission power is used. A RB's energy performance is
compared to that of the remaining RBs available for
allocation to that user, and scores are assigned. Simulation
results show that our proposed algorithm may not only
improve energy efficiency significantly reduce delay.
Keywords: Wireless Distributed Computing System,
OFDMA, Power Consumption, Latency and DCPR

Most of the wireless communication applications like
military and multimedia contain enormous tasks. These
tasks are not able to accomplish by single transmitter and
single receiver system, in such type of cases, wireless
distributed computing system (WDC) is introduced. In
WDC system like single transmitter- multi transmitters are
used. All these receivers can share information and to
complete an enormous tasks with in less amount of time.
But WDC system faces interference by fading and noise
channel conditions.
Due to this disadvantage of WDC system, orthogonal
frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) scheme deploys
into WDC system to achieve the very less amount of inter
symbol and inter carrier interferences. OFDM comes
under the physical layer. OFDM based WDC system
employs to accomplish the required task in less amount of
signal to noise ratio (SNR) and without interference. But
this scheme does not contain adaptively in its subcarriers
allocation, that means it consider the static channel

conditions and static capabilities of receivers only. To

avoid the above specified problem in OFDM based WDC
system, orthogonal frequency division multiple access
(OFDMA) scheme is introduced. OFDMA is the small
extension of OFDM scheme to include multiple accesses.
That means adaptively present in OFDM. Hence this
technique or scheme called the OFDMA.
Due to these advantages of OFDMA, it is now a part of
wireless standards in next generation like long term
evolution (LTE), worldwide interoperability for
microwave access (WiMAX) [7]. In OFDMA based WDC
system, latency, power efficiency and higher data rate
transmission with huge accuracy are major factors.
Performances on these factors are presented in [2].
Generally resource and subcarriers allocation for
OFDMA based wireless distributed computing (WDC) are
main issues. These two allocations efficiently achieved by
an evolutionary algorithm, called the particle swarm
optimization (PSO), presented in [1]. In WDC system,
power is a major factor and it mostly depends on the
switching frequency and computing density. Performance
of power consumption (communication and computing
power) and distributed computing power ratio (DCPR) are
major issues in WDC system [4].With the help of PSO,
resource allocation for OFDM based wireless
communication system presented in [9].
A survey on recent research challenges in WDC is
presented in [3]. Performance of optimization in latency
and energy consumption in cooperative communication
presented in [10]. However in all the above works, no one
has been performed on tradeoff between latency and power
minimizations in WDC system with effective optimization
With the most advanced techniques, 3GPP Long
Term Evolution (LTE) has been broadly acknowledged as
the most promising standard for next-generation cellular
systems to satisfy high-rate data transmission. There have
been some more recent studies on energy-efficient

International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 3, March 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

subcarrier assignment and power allocation considering

QoS requirements .There are several reasons for the
growing awareness of energy-efficient wireless networks
in the telecommunication community. Increasing energy
prices imply that electricity bills have become a significant
cost factor for mobile operators. Orthogonal frequency
division multiplexing (OFDM) has emerged as a primary
modulation scheme for the next generation broadband
wireless standard it is used to improve the energy in
cellular mobile system.
This paper is organized as follows: In section II, the
problem statement is presented. In section III, the problem
is formulated. In section IV, present the proposed system
model. In section V, I present the simulation results.
Finally, the paper is concluded the section VI.


In this paper, tradeoff between power consumption
and latency is considered as an objective. Tradeoff
between distributed computing power ratio (DCPR)and
latency is considered as a subobjective. These objectives
analyzed in with and without channel variances (noise,
fading and etc.) between source and all different
destinations. These objectives depend on computational
capabilities of receivers and number of operations
happened at all receivers. Tradeoff between DCPR and
latency is considered to be momentous performance.


As mentioned earlier, the objectives of OFDMA
based WDC network is to achieve the required quality of
service (QoS). In order to do so, we need to
mathematically formulate the required objectives. In this
section, I present mathematical equations that relate
various WDC parameters. [2]


