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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

Drying Characteristics of Fruits using Solar Drying


Nabhan Al khuresi1, Santosh Walke2
1, 2

Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman

ABSTRACT
In this study, a solar dryer system designed to use
convection sources of energy for drying agricultural
product it is expensive process in developing countries.
This research is a try to develop a solar dryer for figs.
The aim is to produce a drying fig with good quality and
decrease the drying time.
Five different indirect design concepts were presented.
All concepts that generated are indirect forced and
natural convection of solar energy. All generation
consists of the same dimensions and material made. One
design concept was chosen after screening process which
consists of a solar collector, a drying chamber, and
chimney.
Finally, the result was discussing five experiments that
did to obtain the higher performance of solar dryer. The
result recorded the average chamber temperature is 59C
compared with average ambient temperature is 32 C.
The theoretically result presented the dryer efficiency is
17.6%.
Key words: Solar dryer, Convection, Figs, Moisture
content, Solar collector, Drying chamber, Chimney.

I.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Solar Energy


The energy is important for improve the technologies,
sciences, sports, games etc. So, non-works without
energy. We cannot imagine the world without energy.
So, what means by energy? And from where can get it?
The energy is property of objects that help the objects to
do the works. We have two main sources of energy: 1non-renewable energy like, fossil fuels and nuclear fuel.
And 2-renewable energy like, solar, wind and Biomass.
Unfortunately, the common used is the non-renewable
energy in whole world. The problems for non-renewable
energy in theses energies are limited, and maybe will
end in any times; also this energy is one of the reasons
for global warming. The scientists started using the
renewable energy because this energy are environmental
friendly and not limited. It renews, clean, releases
almost no greenhouse gases, and no waste produces.

The solar energy is one of renewable energy and easy to


use. Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the sun
using a range of the ever-evolving technologies such as
solar thermal electricity, solar heating, solar
photovoltaic, artificial photosynthesis and solar
architecture.
1.2 Solar dryer
Figs are the Summer Fruit in Middle East for thousands
of years. There is nothing like the unique taste and
texture of fresh figs. They are lusciously sweet with a
texture, the smoothness of their skin, and the crunchiness
of their seeds. Figs grow on the Ficus tree, which is a
member of the Mulberry family. They are unique in that
they have an opening, called the "ostiole" or "eye,"
which is not connected to the tree, but which helps the
fruit's development by increasing its communication
with the environment.
Drying figs need time and good thermal conditions.
Delay in drying, incomplete drying or ineffective drying
reduce figs quality as a results of losses in qualitative
and quantitative of this draying figs. There are many
disadvantages of open-air sun drying such as pollution,
stealing or damage by rats, birds or insects; intermittent,
slow drying and no protection from rain or dew which is
make product wets. In now days draying food will be
easier and faster than traditional ways. One of the most
common techniques to improve and prevent food quality
is draying by using dryer. Which is aim to reduces water
activity by decrease water content. Drying processes
include both heat and mass transfers. Its process of
consuming energy and time.
1.3 Oman and Solar Dryer
Oman is one of the most country in the gulf is produce
figs. Annual production of figs in Oman is
approximately around 200 tones. Most of the figs are
still dried by traditional method of open air natural sun
drying. The traditional method takes 5-8 days to drying.
In few years before the world is turn to solar drying
method to dried materials. Solar drying become very
important because it is cheap, easy, fast and most
common method using to storing the perishable
agricultural products. It takes around 3 days to drying.
48

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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

1.4 Objectives.
Study of drying characteristics of figs using solar drying.
Specific objectives:
1. To design a new solar drying system for figs to
convert it to dried figs.
2. To investigate and improve the quality of dryer
figs.
3. Reduce the wastage of products caused by
traditional drying.
4. Reduce the drying process time.
5. Using the 3D AutoCAD and HYSYS to design
the solar dryer.

II.

BRIEF
DESCRIPTION
METHODOLOGY

AND

This chapter will consist of many parts which are an


experiment that has been done to find the moisture
content of figs and drying rate. Then concept generation
will be included. Also design constrain with design
parameter will discusses in this chapter. In addition,
process of choosing the final design and the final design
shape by using 3D AutoCAD and HYSYS programs will
be presented.

III.

