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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF RECTANGULAR PLATE BY

SPLIT-DEFLECTION METHOD
1

Ibearugbulem, Owus M., 2Ibearugbulem, C. N, 3Momoh, Habiband 3Asomugha, A.U

1,2,
Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
3,
Civil Engineering Department, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

Abstract
This paper presents buckling analysis of rectangular
plate by split-deflection method. Here the deflection
was taken as the product of these two components in x
and y directions. The study formulated the total
potential energy functional from principles of theory of
elasticity based on work-error approach using this
assumption. By direct variation, the energy functional
was minimized by and equation for critical buckling
load was obtained. Two examples, one withall edges
simply supported and the other with all edges clamped
were used to test this method. The one used polynomial
function for x component of deflection and
trigonometric function for y component of. For the
second example polynomial function for both x and y
components of deflection.Critical buckling load (in non
dimensional forms) of the two examples for aspect
ratios ranging from 1.0 to 2.0 (at increment of 0.1) were
determined and compared with the values from
previous study. From the comparison, it was observed
that the maximum percentage difference of 0.69 was
recorded. Thesmall valeus of percentage difference
from this studyshow that this present method is
sufficient and reliable for classical plate theory (CPT)
buckling analysis of rectangular plates.
Index
Terms
Critical
buckling
split-deflection, work-error, energy functional,
polynomial function, trigonometric function

I. INTRODUCTION
Classical plate theory (CPT) buckling analysis is
dominated energy methods such as Raleigh,
Raleigh-Rit, Ritz, Galerkin, minimum potential energy,
work-erroretc
(Ugural,
1999,
Ventsel
and
Krauthammer, 2001 and Ibearugbulem et al.,
2014).Most of these energy methods are characterized
by single deflection (un-separated) function. The
deflection is a single orthogonal function, w.This is
evident in the energy functionals. For instance, let us
look at the energy functional of work error method
(Ibearugbulem et al., 2014):

Most academic works on CPT analysis of rectangular

plates as seen from the literature rely on this single
orthogonal function (Hutchinson, 1992, Jianqiao, 1994,
Ugural, 1999, Ventsel and Krauthammer, 2001, Wang
et al., 2002, Taylor and Govindjee, 2004, Szilard,2004,
Jiu et al., 2007, Erdem et al., 2007,Ezeh et al., 2013,
Ibearugbulem, 2014). Evidently, it can be affirmed that
all energy functional currently in use in CPT buckling
analysis are based on single orthogonal deflection
function. This means that none of the existing energy
functionals for buckling analysis in CPT has used a
deflections function that is classically separated into
two independent distinct functions (w = wx * wy).
Wherewxand
wymay
both
bepolynomial
or
trigonometric
functions
or
wx
may
be
polynomialswhilewy may be trigonometry.The
rationale for this adaptation is to help the analyst who
might have difficulty in obtaining single orthogonal
function for a plate of a particular boundary condition.
deflection equations for beams of any boundary
condition can find this proposed method very handy.

II. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS

The hypothesis here is that the general deflection, w is
split into wx and wy. That is the split-deflection function
is given as:
Where the wx and wy components of the deflection are
defined as:

gives:

III. IN-PLANE DISPLACEMENTS

From the hypothesis that vertical shear strains are
zero for classical plate and making use of
split-deflection, we get:

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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 5, May 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

When equations (10) to (15) are substituted into

equation (16) we obtain strain energy deflection
equation in work error form as:

IV. STRAIN DEFLECTION

RELATIONSHIP
Upon differentiating equations (5) and (6), the three
in-plane strains of CPTare obtained:

Adding equation (17) from Equation (18) gives the

total potential energy functional as:

V. STRESS STRAIN RELATIONSHIP

The CPT constitutive equations for plane stress plate
are:

When equations (1) and (2) are substituted into

equation (19) we obtain:

VI. STRESS DEFLECTION

RELATIONSHIP
Now, when equations (7), (8) and (9) are substituted
into equations (10), (11) and (12) where appropriate the
split-deflection stress-deflection equations are obtained
as:

Using non dimensional form of axes R and Q,

equation (20) shall be written as:

VII. TOTAL POTENTIAL ENERGY

Here a, b and P are the plate lengths in x and y axes
and long span- short span aspect ratio respectively.
When equations (21), (22) and (23) are substituted
into equation (20) we obtain:

For buckling analysis, the external work in x

direction is given as:

That is

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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 5, May 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

VIII. DIRECT VARIATION OF TOTAL

POTENTIAL ENERGY
For direct variation, equation (24) shall be
differentiated with respect to the deflection coefficient,
A and the outcome is:

h1 and h2 are:

That is

gives

Equation (25) is the direct governing equation of

rectangular plate under buckling using work-error.
Rearranging equation (25) and making resonating
frequency, Nx the subject of the equation gives:

Where

IX. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

Analyze a classical rectangular thin isotropic plate with:
i all the four edge simply supported using polynomial
and trigonometry functions respectively for wx and wy.
iiall the four edge clamped using only polynomial
function for both wx and wy

gives

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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 5, May 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

REFERENCES

X. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

The non dimensional form of the critical buckling load
for different aspect ratios for ssss and cccc plates are
shown on tables 1 and 2. A close critical examination of
the tables reveals that the maximum percentage
difference between the values from the present study
and those from past study is 0.69. This value of the
difference may be due round off error and not as a result
of blunder. The implication of this, statistically, is that
no difference existed between the two sets of values.
Thus, one can infer that the procedure, the profile
functions and the energy functional formulated in this
present study are reliable and sufficient in CPT
buckling analysis of rectangular plates. Hence, this
method is recommended for stability analysis of CPT
plates.Further studies for use of the present method in
refined plate theory analysis (RPT) is recommended.
Table 1: Non dimensional form of critical buckling load
of ssss isotropic thin plate
Aspect
ratio, P

Present

Past
(Ibearugbulem et
al., 2014)

Percentage
difference

39.49

39.51

0.04

1.1

39.85

39.87

0.04

1.2

40.82

40.84

0.03

1.3

42.28

42.29

0.03

1.4

44.14

44.16

0.03

1.5

46.36

46.37

0.02

1.6

48.89

48.90

0.02

1.7

51.71

51.72

0.02

1.8

54.80

54.81

0.02

1.9

58.15

58.16

0.02

61.74

61.75

0.01

Table 2: Non dimensional form of critical buckling load

of cccc isotropic thin plate
Aspect
ratio, P

Present

Past
(Ibearugbulem et
al., 2014)

Percentage
difference

108.00

108.67

0.61

1.1

109.53

110.21

0.62

1.2

113.65

114.36

0.62

1.3

119.83

120.59

0.63

1.4

127.75

128.57

0.64

1.5

137.17

138.06

0.65

1.6

147.93

148.91

0.66

1.7

159.91

160.99

0.67

1.8

173.04

174.23

0.68

1.9

187.25

188.55

0.69

202.50

203.92

0.69

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