To improve the energy efficiency of LTE cellular
systems significantly from a holistic perspective, radio
access networks should be considered as the top priority,
because the access segment can account for over 75% of
the total energy consumption for typical cellular mobile
systems. Regarding radio access networks, most existing
works have focused on energy-efficient power allocation
for diverse wireless channels. However, as radio access
networks are commonly multiuser in nature, wireless
channel assignment is also indispensable but was out of
the scope of. In addition, without consideration to qualityof-service (QoS) guarantees, the schemes in exclusively

pursue the optimal energy efficiency at great potential

sacrifice to users QoS. Hence, these aforementioned
articles may be limited for practical application.
There have been some more recent studies on
energy-efficient subcarrier assignment and power
allocation considering QoS requirements or fairness
among users [16] in OFDMA, which is a core technique
for LTE systems. Nevertheless, the given works gave no
consideration to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO),
which is another key technique surely applied in LTE
access networks alongside OFDMA. In addition, each
subcarrier was treated as a subchannel and was freely
allocated to arbitrary users in, which is prohibited in LTEbased OFDMA systems. This is because the basic radio
resource unit in LTE is a resource block (RB) formed by a
set of subcarriers that have to be uniformly allocated
following the same assignment. The score based scheduler
in its basic form outlined above cannot be used to enhance
energy efficiency while not compromising fairness and
delivered data rate. The metric used for rating the
resources needs to be changed, as well as the whole
approach being adapted to OFDMA rather than TDMA
Resource allocation needs to be done and updated
at a regular period to keep up with the channel conditions-for example every long term evolution (LTE) sub frame. In
general, the shorter the time span for which resources are
allocated, the better the energy efficiency would be. This is
due to less time being allowed for the channel conditions
to change.
To promote energy efficiency, RBs that can be
used in a highly energy efficient manner need to be
allocated first. The use of a metric for rating them that
measures the energy efficiency of the RB can achieve the
desired result. A large number of metrics can be used-total energy used, energy per bit delivered etc. In this
work, total RF transmission power is used. A RB's energy
performance is compared to that of the remaining RBs
available for allocation to that user, and scores are
assigned. Moreover, when a conflict between users arises-the user who can use the RB most efficiently among the
contending users is allowed to transmit using it. The rest of
the users are allocated their next best RB.
Also, fairness among users has to be assured while
satisfying each user's data rate requirement as best as
possible. To ensure that, users are allocated one RB at a
time until their service requirements are met. By doing so,
the effect that high demands users have on low demand
ones is minimized. The total number of users in the system
becomes more important rather than the existence of high
demand users assuming all users are given the same
priority. Please note the distinction between high priority

International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 3, March 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

and high demand users. High priority users will always

have a detrimental effect on fairness in the system.
INITIALIZE required Resouces(1 ... j) calculate
number of required RBs for all users
while sum(required Resources) > 0 do
or all users and RBs
for i = 1 to number of BSs do
FIND best RB for each user connected to this BS
based on
if User's best RB is not allocated AND is
usable AND is not another user's best RB
end if
if There were conflicting RBs between users then
RESOLVE conflicts by allocating RB to most
efficient or priority user
ALLOCATE next best RBs, based on
, to the
remaining users
end if
end for
if There are no available RBs for allocation then
EXIT while loop
end if
end while
Resource ]allocation algorithm for real-time and
non-real-time traffic.Although this algorithm deals with
various traffic classes, there is no guarantee for the
optimality since it has been designed by a heuristic
approach. In this paper, we propose a resource allocation
algorithm based on the dual optimization technique, which
maximizes the OFDMA system throughput while
satisfying the QoS requirements of both real-time (RT) and
best-effort (BE) traffic over time-varying channel.


Fig (a) Power comparison between proposed algorithm

and exhaustive search
In this graph is shown the proposed method is to provide
more power compared with other existing schemes, after
allocating the resource to user and also to reduce a delay
for allocating power.

Fig (b) Energy efficiency comparison between proposed

and exhaustive scheme.

Now, we compare our proposed algorithm with

several existing resource allocation schemes in a more
practical LTE-based MIMO-OFDMA system.


International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 3, March 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

and improve the performance in high signal to noise ratio

compared with other existing schemes.


Fig(c) User rate vs. power based on proposed system

The above graph shows that, when user rate increases
power consumption decreases.

Fig (d) Outage probability vs. SNR comparison between

proposed and exhaustive scheme.
we see that our proposed algorithm to provide
less outage probability as exhaustive search, which
certificates that our proposed algorithm can find a feasible
solution to satisfy all the rate requirements of users.

In this paper, a new scheduling scheme for OFDMA
based WDC system is proposed. Scheduling scheme given
the good tradeoff between power consumption and latency
and good tradeoff between DCPR and latency. The
performance of the proposed scheme is studied using
computer simulations. The simulation results shown that
compared to switching frequency (number of operations),
computing density (load in systems) given more effect on
specified tradeoffs. This scheme is used to reduce a delay

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