EXPERIMENTAL
METHODOLOGY

SETUP

cover plates to absorbed incident solar radiation


transmitted by the cover plate, thereby heating the air
trapped between them.
3.1.3 Cover Plate
One plate of ordinary window glass of thickness 4 mm
was used as a cover plate placed over the absorber plate.
3.1.4 Drying Chamber
The drying chamber is a wooden box of dimensions
600mm * 600 mm * 300 mm. The material wood has
been chosen since wood is poor conductor of heat, has
smooth surface finish, and heat loss by radiation is
minimized. The chamber including two shelves to carry
the product that need to dried.
3.1.5 Chimney
The chimney is a wooden box of dimensions 600 mm *
300 mm * 1000mm. the chimney is connected to the top
of the chamber which used to through air flow to the out
of chamber. In some concepts chimney consist fans
other concepts have not.
3.2 Concepts Generation
This part discusses the concepts generation one by one
with simple sketch and explanation.

AND

3.1 Design Specification


I am trying to generate five different concepts. There are
three main types of solar dryer which are direct mode,
indirect, and mixed mode. The concepts will be only
indirect mode. Also we have one type of heat transfer
which is natural convection. This technique will be
including in our concepts. The basics parts of our
generations are the collector, chamber, cages, and
chimney. All designs will have same dimensions and
same type of material made. The different between them
is only the way of working.

3.2.1 Concept one.


First concept is solar dryer with naturally convection.
The main components of the concept are chamber
connected with collector.
After screening process, we choose concept four as a
final design. This design consists of three main parts
which are collector, chamber, and chimney.

3.1.1 Solar Collector


Solar collector is basically a top-open, wooden box of
dimensions 1300mm*600mm* 120mm made from 15
mm thick plywood. The solar collector set with an angle
to receive maximum solar energy. The design
parameters of solar collector are given in table (3.2).
Solar collector includes of absorber plate, cover plate
and insulator.
3.1.2 Absorber Plate
The absorber plate used in solar collector is steel iron
sheet. The absorber plate was placed 30 mm below the

Fig. 1: Design concept one.


The Figure below shows the 3D final design by
AutoCAD programing.
49

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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

IV.

EXPERIMENTATION APPARATUS.

4.1Apparatus.
The figure: 4 showed my solar dryer design. It is depend
on of heat transfer which is natural convection. And it is
contents of five things. Firstly; Solar collector is
basically a top-open, wooden box of dimensions
1300mm*600mm* 120mm made from 15 mm thick
plywood. The solar collector set with an angle to receive
maximum solar energy.

Fig 2: Final design 3D.


3.3 The result of theoretical calculations.
After doing some calculation to find the time required
and efficiency of solar dryer design; I found the next
result;To dry 1.686 kg of figs minimum 0.6 m/sec air
velocity is requiring where the ambient temperature is
32oC and average solar radiation is 208.3 W/ m2
(Kadem), figs having 85% initial and 46 % final
moisture content. The collector area is 0.78 m2 (1.3 m x
0.6m). From 1.686 kg of figs 1.2176 kg of water to be
evaporated, the latent heat of vaporization of water is 2
382 000 J/kg from which the total energy required to
evaporate water is 2901699.6 joule. The energy gain by
air from radiations is 79.6 J/second when the collector
efficiency and efficiency of drying Calculated to be 46%
and 17.6% from this the time required to dry 1.686 kg
figs is 28.18 hour is calculated.
3.4Final Design by HYSYS program.

Fig. 4: Solar dryer.


Secondly; absorber plate is used in solar collector is steel
iron sheet painted with matt-black paint. The absorber
plate was placed 30 mm below the cover plates to
absorbed incident solar radiation transmitted by the
cover plate. Thirdly; cover plate is one plate of ordinary
window glass of thickness 4 mm. fourthly; drying
chamber is a wooden box of dimensions 600mm * 600
mm * 300 mm. The material wood has been chosen
since wood is poor conductor of heat, has smooth
surface finish, and heat loss by radiation is minimized.
Then; chimney is a wooden box of dimensions 600 mm
* 300 mm * 1000mm. the chimney is connected to the
top of the chamber which used to through air flow to the
out of chamber.

V.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

MOISTURE CONTENT
%

5.1 Moisture Content of figs.

Fig. 3: Final Design by HYSYS program.

