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# 1/23/2011

Lecture 5

LECTURE 5 TOPICS
 I. Beam Deflections






Introduction
Method of Superposition
Virtual Work Principle for Rigid Bodies
Virtual Work Method for Deflections
Castiglianos Theorem for Deflections

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Lecture 5

Beam Deflections
 Recall in ES 13

## 1. Double Integration Method

2. Area Moment Method
 In CE 14

1. Method of Superposition
2. Method of Virtual Work
3. Castiglianos Theorem for Beam Deflections
4. Conjugate Beam Method

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Lecture 5-1

## Beam Deflections by Superposition

 Consider the beam shown below,
FBD:
w

3L/2

M=
5wL2/18

L/3

y
x

V = wL/3

Due to M

Due to V

Due to w

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## Beam Deflections by Superposition

 Note that the deflection is the algebraic sum of the

## contributions from each applied load.

Therefore, the
deflection of a beam is the sum of the deflections produced
by the individual loads. This makes the superposition
method very useful when solving deflections.

Due to M

Due to V

Due to w

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 Example 1
4wL/25

## Determine the deflection at the

free end given the following:
w = 800 lb/ft,
L = 6 ft,
E = 30 x 106 psi and
I = 100 in4.

A
3L/2

C
L

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 Example 1
Beam 1

Solution:

## Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam

Given Beam
4wL/25

C
A1

A
C
A
A

Beam 2

B
3L/2

4wL/25
L

A2
Required: A = A1 + A 2

 Example 1
Beam 1

Solution:

For Beam 1:

1. Get B and B

A1

Formulas: Case 2

A
4

B =

wL
8 EI

wL3
B =
6 EI

3L/2

## A-B: Straight Segment

(zero internal moment)

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 Example 1
Beam 1

Solution:

For Beam 1:

1. Get B and B
Formulas: Case 2
wL3
wL4
B =
B =
6 EI
8EI

A1 d

A
3L/2

2. Compute for d

tan B B =

## A-B: Straight Segment

(zero internal moment)

d
(small angles)
3L 2

wL4
wL3 3L
d = ( B )(3L 2) =
=
4 EI
6 EI 2

 Example 1
Beam 1

Solution:

For Beam 1:

3. Solve for A1

A1 = B + d
wL4 wL4
=
+

8 EI 4 EI
=

3 wL4
8 EI

A1 d

A
3L/2

## A-B: Straight Segment

(zero internal moment)

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 Example 1

Beam 2

Solution:
4wL/25

## Step 2: Apply Superposition

For Beam 2:

A2

Formula: Case 1

max =

PL3
3EI

A
3L/2

But

4wL
25
3L
=
+ L = 2 .5 L
2

Pactual =
Lactual

A2 =

(4 wL 25)(2.5L )3
3EI
4

5 wL
6 EI

 Example 1

Given Beam

Solution:

4wL/25

## Step 2: Apply Superposition

Total Deflection:

A = A1 + A 2

3 wL4 5 wL4
=
+

8 EI 6 EI
4
3 5 (800 (1 12 ))(6 12)
=
6
(30 x10 )(100)
8 6
= 0.722"

A = 0.722"

A
A

B
3L/2

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 Example 2

w
wL2/2

## Determine the deflection at the

left end C. EI is constant.

C
L/2

L/2

Given Beam
B
A

 Example 2
Solution:

wL2/2

C

A
M=
wL2/2

wL2/2
C

V=0
A

of Roller A

L/2
B
V=
wL/2

A
M=
wL2/2
V=0
A

B
B

M=
wL2/8

L
A

L/2
B
B

V=
wL/2

M=
wL2/8
B

of Hinge B

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Given Beam
B
A

 Example 2
Solution:

wL2/2

C

L/2

L/2

A
wL2/2

M=
wL2/2

V=
wL/2
A

D
M=
wL2/8

Beam 1

Beam 4

Beam AB

## Right End replaced

with Fixed Support
due to M

## Left End replaced

with Fixed Support
due to M

Given Beam
B
A

 Example 2
Solution:

wL2/2

M=
wL2/2

Beam 2

L/2

L
A

L/2
B
w

wL2/2
V=
wL/2

Beam 1

Beam 4

Beam 3

M=
wL2/8

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Given Beam
B
A

 Example 2
Solution:

wL2/2

## Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam

Only beams 1, 2 and 3
will have an effect on
left end deflection.

