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1/23/2011

Lecture 5

LECTURE 5 TOPICS
 I. Beam Deflections






Introduction
Method of Superposition
Virtual Work Principle for Rigid Bodies
Virtual Work Method for Deflections
Castiglianos Theorem for Deflections

1/23/2011

Lecture 5

Beam Deflections
 Recall in ES 13

1. Double Integration Method


2. Area Moment Method
 In CE 14

1. Method of Superposition
2. Method of Virtual Work
3. Castiglianos Theorem for Beam Deflections
4. Conjugate Beam Method

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Lecture 5-1

Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Consider the beam shown below,
FBD:
w

3L/2

M=
5wL2/18

L/3

y
x

V = wL/3

 The deflection at any point along the beam using DIM,

Due to M

Due to V

Due to w

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Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Note that the deflection is the algebraic sum of the

contributions from each applied load.


Therefore, the
deflection of a beam is the sum of the deflections produced
by the individual loads. This makes the superposition
method very useful when solving deflections.

Due to M

Due to V

Due to w

Beam Deflections by Superposition

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Beam Deflections by Superposition

Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Example 1
4wL/25

Determine the deflection at the


free end given the following:
w = 800 lb/ft,
L = 6 ft,
E = 30 x 106 psi and
I = 100 in4.

A
3L/2

C
L

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Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Example 1
Beam 1

Solution:

Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam


Given Beam
4wL/25

C
A1

A
C
A
A

Beam 2

B
3L/2

4wL/25
L

A2
Required: A = A1 + A 2

Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Example 1
Beam 1

Solution:

Step 2: Apply Superposition


For Beam 1:

1. Get B and B

A1

Formulas: Case 2

A
4

B =

wL
8 EI

wL3
B =
6 EI

3L/2

A-B: Straight Segment


(zero internal moment)

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Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Example 1
Beam 1

Solution:

Step 2: Apply Superposition


For Beam 1:

1. Get B and B
Formulas: Case 2
wL3
wL4
B =
B =
6 EI
8EI

A1 d

A
3L/2

2. Compute for d

tan B B =

A-B: Straight Segment


(zero internal moment)

d
(small angles)
3L 2

wL4
wL3 3L
d = ( B )(3L 2) =
=
4 EI
6 EI 2

Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Example 1
Beam 1

Solution:

Step 2: Apply Superposition


For Beam 1:

3. Solve for A1

A1 = B + d
wL4 wL4
=
+

8 EI 4 EI
=

3 wL4
8 EI

A1 d

A
3L/2

A-B: Straight Segment


(zero internal moment)

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Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Example 1

Beam 2

Solution:
4wL/25

Step 2: Apply Superposition


For Beam 2:

A2

Formula: Case 1

max =

PL3
3EI

A
3L/2

But

4wL
25
3L
=
+ L = 2 .5 L
2

Pactual =
Lactual

A2 =

(4 wL 25)(2.5L )3
3EI
4

5 wL
6 EI

Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Example 1

Given Beam

Solution:

4wL/25

Step 2: Apply Superposition

Total Deflection:

A = A1 + A 2

3 wL4 5 wL4
=
+

8 EI 6 EI
4
3 5 (800 (1 12 ))(6 12)
=
6
(30 x10 )(100)
8 6
= 0.722"

A = 0.722"

A
A

B
3L/2

Deflection at Free End

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Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Example 2

w
wL2/2

Determine the deflection at the


left end C. EI is constant.

C
L/2

L/2

Beam Deflections by Superposition


Given Beam
B
A

 Example 2
Solution:

wL2/2

Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam


C

Applying Method of Sections at

A-A and B-B


A
M=
wL2/2

wL2/2
C

V=0
A

FBD Just to Left


of Roller A

L/2
B
V=
wL/2

A
M=
wL2/2
V=0
A

B
B

M=
wL2/8

Beam Segment A-B

L
A

L/2
B
B

V=
wL/2

M=
wL2/8
B

FBD Just to Right


of Hinge B

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Beam Deflections by Superposition


