You are on page 1of 5

International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

Development of Thin Film Surface Coating for Reduction of Water


Evaporation in Oman
Abrar Ali Omar Al Zadjali1, Santosh Walke2
1, 2

Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman

ABSTRACT
While the countries developed its economic, the sources
of water are running down which may generate a
shortage of water for the coming generations, so the
government decide that, this water's problem will effect
for a long time period and will be a trouble for the
country's development, if no solution take place for fix
this problem. Based on lack of water sources, Oman's
government determine a critical plan for saving the
water sources, also government search about the
evaporation factors and try to control those factor. The
control strategy contains a radical solution to minimize
the effectiveness of water shortage problem.
Water is the basis of the life, by the continuous of the
water the life will continue. Previously the water pools
has no benefit from it and people leave it as it is without
any exploitation. But development of thin film surface
coating for reduction of water evaporation research work
start trade on those water pools for expand them uses
and protect this water from losses specially by
evaporation, that a physical process which usually
occurs on water bodies ,both natural and man-made.
Thin film surface coating is determine as the best way to
store the water pools by applying Polystyrene polymer
and Tetra hydro furan solvent as a film on the surface of
the water, thin layer will be formed and cover the water
from evaporation.
This research work is divide into two sections as a
theoretical and experimental part, where the theoretical
part include search about the evaporation factors on
water surface and the methods for reducing the rate of
evaporation, while the experimental part express on
finding the suitable methodology that can be follow in
the research work. When the testing part is carried out,
the evaporation rate is compared between the two trays
which with the thin film and the tray under natural
conditions to get the final result and discuss whether the
research work is suitable for water shortage problem and
how it will be helpful in the future.
The found out of this research work, thin film is the best
solution to protect the water for a time and get benefit
from the water pools while need for it without any losses
and this research work determine as a modern way that
depend on availability sources.

Keywords- Thin Film, Evaporation, Temperature,


Sunlight, Water Sources.

I. INTRODUCTION
In the gulf, many countries contributed in water shortage
problems, where because of the highest temperature the
county reached specially in arid region, they try to
reduce the rate of evaporation by using a palm frond as
the cover for the water surface.
Saving the amount of the water from losses can be effect
positively in:

The rate of temporary trade.


Purchasing cost of the water in distribution,
infrastructures and pumping.
Chance cost of extra products created (Products
manufacturing, price and quality).
Benefits from environmental (economical price).

Development of thin film surface coating for reduction


of water evaporation is the research work that describe a
new solution to protect reduction of evaporation rate
from water surface and get benefit from this water in
order to prevent it from evaporation.
Oman knows with it hot climate which can increase the
evaporation of water and loss it without benefit, for that
this idea may avoid the evaporation to occur and
minimize the losses.
There are many process to reduce the evaporation such
as floating covers, modular covers, shade structure and
biological cover but this research work will be dealing
with thin film surface coating.
Thin film surface coating has many benefits such as
suitable cost, ability to stay for long time, easy for
holding the film and useful for every ambience.
After collecting the data and the equipment needed in the
research work, which may be helpful for applying the
experimental part for calculating the basic terms such as
rate of evaporation, wind velocity, surface temperature
and atmospheric temperature, the research work can be
start processed.

53
www.ijete.org

International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

Thin film surface coating is combination of Polystyrene


polymer and Tetra hydro furan solvent in different
compositions percentage:

0.08 L of Tetra hydro furan 20 grams of


Polystyrene
(20%)
0.091 L of Tetra hydro furan 39 grams of
Polystyrene
(30%)
0.189 L of Tetra hydro furan 21 grams of
Polystyrene
(10%)

After the reaction of Polystyrene and Tetra hydro furan,


this liquid spread on the surface of water as a layer
which may protect the water from evaporation and keep
the water for long time to use it when need for it. Also
by designing a steel tray with a specific dimensions and
fill the sand inside it, to test the water on it.
The materials which choose in the film has different
characteristic as a high connection properties, ability to
spread, extremely evaporative solvent, ability to be
stable due to wind force and floating features while light
density.
The final stage of this research work is to compare the
value of evaporation rate of water with thin film surface
coating and the water under the natural environment to
decide whether the research work suitable in solving
water shortage problems or not.
Avoiding the increases of evaporation rate is one of the
fundamentals for any research work that people focused
on with different methods.
But this research work is to develop a thin film surface
coating for reducing of water evaporation rate guide to
design a system with polymer and solvent to reduce the
rate of evaporation in the surface of water and test the
system experimentally, also modeling a steel tray with
fixed dimension to fill it with water, that has to be tested
and identify the rate of evaporation, wind velocity,
surface temperature and atmospheric temperature under
thin film surface coating and compare it with water
under natural condition. Also to get a background of
factors that effect in the rate of evaporation and the
methods been used to protect this water from losses.
While cover this objectives will be suitable to determine
how successful the research work is.
This objectives can be summarized as:

Get background of the factors that effect in rate


of evaporation.
Design a development thin film with polymer
and solvent.
Find the best amount of Polystyrene polymer
and Tetra hydro furan solvent.
Design a steel tray to collect the water in it.