M=
wL2/2

Beam 2

L/2

L/2

A
A

wL2/2
V=
wL/2

Beam 1

Beam 4

B
M=
wL2/8

Beam 3

## Beam 4 will not contribute

to the deflection of left end
due to fixed support.

Given Beam

 Example 2

Solution:

wL2/2

C

## Consider beams 1, 2, and 3

L/2
wL2/2
1
C

2
C

M=
wL2/2
z

Beam 1
Therefore, deflection at C:

L/2

V=
wL/2
A

Beam 2

C = 1 + 2 + 3

3
C

z
A

M=
wL2/8

Beam 3
NOTE: Shear force V will not
contribute to left end deflection.
V goes directly to hinge B.

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## Beam Deflections by Superposition

 Example 2
Solution:
Step 2: Apply Superposition
For Beam 1

Formula: Case 4

max =

L/2
wL2/2
1

ML2
2 EI

But

wL2
2
L
=
2

Beam 1

Lactual

(wL 2)(L 2)

M actual =

1 =

2 EI
4

1 =

wL
16 EI

wL4

16 EI

## Beam Deflections by Superposition

 Example 2
Solution:
Step 2: Apply Superposition
Formula: Case 8

For Beam 2

=
M = L/2
wL2/2
z
2

But

A
L

(wL 2)(L )
2

2 =

## Consider the triangle

tan 2 2 = 2
L2
2 = 2 (L 2)

wL2
2
=L

M actual =
Lactual

Beam 2

ML
3EI

3EI

wL3
6 EI

= (wL3 6 EI )( L 2 )
wL4
2 =

12 EI

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## Beam Deflections by Superposition

 Example 2
Solution:
Step 2: Apply Superposition
Formula: Case 8

For Beam 3

L/2
3
C

V=
wL/2

But
A

Lactual

(wL 8)(L ) =
2

3 =

Beam 3

## Consider the triangle

tan 3 3 = 3
L2
3 = 3 ( L 2 )

wL2
8
=L

M actual =

M=
wL2/8

ML
6 EI

6 EI

= (wL3 48EI )( L 2 )
wL4
3 =

96 EI

wL3
48EI

Given Beam

 Example 2

Solution:

wL2/2

## Step 2: Apply Superposition

C

Compute deflection at C

C = 1 + 2 + 3
1 =
C =

wL4

16 EI

C
L/2

2 =

wL4

12 EI

3 =

A
L

L/2

wL4

96 EI

wL4
wL4
wL4
+
+
16 EI 12 EI 96 EI
C =

5 wL4

32 EI

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 Example 3
w

## Determine the deflection at a

point midway between the
supports of the beam in terms
of w, L, E and I.

wL2/16
A

C
L/3

## Beam Deflections by Superposition

Given Beam
A
w

 Example 3
Solution:
Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam
Applying Method of Sections at

wL2/16
A

C
L/3

A-A

A
A

V=0

V=0

wL2/16

A
B

M=
A wL2/16

M=
wL2/16 A

of Roller B

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## Beam Deflections by Superposition

Given Beam
A
w

 Example 3
Solution:
Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam
Simplify all beam segments

wL2/16
A

C
L/3

L
A

w
wL2/16
A
B

M=
wL2/16

Beam 3
Left End replaced
with Fixed Support
due to M

## Beam Deflections by Superposition

Given Beam
A
w

 Example 3
Solution:
Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam

wL2/16
A

C
L/3

Beam 1

B
wL2/16
C

Beam 2

Beam 3
M=
wL2/16

## Left End replaced

with Fixed Support
due to M

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## Beam Deflections by Superposition

Given Beam
A
w

 Example 3
Solution:
Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam

wL2/16
A

C
L/3

Beam 1

B
wL2/16
C

Beam 2

Beam 3
Beam 3 will not contribute to
the deflection at a point
midway between supports.