Given Beam
B
A

 Example 2
Solution:

wL2/2

Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam


C

Simplify all beam segments

L/2

L/2

A
wL2/2

M=
wL2/2

V=
wL/2
A

D
M=
wL2/8

Beam 1

Beam 4

Beam AB

Right End replaced


with Fixed Support
due to M

Left End replaced


with Fixed Support
due to M

Beam Deflections by Superposition


Given Beam
B
A

 Example 2
Solution:

wL2/2

Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam


M=
wL2/2

Beam 2

L/2

L
A

L/2
B
w

wL2/2
V=
wL/2

Beam 1

Beam 4

Beam 3

M=
wL2/8

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Beam Deflections by Superposition


Given Beam
B
A

 Example 2
Solution:

wL2/2

Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam


Only beams 1, 2 and 3
will have an effect on
left end deflection.

M=
wL2/2

Beam 2

L/2

L/2

A
A

wL2/2
V=
wL/2

Beam 1

Beam 4

B
M=
wL2/8

Beam 3

Beam 4 will not contribute


to the deflection of left end
due to fixed support.

Beam Deflections by Superposition


Given Beam

 Example 2

Solution:

wL2/2

Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam


C

Consider beams 1, 2, and 3

L/2
wL2/2
1
C

2
C

M=
wL2/2
z

Beam 1
Therefore, deflection at C:

L/2

V=
wL/2
A

Beam 2

C = 1 + 2 + 3

3
C

z
A

M=
wL2/8

Beam 3
NOTE: Shear force V will not
contribute to left end deflection.
V goes directly to hinge B.

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Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Example 2
Solution:
Step 2: Apply Superposition
For Beam 1

Formula: Case 4

max =

L/2
wL2/2
1

ML2
2 EI

But

wL2
2
L
=
2

Beam 1

Lactual

(wL 2)(L 2)

M actual =

1 =

2 EI
4

1 =

wL
16 EI

wL4

16 EI

Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Example 2
Solution:
Step 2: Apply Superposition
Formula: Case 8

For Beam 2

=
M = L/2
wL2/2
z
2

But

A
L

(wL 2)(L )
2

2 =

Consider the triangle

tan 2 2 = 2
L2
2 = 2 (L 2)

wL2
2
=L

M actual =
Lactual

Beam 2

ML
3EI

3EI

wL3
6 EI

= (wL3 6 EI )( L 2 )
wL4
2 =

12 EI

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Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Example 2
Solution:
Step 2: Apply Superposition
Formula: Case 8

For Beam 3

L/2
3
C

V=
wL/2

But
A

Lactual

(wL 8)(L ) =
2

3 =

Beam 3

Consider the triangle

tan 3 3 = 3
L2
3 = 3 ( L 2 )

wL2
8
=L

M actual =

M=
wL2/8

ML
6 EI

6 EI

= (wL3 48EI )( L 2 )
wL4
3 =

96 EI

wL3
48EI

Beam Deflections by Superposition


Given Beam

 Example 2

Solution:

wL2/2

Step 2: Apply Superposition


C

Compute deflection at C

C = 1 + 2 + 3
1 =
C =

wL4

16 EI

C
L/2

2 =

wL4

12 EI

3 =

A
L

L/2

wL4

96 EI

wL4
wL4
wL4
+
+
16 EI 12 EI 96 EI
C =

5 wL4

32 EI

Deflection at Left End

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Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Example 3
w

Determine the deflection at a


point midway between the
supports of the beam in terms
of w, L, E and I.

wL2/16
A

C
L/3

Beam Deflections by Superposition


Given Beam
A
w

 Example 3
Solution:
Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam
Applying Method of Sections at

wL2/16
A

C
L/3

A-A

A
A

V=0

V=0

wL2/16

A
B

M=
A wL2/16

Beam Segment A-B

M=
wL2/16 A

FBD Just to Right


of Roller B

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Beam Deflections by Superposition