Methods use to prevent the water from losses.


Compare between the two trays which covered
with film and the other one under natural
conditions.

II. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION


In Oman there are a limit water sources that will be on
trouble for the coming generations, as the government
official mention that the water shortage problem start
expanding.
Oman's government determine the limitation of water
sources as a biggest challenge that the country faced ever
and they have expatriate the water about to happen, even
after the problem that Oman's faced in 2010 when the
electricity stopped from the water station, which effect
people and industries in limiting them uses of water till
the problem had been solved.
For that, this topic has been selected to be an idea for the
research work where as an engineer has to find a
solution for this problem.

III. PROPOSED SOLUTION


Water is a clear liquid which can be present in different
forms as ponds, sea and rainfall, most important natural
resources and it is foundation of inexpensive energy.
For that different researches and experiments achieved to
protect this source from losses, mainly this research
work contribute in solving shortage water problem by
designing two steel trays filled with a water and keep
them in open atmosphere, applying thin film with
different compositions on the surface of the water that
protect it from evaporation as the film act as a layer on
the surface of the water and due to the heat
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) will evaporate and the
polystyrene will stay on the top.

3.1 Assumptions and Limitations


a. Assumptions:
Before starting any research work, some assumption has
to be consider. For that this research work will be
focusing on some parameters as temperature and
pressure.
Temperature:
Is a main factor effect in the evaporation that varying
due to the season either cold or hot and used the
thermometer for measuring this factor.
This experiment will start preparing it from March and
will continue till May during different time and the
54

www.ijete.org

International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

temperature during this period has almost nearby degree


in Oman.
The weather in Oman has been described as hot and dry
in the summer from March to November especially on
July and the temperature reach the highest degree.
However from December till February the temperature
comes down and the rain fall take place during this
season and the average temperatures in Oman for the
whole year assumed about 28.83 C.

Amount of water about 30 L


Trays dimension: 0.5 x 0.3 x 0.2 m3
Composition: 0.08 L of Tetra hydro furan, 20 grams of
Polystyrene (20%)
Duration: 72 hours (3 Days)

Pressure:
Is the second parameter that effect in the rate of
evaporation and its defined as a force applied in the
objective per unit area?
The pressure is varied due to the highness and the lower
places for that, in this experiment the pressure almost
same because it will be apply in the level place.
Fig. 1: Development of film on the surface of the water
to protect it from evaporation.

All value in this experiment assumed as constant.


b. Limitations:
Sudden increase or decrease in temperature and pressure
can affect the rate of evaporation of the water surface.
Advantages of the materials used in the film:

Powerful binding features.


Spreading properties.
Extremely evaporative solvent.
Balance towards combating breeze force.
Excellent floating features when the density is
light.

4.2 Second Experiment:


Repeat the same procedure for the previous experiment
but with the next composition:
Amount of water about 30 L
Trays dimension: 0.5 x 0.3 x 0.2 m3
Composition: 0.091 L of Tetra hydro furan, 39 grams of
Polystyrene (30%)
Duration: 32 hours (3 Days)

Disadvantages of the film:

The film is baleful for marine life at greater


proportions.
It is not quickly biodegradable
IV. EXPERIMENTS ANALYSIS
Any research work to be understand must study all the
angles in it, then analysis accurately to find out the
result which need to complete the research work.
This research work based on numerical values which
present in different amount, variety temperature and
different time. So this chapter will go deeply in each
experiment.
4.1 First Experiment:
After preparing the two trays at the roof in open
atmosphere and make the film ready with the specific
composition and pour it in the top of the water surface.
The reading shows as:

Fig. 2: Rate of Evaporation vs. Polystyrene %


4.3 Third Experiment:
In the final experiment, also repeat same procedure with
last composition:
Amount of water about 30 L
Trays dimension: 0.5 x 0.3 x 0.2 m3
Composition: 0.189 L of Tetra hydro furan, 21 grams of
Polystyrene (10%)
Duration: 72 hours (3 Days)

55
www.ijete.org

International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

Even Implementing techniques to minimize water loss


from evaporation significantly needed particularly in the
summer season, for that this research work become one
of the successful research work and get support from
different institutions and organizations.
This research work describe a simple procedure and
acceptable price with huge benefit that will protect the
main sources in all our life by spread the film on the
surface of tetra hydro furan and poly styrene. This will
be as a solution. Tetra hydro furan is a volatile chemicals
that due to heat will evaporated and polystyrene will be
remain on the surface and act as a layer.