M=
wL2/16

## Beam Deflections by Superposition

Given Beam
A
w

 Example 3
Solution:
Step 1: Breakdown Given Beam

wL2/16
A

C
L/3

L
A

w
A

Beam 1
Therefore, at mid-supports:

Beam 2

B
M=
wL2/16

mid = 1 + 2

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## Beam Deflections by Superposition

 Example 3
Solution:
Step 2: Apply Superposition
For Beam 1

Formula: Case 7

center =

w
A

B
1

5wL4
384 EI

So

1 =

5wL4
384 EI

5wL4

384 EI

Beam 1

## Beam Deflections by Superposition

 Example 3
Solution:
Step 2: Apply Superposition
For Beam 2

Formula: Case 8

center = +
A

B
M=
wL2/16

ML2
16 EI

So

(wL

16)L2
wL4
=

16 EI
256 EI
2

2 = +

Beam 2

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Given Beam

 Example 3

Solution:

wL2/16

## Step 2: Apply Superposition

Compute deflection at mid-supports

mid = 1 + 2
1 =
mid =

5wL4

384 EI

2 =

mid
L

C
L/3

wL4

256 EI

7 wL4
5wL4
wL4
=
+
768 EI
384 EI 256 EI

mid =

7 wL4

768EI

Deflection at Mid-Supports

Lecture 5-2

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## Principle of Virtual Work

 Consider a body in equilibrium,
Work Done Virtual Work

P3

P2
From the principle of conservation
of energy, the virtual change in
external work is equal to the virtual
change in the internal elements of a
body.

P1

## For Deformable Bodies:

(for elastic systems)

## Principle of Virtual Work

 Application: Deformation at Point A

Steps:
1. Apply virtual force P
at the point in
consideration and
along the required
direction.

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## Principle of Virtual Work

 From the figure,

Therefore,

## Principle of Virtual Work

 From the figure,

where,
- real deflection of a
point in the direction of
the applied virtual unit
force
u - internal forces
caused by virtual unit
force
dL - real deformation
of a body

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 For beams,
VIRTUAL

REAL
M

dx

dx

## Principle of Virtual Work

Procedure for Analysis:
STEP 1: Set-up Virtual Moment, m
 Place a virtual unit load on the beam at the point and directed along

the deflection.
 If the slope is to be determined, place a virtual unit couple moment
at the point.
 Establish appropriate x coordinate/s.
 With the virtual load in place and all the real loads removed from
the beam, calculate the internal moment, m, as a function of x.

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## Principle of Virtual Work

Procedure for Analysis:
STEP 2: Set-up Real Moment, M
 Using the same x coordinate/s, determine the internal moment M

## caused by the real loads.

 The moment function M should have the same positive direction
as the moment function m.

## STEP 3: Solve Virtual Work Equation

 Apply the equation of virtual work to determine the desired

deflection or slope.

## slope is in the same direction as the virtual unit load or couple,

respectively. Negative value means opposite direction.

 Example 1
w

## Given: Cantilever Beam with

Uniform Load w and Length L.
EI is constant.

B
L

Determine:
The deflection at point B of the
beam shown.

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## Principle of Virtual Work

 Example 1

Actual Beam
w

Solution:
Step 1: Set-up Virtual Moment, m
Required is B. Place a unit load at B.

B
L

## Define coordinate axis, x

Set-up moment function, m

## Using Singularity Functions:

m = 1 x 0
1
m = 1 x = 1( x ) = x

B
L

## Principle of Virtual Work

 Example 1

Actual Beam
w

Solution:
Step 1: Set-up Virtual Moment, m
Required is B. Place a unit load at B.

B
L

## Define coordinate axis, x

Set-up moment function, m

M = 0
m = x

0 = 1x + m

v
m

B
x

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## Principle of Virtual Work

 Example 1

Actual Beam
w

Solution:
Step 2: Set-up Real Moment, M
Use the same coordinate axis, x

B
L

## 1. Using Singularity Functions

2. Using Method of Sections

M =
M =

w
x0
2

w 2
w 2
wx 2
x = (x) =
2
2
2

B
L

## Principle of Virtual Work

 Example 1

Actual Beam
w

Solution:
Step 2: Set-up Real Moment, M
Use the same coordinate axis, x

B
L

## 1. Using Singularity Functions

2. Using Method of Sections
Using Method of Sections:

x
0 = wx + M
2 2
wx
M =
2

M = 0

x
w
M

B
x

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## Principle of Virtual Work

 Example 1

Actual Beam
w

Solution:
Step 3: Virtual Work Equation

B
A
mM
B
dx
L
EI
L
( x )( wx 2 2)
B =
dx
EI
0
L
L
wx 3
wx 4
=
dx =
8EI 0
0 2 EI
4
Deflection is positive. Therefore, the assumed
wL
=
downwards virtual unit load is correct. Deflection
8EI
is in the same direction as the virtual unit load.

B =

 Example 2
P

## Given: Cantilever Beam with

Length L. EI is constant.