Given Beam
A
w

 Example 3
Solution:
Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam
Simplify all beam segments

wL2/16
A

C
L/3

L
A

w
wL2/16
A
B

M=
wL2/16

Beam 3
Left End replaced
with Fixed Support
due to M

Beam Segment A-B

Beam Deflections by Superposition


Given Beam
A
w

 Example 3
Solution:
Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam

wL2/16
A

C
L/3

Beam 1

B
wL2/16
C

Beam 2

Beam 3
M=
wL2/16

Left End replaced


with Fixed Support
due to M

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Beam Deflections by Superposition


Given Beam
A
w

 Example 3
Solution:
Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam

wL2/16
A

C
L/3

Beam 1

B
wL2/16
C

Beam 2

Beam 3
Beam 3 will not contribute to
the deflection at a point
midway between supports.

M=
wL2/16

Beam Deflections by Superposition


Given Beam
A
w

 Example 3
Solution:
Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam

wL2/16
A

C
L/3

L
A

w
A

Beam 1
Therefore, at mid-supports:

Beam 2

B
M=
wL2/16

mid = 1 + 2

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Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Example 3
Solution:
Step 2: Apply Superposition
For Beam 1

Formula: Case 7

center =

w
A

B
1

5wL4
384 EI

So

1 =

5wL4
384 EI

5wL4

384 EI

Beam 1

Beam Deflections by Superposition


 Example 3
Solution:
Step 2: Apply Superposition
For Beam 2

Formula: Case 8

center = +
A

B
M=
wL2/16

ML2
16 EI

So

(wL

16)L2
wL4
=

16 EI
256 EI
2

2 = +

Beam 2

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Beam Deflections by Superposition


Given Beam

 Example 3

Solution:

wL2/16

Step 2: Apply Superposition


Compute deflection at mid-supports

mid = 1 + 2
1 =
mid =

5wL4

384 EI

2 =

mid
L

C
L/3

wL4

256 EI

7 wL4
5wL4
wL4
=
+
768 EI
384 EI 256 EI

mid =

7 wL4

768EI

Deflection at Mid-Supports

Lecture 5-2

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Principle of Virtual Work


 Consider a body in equilibrium,
Work Done Virtual Work

P3

P2
From the principle of conservation
of energy, the virtual change in
external work is equal to the virtual
change in the internal elements of a
body.

For Rigid Bodies:


P1

For Deformable Bodies:


(for elastic systems)

Principle of Virtual Work


 Application: Deformation at Point A

Steps:
1. Apply virtual force P
at the point in
consideration and
along the required
direction.
2. Apply the real loads.

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Principle of Virtual Work


 From the figure,

For practical purposes:

Therefore,

Principle of Virtual Work


 From the figure,

where,
- real deflection of a
point in the direction of
the applied virtual unit
force
u - internal forces
caused by virtual unit
force
dL - real deformation
of a body

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Principle of Virtual Work


 For beams,
VIRTUAL

REAL
M

dx

Therefore, for a virtual couple Q = 1

dx

Similarly, for a virtual force P = 1

Principle of Virtual Work


Procedure for Analysis:
STEP 1: Set-up Virtual Moment, m
 Place a virtual unit load on the beam at the point and directed along

the deflection.
 If the slope is to be determined, place a virtual unit couple moment
at the point.
 Establish appropriate x coordinate/s.
 With the virtual load in place and all the real loads removed from
the beam, calculate the internal moment, m, as a function of x.

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Principle of Virtual Work


Procedure for Analysis:
STEP 2: Set-up Real Moment, M
 Using the same x coordinate/s, determine the internal moment M

caused by the real loads.


 The moment function M should have the same positive direction
as the moment function m.

STEP 3: Solve Virtual Work Equation


 Apply the equation of virtual work to determine the desired

deflection or slope.

 If the virtual work equation yields a positive value, the deflection or

slope is in the same direction as the virtual unit load or couple,


respectively. Negative value means opposite direction.

Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 1
w

Given: Cantilever Beam with


Uniform Load w and Length L.
EI is constant.

B
L

Determine:
The deflection at point B of the
beam shown.