Fig. 3: Rate of Evaporation vs. Time

V. CONCLUSION
Where 30% of polystyrene is useful amount used to
cover the surface of water to reduce the evaporation by
using 0.91 L of tetra hydro furan and its cost around
7.644 R.O, also 39 grams of polystyrene which cost 1.36
R.O.
Development of thin film surface coating for reduction
of water evaporation research work is identify as a
proper solution to save water sources from waste, exploit
it for many useful employment even its became one of
the most successful research works in this centuries
because nowadays all effective research works based on
the availability of the natural resource rather than
manufactured materials.
The thin film research work become to solve the water
shortage from it fundamental in way of coating the
surface with a thin layer of polymer and solvent to
protect it from losses, also some observations has to be
calculated before applying this methods on water pools,
where preserving this pools will effect positively on cost
and protecting the environment.
This research work is preferable resolution for water
trouble that may effect on the future of the humans life
style and help the industries to utilize them resources
than disposal it. Also the research work participate in
saving the planet and resume the life on the earth.
The future scope of this research work will express to
include all society strata's and to be on people hands
because of its cost and benefits. This system expand to
be in every house and industries to protect the near water
resources from losses and used it while need for it.

Based on problem of water evaporation, this research


work try to reduce this problem by three different
composition of film which start with (0.08 L of Tetra
hydro furan 20 grams of Polystyrene) in 20%. The
result in this first experiment not be that much
persuasive because due to the reading shows that still
there are loses in the water and the value near to the tray
without film, this loses can be occur due to different
reasons. It can be because the film not enough to cover
the surface fully, so the layer will move when it windy
and the sun shine effect on the surface and the
composition not suitable to react together.
The second composition of (0.091 L of Tetra hydro
furan 39 grams of Polystyrene) in 30%. This
composition shows the best reading which has a smallest
value of evaporation every time even due to increases in
the temperature. Its cover the surface perfectly and the
chemicals react together to prevent the water from
evaporation. This film will be success if will be
applicator it on the lakes and any water sources to use it
while need for it. Also this research work will be helpful
for the countries which are far from the beach which cost
them a lot to get the water by protect the water which
come after raining and other sources for a time.
The last composition of (0.189 L of Tetra hydro furan 21 grams of Polystyrene) in 10% also shows better result
than first experiment, but still there are small loses in the
water. It may occur because the ratio of the chemicals
not that much suitable to be as a layer that protect the
surface but still it can help in reduce the evaporation as
but with less amount than the second experiment.

REFERENCES
[1] Biswas, A.,1997. Water resources. First edition.
Oxford: International society for ecological modeling.
[2] Gaikar, A., 2015. International Journal of
Informative & Futuristic Research. Stored Potable
56

www.ijete.org

International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2016, ISSN 2348 8050

Water-Evaporation Reduction by Thin Film Surface


Coating, 2(8), pp. 2929-2935.
[3] Grigg, N.,1996. Water resources management. First
edition. New York: Department of civil engineering
colorado state university.
[4] Jensen.E,2010.Estimating Evaporation from Water
Surfaces. Water pans and lakes march, 1(21),pp.1-27.
[5] Jiang, H., 2015. Coastal Research. Experimental
studies on reduction of evaporation from plain
reservoirs in drought areas, 1(73), pp.177-182.
[6] Prime.E, Leung.A, 2012. Waterlines Report. First
edition. Canberra:National Water Commission.
[7] Shah,M., 2012. Water Evaporation. Method for
calculation of evaporation from swimming pools and
other water surfaces , 23 September. pp.2-15.
[8] Prime, E., 2012. New technology to reduce
evaporation from large water storages. Ultra-Thin Film
Technology To Minimize Evaporation From Water
Surfaces, 8 June. pp.1-58.
[9] Jensen, M., 2010. Evaporation. Approximating
Evaporation from Water Bodies, 6 Augustus. pp.4-27.

57
www.ijete.org