B
L/2

L/2

Determine:
The slope at point B of the beam
shown.

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## Principle of Virtual Work

 Example 2

Actual Beam
P

Solution:
Step 1: Set-up Virtual Moment, m
Required is B. Place a unit moment

at B.
Define coordinate axis, x
Set-up moment function, m

m = +1 x

L
2

= x

L/2

L/2

L
2

## x L/2 can be positive or negative.

Singularity cannot be removed.

1
C

B
L/2

L/2

## Principle of Virtual Work

 Example 2

Actual Beam
P

Solution:
Step 2: Set-up Real Moment, M
Use the same coordinate axis, x

M = P x 0

L/2

L/2

## Using Singularity Functions:

P

M = P x = P( x ) = Px
1

x is always positive.
Singularity can be removed.

B
L/2

L/2

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## Principle of Virtual Work

 Example 2

Actual Beam

Solution:
Step 3: Virtual Work Equation

C
mM
dx
B =
B
EI
L/2
0
L
x L 2 ( Px )
1
dx
B =
B
EI
0
L2
L
(0 )( Px )
(1)( Px )
=
dx +
dx
EI
EI
0
L2
L
2
PL2 P( L 2)
Px 2
3PL2
=
+
=
=
2 EI
2 EI
2 EI L 2
8 EI

A
L/2
B
Negative sign
indicates that the
computed slope is
opposite to the
direction of the
virtual moment.

 Example 3
3 kip/ft

## Given: Simply supported beam

with overhang. E = 29(103) ksi,
I = 450 in4.

B
10 ft

20 ft

Determine:
The displacement at point A of
the beam shown.

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## Principle of Virtual Work

 Example 3

Actual Beam
3 kip/ft

Solution:
Step 1: Set-up Virtual Moment, m
Required is A. Place a unit load at A.

## Define coordinate axis, x

Two (2) x-coordinate axes will be

RC = 0.5 kip

Fy = 0

RB = 1.5 kip

20 ft

10 ft

## used to simplify the setting up of

moment function: x1 and x2 axes
Determine Reactions (if needed)

MB = 0

x1

x2

1
A

B
10 ft

RB

20 ft

RC

## Principle of Virtual Work

 Example 3

Actual Beam
3 kip/ft

Solution:
Step 1: Set-up Virtual Moment, m
Set-up moment function, m1 and m2

A-B:

C-B:

m1 = 1 x1 0
m1 = x1
m2 = 0.5 x2

20 ft

10 ft

m2 = 0.5 x2 0

x1

x2

1
A

B
10 ft

1.5

20 ft

0.5

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## Principle of Virtual Work

 Example 3

Actual Beam
3 kip/ft

Solution:
Step 2: Set-up Real Moment, M
A

## Use the same coordinate axes

Determine Reactions (if needed)

MB = 0
Fy = 0

20 ft

10 ft

RC = 27.5 kip
RB = 47.5 kip

3 kip/ft

x1
A

x2

B
10 ft

RB

20 ft

RC

## Principle of Virtual Work

 Example 3

Actual Beam
3 kip/ft

Solution:
Step 2: Set-up Real Moment, M
Set-up moment function, M1 and M2

## Using Singularity Functions:

A-B:

C-B:

M1 =

(3 10)

6 3
M 1 = 0.05x1

20 ft

10 ft

x1 0

x1

3 kip/ft

x2

M 2 = +27.5 x2 0
3
2
x2 0
2
2
M 2 = 27.5 x2 1.5 x2

B
10 ft

47.5

20 ft

27.5

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## Principle of Virtual Work

 Example 3

Actual Beam
3 kip/ft

Solution:
Step 3: Virtual Work Equation

A
A

C
mM
dx
B
EI
B
B
20 ft
10 ft
m1M 1
mM
=
dx1 + 2 2 dx2
EI
A EI
C
10
20
( x1 )( 0.05x13 )
( 0.5 x2 )(27.5 x2 1.5 x2 2 )
=
dx1 +
dx2
EI
EI
0
0
3
5666.7 kip ft 3 5666.7 kip ft 3 (12 in ft )
=
= 0.750 in
=
EI
[29(103 )kip in 2 ]450 in 4

A =

= 0.750 in

## Computed deflection is negative. Therefore, deflection is in

the opposite direction as the virtual unit load.