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Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 1

Actual Beam
w

Solution:
Step 1: Set-up Virtual Moment, m
Required is B. Place a unit load at B.

B
L

Define coordinate axis, x


Set-up moment function, m

1. Using Singularity Functions


Virtual Loads

2. Using Method of Sections

Using Singularity Functions:

m = 1 x 0
1
m = 1 x = 1( x ) = x

B
L

x is always positive. Singularity can be removed.

Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 1

Actual Beam
w

Solution:
Step 1: Set-up Virtual Moment, m
Required is B. Place a unit load at B.

B
L

Define coordinate axis, x


Set-up moment function, m

1. Using Singularity Functions


Virtual Loads

2. Using Method of Sections

Using Method of Sections:

M = 0
m = x

0 = 1x + m

v
m

B
x

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Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 1

Actual Beam
w

Solution:
Step 2: Set-up Real Moment, M
Use the same coordinate axis, x

B
L

Set-up moment function, M

1. Using Singularity Functions


2. Using Method of Sections
Real Loads

Using Singularity Functions:

M =
M =

w
x0
2

w 2
w 2
wx 2
x = (x) =
2
2
2

B
L

x is always positive. Singularity can be removed.

Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 1

Actual Beam
w

Solution:
Step 2: Set-up Real Moment, M
Use the same coordinate axis, x

B
L

Set-up moment function, M

1. Using Singularity Functions


2. Using Method of Sections
Using Method of Sections:

x
0 = wx + M
2 2
wx
M =
2

Real Loads

M = 0

x
w
M

B
x

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Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 1

Actual Beam
w

Solution:
Step 3: Virtual Work Equation

B
A
mM
B
dx
L
EI
L
( x )( wx 2 2)
B =
dx
EI
0
L
L
wx 3
wx 4
=
dx =
8EI 0
0 2 EI
4
Deflection is positive. Therefore, the assumed
wL
=
downwards virtual unit load is correct. Deflection
8EI
is in the same direction as the virtual unit load.

B =

Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 2
P

Given: Cantilever Beam with


Concentrated Load P and
Length L. EI is constant.

B
L/2

L/2

Determine:
The slope at point B of the beam
shown.

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Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 2

Actual Beam
P

Solution:
Step 1: Set-up Virtual Moment, m
Required is B. Place a unit moment

at B.
Define coordinate axis, x
Set-up moment function, m

m = +1 x

L
2

= x

L/2

L/2

Using Singularity Functions:

Virtual Loads

L
2

x L/2 can be positive or negative.


Singularity cannot be removed.

1
C

B
L/2

L/2

Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 2

Actual Beam
P

Solution:
Step 2: Set-up Real Moment, M
Use the same coordinate axis, x

Set-up moment function, M

M = P x 0

L/2

L/2

Using Singularity Functions:

Real Loads
P

M = P x = P( x ) = Px
1

x is always positive.
Singularity can be removed.

B
L/2

L/2

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Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 2

Actual Beam

Solution:
Step 3: Virtual Work Equation

C
mM
dx
B =
B
EI
L/2
0
L
x L 2 ( Px )
1
dx
B =
B
EI
0
L2
L
(0 )( Px )
(1)( Px )
=
dx +
dx
EI
EI
0
L2
L
2
PL2 P( L 2)
Px 2
3PL2
=
+
=
=
2 EI
2 EI
2 EI L 2
8 EI

A
L/2
B
Negative sign
indicates that the
computed slope is
opposite to the
direction of the
virtual moment.

Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 3
3 kip/ft

Given: Simply supported beam


with overhang. E = 29(103) ksi,
I = 450 in4.

B
10 ft

20 ft

Determine:
The displacement at point A of
the beam shown.

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Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 3

Actual Beam
3 kip/ft

Solution:
Step 1: Set-up Virtual Moment, m
Required is A. Place a unit load at A.

