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EE 311 DC Circuits

Submitted by:

Submitted to:

March 9, 2015

I.

INTRODUCTION

Circuits containing a resistor and only one type of storage element,

either an inductor or a capacitor are considered to be a first-order circuit. For

a step voltage/ current source input, the output can be expressed as

X ( t )=X ( ) + [ X ( 0 ) X ( ) ] x e

t

T

Where X(0) is the circuit response at t=0 and X() is the response at t=.The

parameter T is the time constant of the circuit and gives the time required for

the response to rise from zero to 63% of its final steady state or fall to 37% of

its initial value.

For RC circuit

T =RxC

For RL circuit

T=

L

R

Applying the equations above, the voltage responses across the capacitor

can be written as:

t

1e RC , for t 0

V C (t )=E

t

V R ( t )=E e RC , for t 0

II.

CIRCUIT OPERATIONS

The circuit above was constructed. The voltage across the capacitor was

measured in every 5 seconds interval for 2 minutes right after the powers supply

was turned on. Then the values were recorded in table 1 and the data was

graphed on figure 5.

The procedure above was repeated on the same circuit but this time the 1 M

ohms resistor was replaced with a 500k ohm resistor.

The capacitor was charged until it reached 20 v. Then without turning off the

power supply, the source was quickly removed and the open terminal of the resistor was

connected to the other terminal of the capacitor to form a loop. The voltage across the

capacitor was then measured in every 5 seconds interval for two minutes right after the

loop is formed. The values were recorded on table 2 and graphed on figure 6.

III.

Table 1

Charging

For procedure 5.1

Time (S)

VC(V)

0

0

5

3.41

10

4.70

15

6.01

20

7.29

25

8.42

30

9.32

35

10.27

40

10.96

45

11.51

Time(S)

VC(V)

0

0

5

3.30

10

6.05

15

8.09

20

10.15

25

11.60

30

12.99

35

13.84

40

14.70

45

15.25

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

12.09

12.68

13.16

13.57

13.89

14.15

14.28

14.44

14.57

14.71

14.81

14.95

15.07

15.18

15.30

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

15.59

15.99

16.39

16.90

17.04

17.18

17.28

17.40

17.50

17.60

17.67

17.92

18.05

18.07

18.07

The results above show that the time duration the V C is equal to 63% of the

supplied voltage (50 s) is closely the same to the time constant of the circuit

(47 s). The results also show that in procedure 5.2, the capacitor charged

faster due to the lesser resistance value. Below is the charging graph of an

RC circuit.

Figure 5

25

20

15

1M ohm resistor

10

5

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Table 2

Discharging

Time(S)

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

VC(V)

20.01

14.47

10.81

10.64

8.43

7.64

6.29

5.18

4.36

3.54

2.93

2.529

2.107

1.727

1.498

1.279

1.058

0.907

0.793

0.673

0.573

0.489

0.418

0.365

0.319

The above results also show that the time duration that V C is equal to 37% of

its final value (25 s) is closely the same to the time constant of the circuit

(23.5 s). Below is the discharging graph of an RC circuit.

Figure 6

25

20

15

10

5

0

IV.

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

The experiment gave us basic understanding of the concept of time

constant and the step response of first order circuits. We were able to actually

see the practical measurements of the theory behind the First order circuit.

This is very helpful in making us understand the theory behind step

responses of first order circuit.

With the help of previous knowledge and lectures, the experiment was

made doable and more student friendly. This experiment adds to our growing

knowledge of this program we are taking.

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