Lecture 5-3

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## Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

 Consider the beam shown below,

P1

1
1
P1 y 1 +
P2 y 2
2
2

Eq. 1

After increasing P1 by P1 ,

1
U = P1y1 + P1y1 + P2 y2
2

P2

P1

U =

Theorem

y1

y2

y1

Eq. 2

y2

## Reversing the order of the application

of the loads, i.e. P1 first followed by
P1 and P2 ,

P1

P1

1
1
1
U + U = P1y1 + P1 y1 + P1 y1 + P2 y2
2
2
2
y1

Eq. 3

## Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

Since the strain energy is
equating 3 to the sum of 1 & 2:

P1 y 1 = P1 y 1 + P2 y 2

Eq. 4

1
P1 y 1 + P1 y 1
2

U
1
=
y1 + y1
P1
2
U
=
P1

lim
P1 0

U
= y1
P1

y 1 0 when

P1 0

U =

y1

Theorem

1
1
P1 y 1 +
P2 y 2
2
2

Eq. 1

1
P1y1 + P1y1 + P2 y2 Eq. 2
2

U + U =

## Substituting equation 4 into 2 ,

U =

U =

1
1
1
P1y1 + P1 y1 + P1 y1 + P2 y2
2
2
2
Eq. 3

Eq. 5

or in general case,

U
= yi
Pi

Eq. 6

Castiglianos Thm.

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Theorem

## terms of the system of external loads, the partial derivative of the

strain energy wrt a concentrated external load is the deflection of
a structure at the point of application and in the direction of that

U
M

## Similarly, for applied moments

and resulting rotations,

= i
i

## unique point load or in a direction not aligned with the applied

load, a dummy load is introduced at the desired point acting in the
proper direction.

## Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

 Strain Energy U:

Wk = Pd

P2

## The work done on the bar must equal the

change in energy of the material
2

U = Wk = Pd

P = A

= A L d
= AL d
0

U=

AL 2
d
E 0

= E
d = d

P2

2
U = AL
2E

P
P1

= L

0
2
0

Theorem

Elastic Strain
Energy

Volume

E
Therefore,

U =

2E

dV

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=

For a beam,

1
U =
2E
U =

1
2E

My
I

Theorem
U =

Note,

1
U =
2E

M2
2
I

M
I

2E

dV

My
V I dV
L

## where x is measured along the

axis of the beam

y 2 dA dx

yi =

dx

Using equation 6:

1
U
=
Pi
2E

yi =

U
= yi
Pi

U
1
=
Pi
E

2 M M
dx
I
Pi

L
0

M M
dx
I Pi

Theorem

1
E

M M
dx
I M '

## where M is a couple or moment applied at the point where the

slope is being determined

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Theorem

## Procedure for Analysis:

STEP 1: External Force P or Couple Moment M
 Place a force P on the beam at the point and directed along the line

## of action of the desired displacement.

 If the slope of the tangent is to be determined, place a couple
moment M at the point.
 Assume that both P and M have a variable magnitude.

Theorem

## Procedure for Analysis:

STEP 2: Internal Moments, M
 Establish appropriate x coordinate/s.
 Calculate the internal moments M as a function of P or M and the

## its numerical value if it has actually replaced a real force or couple

moment. Otherwise, set P and M equal to zero.

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Theorem

## Procedure for Analysis:

STEP 3: Castiglianos Theorem
 Apply Castiglianos Theorem to determine the desired deflection

or slope .
 If the resultant sum of all the definite integrals is positive, or is

## in the same direction as P and M. If a negative value results, or

is opposite to P and M.

Theorem

 Example 1
P

## Determine the deflection at the

of P, L, E and I.

C
L/5

4L/5

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 Example 1

Theorem

Actual Beam

Solution:

Deflection)

C
4L/5

L/5

 Example 1

Theorem

Actual Beam

Solution:

A

## Establish x coordinate axis.

Get reactions (if necessary)

MB = 0

4L/5
L/5
4
4L
RA = P
RA ( L ) P = 0
RB
RA
5
5
Moment Function, M
1
L
1
L
4
4
M = + P x 0 P x
= P x P x
5
5
5
5
M 4
L
= x x
P 5
5
NOTE: Do not set P = 0 since there is a force acting at point C where
deflection is required.