200

DRYING FIGS

100
0
0

TIME (HR)

moisture content

12

24

rate of dring

Fig. 5: Decreasing of moisture ratio of figs with drying


time.
50
www.ijete.org

International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

We consider that the initial weight 1686 g of the figs has


100% of moisture content. Figure 5shows that at the first
three hours the moisture content decreases by 15%. After
next 3 hours 30% of moisture content was lost. The
moisture content continues to decrees tell it reach steady
state at 46% after 25 hours of drying. One can conclude
that the moisture content of figs is 46% at 2.08 g/hr of
drying rate. This will be our target to achieve in full
scale indirect solar dryer.

MOISTURE CONTENT %

5.2

DRYING OF APPLE

Moisture Content of banana.

We consider that the initial weight 359 g of the banana


has 100% of moisture content. Figure 6 shows that at the
first three hours the moisture content decreases by 16%.
After next 3 hours 29.4% of moisture content was lost.
The moisture content continues to decrees tell it reach
steady state at 15% after 12 hours of drying. One can
conclude that the moisture content of banana is 15% at
2.75 g/hr of drying rate.

150
100
50
0
0

moisture content %]

MOISTURE CONTENT%

MOISTURE CONTENT %

12

TIME (HR)
moisture content(%)

rate of drying (g/hr)

DRYING OF CHILI

50
9

12

5.4 Moisture Content of chili.


For unloaded test dryer, a continually noun hours for the
period of day time measurement was conducted with
variation of temperature in the chamber dryer and during
different period of time by using thermocouple. The

100

Fig. 7: Decreasing of moisture ratio of apple with drying


time.

150

TIME (HR)

DRYING OF BANANA

rate of drying (g/hr)

200
100
0
0

12

TIME (HR)
moisture content%
rate of drying (g/hr)

Fig. 6: Decreasing of moisture ratio of banana with


drying time.

Fig .8: Decreasing of moisture ratio of chili with drying


time.
5.5 Dryer Thermal Performance.

5.3 Moisture Content of apple.

temperature inside
chamber (oc)
CHAMBER
TEMPERATURE OC

We consider that the initial weight 546 g of the apple has


100% of moisture content. Figure 7 shows that at the
first three hours the moisture content decreases by 15%.
After next 3 hours 38% of moisture content was lost.
The moisture content continues to decrees tell it reach
steady state at 10.5% after 12 hours of drying. One can
conclude that the moisture content of apple is 10.5% at
3.75 g/hr of drying rate.

100
0
0 3 6 9 12

TIME (HR)
temperature inside chamber (oc)

Fig. 9: Shows temperatures inside chamber dryer


ratio with drying time.
51
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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

[5] Kazem, Sizing of a standalone photovoltaic/battery


system at minimum cost for remote housing
electrification in Oman. Energy and Buildings (60), 1-8.
2013

INTINSITY W/M2

SOLAR INTINSITY W/M2


2000
1000
0
0

12

TIME (HR)
solar intinsity (w/m2)

Fig. 10: shows solar intensity ratio with drying time.


Temperature profile inside the dryer depends on various
parameters such as solar radiation, ambient temperature,
relative humidity and wind speed. The average velocity
rate of the drying air measured by anemometer was
recorded as 0.626 m/s. and the solar intensity was
measured by using pyranometer, the maximum intensity
1128 w/m2 at 12 to3 PM like showed in the finger: 5.7.
Figure 9 showed the temperature variation in the
chamber dryer. The maximum air temperature was
recorded in this position are as flowing 46oC, 53.5oC,
59.5Oc, 49oC and 35oC respectively. 40oC maximum
ambient temperature has been recorded. So thats
difference between the solar dryer temperature and the
ambient temperature will accelerate the drying process.

VI.

CONCLUSION

The research was aim to design and fabricate solar dryer.


The result summarized that solar dryer showed a good
performance in drying time and high quality of the
product compared with open sundry.

REFERENCES
[1] Harry Husted, Solar Energy and Its Use Today.
2007.
[2] Devid, Solar energy. planete-energies. 2011.
[3] O. Ozuomba, N. A. Fabrication and characterization
of a direct absorption solar dryer. USA: Pelagic
Research Library, 1997.
[4] Medugu, D. W. Performance study of two designs of
solar dryers. Nigeria: Archives of Applied Science
Research.2002.
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