Define coordinate axis, x


Two (2) x-coordinate axes will be

RC = 0.5 kip

Fy = 0

RB = 1.5 kip

20 ft

10 ft

used to simplify the setting up of


moment function: x1 and x2 axes
Determine Reactions (if needed)

MB = 0

x1

Virtual Loads
x2

1
A

B
10 ft

RB

20 ft

RC

Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 3

Actual Beam
3 kip/ft

Solution:
Step 1: Set-up Virtual Moment, m
Set-up moment function, m1 and m2

Using Singularity Functions:


A-B:

C-B:

m1 = 1 x1 0
m1 = x1
m2 = 0.5 x2

20 ft

10 ft

m2 = 0.5 x2 0

x1

Virtual Loads
x2

1
A

B
10 ft

1.5

20 ft

0.5

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Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 3

Actual Beam
3 kip/ft

Solution:
Step 2: Set-up Real Moment, M
A

Use the same coordinate axes


Determine Reactions (if needed)

MB = 0
Fy = 0

20 ft

10 ft

RC = 27.5 kip
RB = 47.5 kip

Real Loads
3 kip/ft

x1
A

x2

B
10 ft

RB

20 ft

RC

Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 3

Actual Beam
3 kip/ft

Solution:
Step 2: Set-up Real Moment, M
Set-up moment function, M1 and M2

Using Singularity Functions:


A-B:

C-B:

M1 =

(3 10)

6 3
M 1 = 0.05x1

20 ft

10 ft

x1 0

x1

Real Loads
3 kip/ft

x2

M 2 = +27.5 x2 0
3
2
x2 0
2
2
M 2 = 27.5 x2 1.5 x2

B
10 ft

47.5

20 ft

27.5

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Principle of Virtual Work


 Example 3

Actual Beam
3 kip/ft

Solution:
Step 3: Virtual Work Equation

A
A

C
mM
dx
B
EI
B
B
20 ft
10 ft
m1M 1
mM
=
dx1 + 2 2 dx2
EI
A EI
C
10
20
( x1 )( 0.05x13 )
( 0.5 x2 )(27.5 x2 1.5 x2 2 )
=
dx1 +
dx2
EI
EI
0
0
3
5666.7 kip ft 3 5666.7 kip ft 3 (12 in ft )
=
= 0.750 in
=
EI
[29(103 )kip in 2 ]450 in 4

A =

= 0.750 in

Computed deflection is negative. Therefore, deflection is in


the opposite direction as the virtual unit load.

Lecture 5-3

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Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


 Consider the beam shown below,

P1

1
1
P1 y 1 +
P2 y 2
2
2

Eq. 1

After increasing P1 by P1 ,

1
U = P1y1 + P1y1 + P2 y2
2

P2

P1

The strain energy U, due to P1 & P2:

U =

Theorem

y1

y2

y1

Eq. 2

y2

Reversing the order of the application


of the loads, i.e. P1 first followed by
P1 and P2 ,

P1

P1

1
1
1
U + U = P1y1 + P1 y1 + P1 y1 + P2 y2
2
2
2
y1

Eq. 3

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


Since the strain energy is
independent of the order of loading,
equating 3 to the sum of 1 & 2:

P1 y 1 = P1 y 1 + P2 y 2

Eq. 4

1
P1 y 1 + P1 y 1
2

U
1
=
y1 + y1
P1
2
U
=
P1

lim
P1 0

U
= y1
P1

y 1 0 when

P1 0

U =

y1

Theorem

1
1
P1 y 1 +
P2 y 2
2
2

Eq. 1

1
P1y1 + P1y1 + P2 y2 Eq. 2
2

U + U =

Substituting equation 4 into 2 ,

U =

U =

1
1
1
P1y1 + P1 y1 + P1 y1 + P2 y2
2
2
2
Eq. 3

Eq. 5

or in general case,

U
= yi
Pi

Eq. 6

Castiglianos Thm.

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Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

Theorem

 If the strain energy of a linearly elastic structure is expressed in

terms of the system of external loads, the partial derivative of the


strain energy wrt a concentrated external load is the deflection of
a structure at the point of application and in the direction of that
load.

U
M

Similarly, for applied moments


and resulting rotations,

= i
i

 If the deflection is required either at a point where there is no

unique point load or in a direction not aligned with the applied


load, a dummy load is introduced at the desired point acting in the
proper direction.