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 Example 1

Theorem

Actual Beam

Solution:

## Step 3: Castiglianos Theorem

C =

1 L M
M P dx
EI 0

C
C

4L/5
L/5
L 4
L
1 L4
C =
Px P x x x dx

EI 0 5
5 5
5
2
2
2
P L4
L
4
P L 4
L
L
=

x
x
dx
=

x
x
x
x

dx
EI 0 5
5
5
5
5
EI 0 5
2
2
P L4
P L8
L
P L
L
16 PL3
=
x
dx

x
x

dx
+
x

dx

C =

EI 0 5
EI 0 5
5
EI 0
5
1875 EI
2
P L 16 2
P L8
L
P L
L
Deflection is in the
=
x dx
x x dx +
x dx

same direction as P.
EI 0 25
EI L 5 5
5
EI L 5
5

Theorem

 Example 2
3200 lb/ft

## Determine the deflection at the

left end when E = 10(106) psi,
I = 100 in4.

A
4

37

1/23/2011

## Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

 Example 2

Theorem

Actual Beam
3200 lb/ft

Solution:
Step 1: External Force P (Required:
Deflection)

P
C

## deflection is required. Assume

direction as downwards.

Theorem

Actual Beam
x

Solution:

3200 lb/ft

## Step 2: Internal Moment, M

Establish x coordinate axis.

## Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

 Example 2

MB = 0
4
4
8
RB
RA
4
RA (12) P(16) 3200(4) = 0
2
4
6400
RA = P +

3
3
Moment Function, M
3200
2
6400
1
1
4
x 12
M = P x 0 + P +
x4
2
3
3

M
4
2
6400
4
= x + x 4
M = Px + P +
x 4 1600 x 12
P
3
3
3

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1/23/2011

 Example 2

Theorem

Actual Beam
x

Solution:

3200 lb/ft

P=0

Set P = 0

6400
4
M = Px + P +
x4
3
3

A
4

RA

RB

1600 x 12
6400
M =
x 4 1600 x 12
3

M
4
= x + x 4
P
3

## Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

x

 Example 2

3200 lb/ft

P=0

Solution:
Step 3: Castiglianos Theorem

Theorem

1 L M
4
8
M P dx
RA
EI 0
1 16 6400
4
2

C =
x 4 1600 x 12 x + x 4 dx

EI 0 3
3

C =

1 16 6400
6400 4
4
2
2
3 x x 4 + 1600 x x 12 + 3 3 x 4 1600 3 x 12
EI 0

RB

x 4 dx

1 16 6400
1 16
2

x( x 4 )dx +

1600 x( x 12) dx
EI 4
3
EI 12

193422.222
1 16 6400 4
1 16
4
2
2

+
( x 4) dx

1600 ( x 12 ) ( x 4 )dx =

EI 4 3
3
EI 12
3
EI

39

1/23/2011

x

 Example 2

## Step 3: Castiglianos Theorem

193422.222
EI
193422.222 (12 in ft )
2

lb 12in
1 ft
10 x10 2
100in 4

in 1 ft
12in

1 L M
M P dx
EI 0

3200 lb/ft

Solution:

C =

Theorem

RA

RB

= 0.334 in = 0.334 in

Deflection is upwards.
Computed deflection is
negative which means it
is opposite the direction
of P.

Theorem

 Example 3
P

## Given: Cantilever Beam with

Length L. EI is constant.

B
L/2

L/2

Determine:
The slope at point B of the beam
shown.

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1/23/2011

## Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

 Example 3

Theorem

Actual Beam
P

Solution:
Step 1: External Couple Moment M
(Required: Slope)

M
C

## is required. Assumed direction is

counterclockwise.

L/2

L/2

 Example 3

Theorem

Actual Beam

x
P

Solution:
M

C

L/2

## Reactions are not required.

Moment Function, M
1

M = P x 0 + M ' x

L
L
= Px + M ' x
2
2

L/2

M
L
= x
M '
2

Set M = 0

M = Px

M
L
= x
M '
2

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1/23/2011

## Beam Deflections by Castiglianos

 Example 3

Theorem

Actual Beam

x
P

Solution:
Step 3: Castiglianos Theorem
1 L M
B =
dx
M
EI 0 M '
0
1 L
L
(
)
B =

Px
x

dx

EI 0
2

A
B
L/2

L/2
1

1
Px 2
( Px ) x L dx = 1 ( Px ) dx = 1

EI L 2
2
EI 2 L 2
EI L 2

Always equal to 1.

1 PL2 P( L 2)

=
+
EI 2
2

= 3 PL
8 EI