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


 Strain Energy U:

Wk = Pd

P2

The work done on the bar must equal the


change in energy of the material
2

U = Wk = Pd

P = A

= A L d
= AL d
0

U=

AL 2
d
E 0

= E
d = d

P2

2
U = AL
2E

If Hookes Law applies,

P
P1

= L

0
2
0

Theorem

Elastic Strain
Energy

Volume

E
Therefore,

U =

2E

dV

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Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


=

For a beam,

1
U =
2E
U =

1
2E

My
I

Theorem
U =

Note,

1
U =
2E

M2
2
I

M
I

2E

dV

My
V I dV
L

dV = dAdx

where x is measured along the


axis of the beam

y 2 dA dx

yi =

dx

Using equation 6:

1
U
=
Pi
2E

yi =

U
= yi
Pi

U
1
=
Pi
E

2 M M
dx
I
Pi

L
0

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

M M
dx
I Pi

Theorem

 Similarly, for slope of the tangent at a point on the elastic curve,

the formula is given by

1
E

M M
dx
I M '

where M is a couple or moment applied at the point where the


slope is being determined

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1/23/2011

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

Theorem

Procedure for Analysis:


STEP 1: External Force P or Couple Moment M
 Place a force P on the beam at the point and directed along the line

of action of the desired displacement.


 If the slope of the tangent is to be determined, place a couple
moment M at the point.
 Assume that both P and M have a variable magnitude.

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

Theorem

Procedure for Analysis:


STEP 2: Internal Moments, M
 Establish appropriate x coordinate/s.
 Calculate the internal moments M as a function of P or M and the

partial derivatives M/P or M/M.

 After M and M/P or M/M have been determined, assign P or M

its numerical value if it has actually replaced a real force or couple


moment. Otherwise, set P and M equal to zero.

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1/23/2011

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

Theorem

Procedure for Analysis:


STEP 3: Castiglianos Theorem
 Apply Castiglianos Theorem to determine the desired deflection

or slope .
 If the resultant sum of all the definite integrals is positive, or is

in the same direction as P and M. If a negative value results, or


is opposite to P and M.

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

Theorem

 Example 1
P

Determine the deflection at the


concentrated load P in terms
of P, L, E and I.

C
L/5

4L/5

35

1/23/2011

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


 Example 1

Theorem

Actual Beam

Solution:

Step 1: External Force P (Required:


Deflection)

A force P is already acting at the point

where deflection is required. No


need to add additional P.

C
4L/5

L/5

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


 Example 1

Theorem

Actual Beam

Solution:

Step 2: Internal Moment, M


A

Establish x coordinate axis.


Get reactions (if necessary)

MB = 0

4L/5
L/5
4
4L
RA = P
RA ( L ) P = 0
RB
RA
5
5
Moment Function, M
1
L
1
L
4
4
M = + P x 0 P x
= P x P x
5
5
5
5
M 4
L
= x x
P 5
5
NOTE: Do not set P = 0 since there is a force acting at point C where
deflection is required.

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1/23/2011

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


 Example 1

Theorem

Actual Beam

Solution:

Step 3: Castiglianos Theorem

C =

1 L M
M P dx
EI 0

C
C

4L/5
L/5
L 4
L
1 L4
C =
Px P x x x dx

EI 0 5
5 5
5
2
2
2
P L4
L
4
P L 4
L
L
=

x
x
dx
=

x
x
x
x

dx
EI 0 5
5
5
5
5
EI 0 5
2
2
P L4
P L8
L
P L
L
16 PL3
=
x
dx

x
x

dx
+
x

dx

C =

EI 0 5
EI 0 5
5
EI 0
5
1875 EI
2
P L 16 2
P L8
L
P L
L
Deflection is in the
=
x dx
x x dx +
x dx

same direction as P.
EI 0 25
EI L 5 5
5
EI L 5
5

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

Theorem

 Example 2
3200 lb/ft

Determine the deflection at the


left end when E = 10(106) psi,
I = 100 in4.

A
4

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1/23/2011

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


 Example 2

Theorem

Actual Beam
3200 lb/ft

Solution:
Step 1: External Force P (Required:
Deflection)

P
C

Place a force P at the left end where

deflection is required. Assume


direction as downwards.

Theorem

Actual Beam
x

Solution:

3200 lb/ft

Step 2: Internal Moment, M


Establish x coordinate axis.

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


 Example 2

MB = 0
4
4
8
RB
RA
4
RA (12) P(16) 3200(4) = 0
2
4
6400
RA = P +

3
3
Moment Function, M
3200
2
6400
1
1
4
x 12
M = P x 0 + P +
x4
2
3
3

M
4
2
6400
4
= x + x 4
M = Px + P +
x 4 1600 x 12
P
3
3
3

Get reactions (if necessary)

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1/23/2011

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


 Example 2

Theorem

Actual Beam
x

Solution:

3200 lb/ft

P=0

Step 2: Internal Moment, M


Set P = 0

6400
4
M = Px + P +
x4
3
3

A
4

RA

RB

1600 x 12
6400
M =
x 4 1600 x 12
3

M
4
= x + x 4
P
3

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


x

 Example 2

3200 lb/ft

P=0

Solution:
Step 3: Castiglianos Theorem

Theorem

1 L M
4
8
M P dx
RA
EI 0
1 16 6400
4
2

C =
x 4 1600 x 12 x + x 4 dx

EI 0 3
3

C =

1 16 6400
6400 4
4
2
2
3 x x 4 + 1600 x x 12 + 3 3 x 4 1600 3 x 12
EI 0

RB

x 4 dx

1 16 6400
1 16
2

x( x 4 )dx +

1600 x( x 12) dx
EI 4
3
EI 12

193422.222
1 16 6400 4
1 16
4
2
2

+
( x 4) dx

1600 ( x 12 ) ( x 4 )dx =

EI 4 3
3
EI 12
3
EI

39

1/23/2011

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


x

 Example 2

Step 3: Castiglianos Theorem

193422.222
EI
193422.222 (12 in ft )
2

lb 12in
1 ft
10 x10 2
100in 4

in 1 ft
12in

1 L M
M P dx
EI 0

3200 lb/ft

Solution:

C =

Theorem

RA

RB

= 0.334 in = 0.334 in

Deflection is upwards.
Computed deflection is
negative which means it
is opposite the direction
of P.

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

Theorem

 Example 3
P

Given: Cantilever Beam with


Concentrated Load P and
Length L. EI is constant.

B
L/2

L/2

Determine:
The slope at point B of the beam
shown.

40

1/23/2011

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


 Example 3

Theorem

Actual Beam
P

Solution:
Step 1: External Couple Moment M
(Required: Slope)

M
C

is required. Assumed direction is


counterclockwise.

Place a moment M at B where slope

L/2

L/2

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


 Example 3

Theorem

Actual Beam

x
P

Solution:
M

Step 2: Internal Moment, M


C

Establish x coordinate axis.

Get reactions (if necessary)


L/2

Reactions are not required.


Moment Function, M
1

M = P x 0 + M ' x

L
L
= Px + M ' x
2
2

L/2

M
L
= x
M '
2

Set M = 0

M = Px

M
L
= x
M '
2

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1/23/2011

Beam Deflections by Castiglianos


 Example 3

Theorem

Actual Beam

x
P

Solution:
Step 3: Castiglianos Theorem
1 L M
B =
dx
M
EI 0 M '
0
1 L
L
(
)
B =

Px
x

dx

EI 0
2

A
B
L/2

L/2
1

1
Px 2
( Px ) x L dx = 1 ( Px ) dx = 1

EI L 2
2
EI 2 L 2
EI L 2

Always equal to 1.

1 PL2 P( L 2)

=
+
EI 2
2

= 3 PL
8 EI

The negative sign indicates


that the slope is opposite to
the direction of the couple
moment M.

M
B

42