You are on page 1of 11

Research and Study Skills

University of Bolton
Business School

Master of Business Administration


Module Details
Module Code and Name:

MBA 7020, Research and study Skills

Marking Tutor:

Prof.Kennedy Gunawardhana

Assignment Number:

01

Assignment Weighting:
Assignment Length:

50%
1500 words Essay

8th July 2016

Issue Date:
Submission Deadline:

28th August 2016 by Midnight

Student Details
Student Name:
Bolton ID:

Mohamed Naseer
1513044

Title of the Assignment:

An Analysis of the leadership quality to improve school

administration in Sh. Atoll Education Centre

Western College Sri Lanka


1

Research and Study Skills

An Analysis of the leadership quality to improve school


administration in Sh. Atoll Education Centre

Student Name: Mohamed Naseer


Student ID: 1513044
Western College Sri Lanka
2

Research and Study Skills

An Analysis of the leadership quality to improve school


administration in Sh.Atoll Education Centre

Introduction
This research discusses An Analysis of the leadership quality to improve school administration in
Sh.Atoll Education Centre (Sh. AEC) and provides an overview of those involved in leadership
and the distributionof tasks in Sh. AEC. So following is the present school administration system
in Sh.AEC.
The principal
In Sh. AEC, there is a pattern in the arrangement of school headship positions. Each school is
controlled by a single individual known as principal, head teacher, or director. This person abides
the accountability for the school operation, which is governed by the country governance
structures. School heads have been mainly responsible for translating policies defined at higher
levels of the educational organization into a reality at the school level. Their charge is to make
sure that guidelines are properlyapplied.
Vice-, deputy and assistant principals
One of the most common roles in addition to the principal is the post of deputy principal or viceprincipal. In practice, some aspects of the jobs of the principal have been deputized to one or
more vice-principal(s), with the support of the school board. This is particularly true in regard to
the predictable management roles of the principal, but often spreads to some leadership roles.
The extent to which this occurs may, however, be controlled by the particular structure of
management of the employing authority for the school.

Supervisor, Head of departments (Middle management)


The role of middle management is greatlyvalued by principals and vice principal. They allow the
principal to focus further on the schools instructive project, to provide opportunities for
collectiveguidance and reinforce policy implementation capacities within the Sh. AEC team.In
Western College Sri Lanka
3

Research and Study Skills

order to be operative with their colleagues, Middle management found it compulsory to learn a
variety of leadership skills while on the job. Those skills included:

Building confidence and developing relationship

Identifyingadministrativecircumstances

Allocating with practices

Supervise the labour

Building expertise and self-reliance in others

Teachers
Teachers work in partnership with principals and other school administrators by
smoothingdevelopments in instruction and promoting practices among their peers that can lead to
improved student learning outcomes. By doing so, they carehigher authorities in encouraging
innovation and creating cultures of success in school. Teacher leadership can neither be
operational nor fruitful without principal support, but neither can the principal make the most of
his or her effectiveness without attaching the capacities and expertise of teachers in leadership
roles.
School boards
One of the ways in which schools are asked to comprise the populations that mantlethem in
school leadership is through governance arrangements that include sharingof those for whom the
school matters: parents, students, teachers and community representatives. School boards, ensure
actual governance, autonomouscontribution and the founding of relationships of schools with the
public.
Theories
While most research today has moved from traditional trait or personality-based theories to a
situation theory, which dictates that the situation in which leadership is implemented is
determined by the leadership skills and characteristics of the leader (Avolio, Walumbwa, &
Western College Sri Lanka
4

Research and Study Skills

Weber, 2009), all modern theories can fall under one of the following three perspectives:
leadership as a progression or relationship, leadership as a grouping of traits or personality
characteristics, or leadership as certain actions or, as they are more commonly cited to,
leadership skills. In the more leading theories of leadership, there exists the idea that, at least to
some degree, leadership is a method that involves influence with a group of people toward the
insight of goals (Wolinski, 2010).
Charry (2012), noting that scholarly awareness in leadership amplified significantly during the
early part of the twentieth century, identified eight major leadership theories. While the earlier of
these focused on the qualities that distinguish leaders from followers, later theories looked at
other variables including situational factors and skill levels.
"Great Man" Theory
Great man theories adoptthat great leaders are born, not made. These theories often describe
leaders as heroic and mythic. The term great man was used because, at the time, leadership was
thought of mainly as a male quality, particularly military leadership (See also, Ololube, 2013).
Trait Theory
The trait theory assumes that people inherit certain traits make them better suited to leadership.
Trait theories often recognize particular personality or behavioural characteristics that are shared
by leaders.
Contingency Theories
Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that
might determine which style of leadership is best suited for a specific work condition. According
to this theory, no single leadership style is appropriate in all situations. Victory depends upon a
number of variables, including leadership style, qualities of supporters and situational features
(Charry, 2012). A contingency factor is thus any situation in any relevant environment to be
considered when designing an organization or one of its components (Naylor, 1999).
Contingency theory states that actual leadership depends on the degree of fit between a leaders
qualities and leadership style and that demanded by a precise situation (Lamb, 2013).

Western College Sri Lanka


5

Research and Study Skills

Situational Theory
Situational theory proposes that leaders select the best course of action based upon situations.
Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for different types of decision-making.
For example, in a situation where the leader is expected to be the most well-informed and
veteran member of a group, adictatorial style of leadership might be best appropriate. In other
instances where group members are skilled experts and expect to be treated as such, a democratic
style may be more effective.
Behavioural Theory
Behavioural theories of leadership are based on the faith that great leaders are made, not born.
This leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on intellectual qualities or internal
states. According to the behavioral theory, people can learn to become leaders through training
and observation. Naylor (1999) notes that interest in the behavior of leaders has been stirred by a
systematic comparison of autocratic and democratic leadership styles.
Participative Theory
Participative leadership theories propose that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input
of others into account. A manager who uses participative leadership, rather than making all the
decisions, seeks to involve other people, thus improving assurance and increasing collaboration,
which leads to better value decisions and a more fruitful business (Lamb, 2013).
Transactional/Management Theory
These theories base leadership on a system of prizes and punishments (Charry, 2012). In other
words, on the notion that a leaders job is to create structures that make it abundantly clear what
is expected of followers and the costs (rewards and punishments) associated with meeting or not
meeting expectations (Lamb, 2013). When employees are fruitful, they are rewarded and when
they fail, they are reprimanded or penalized (Charry, 2012). Managerial or transactional theoryis
often likened to the concept and practice of managementandlasts to be an extremely common
constituent of many leadership models and organizational structures (Lamb, 2013).

Western College Sri Lanka


6

Research and Study Skills

Relationship/Transformational Theory
Relationship theories are often compared to charismatic leadership theories in which leaders with
certain qualities, such as sureness, extroversion, and clearly stated values, are seen as best able to
motivate followers (Lamb, 2013). Relationship or transformational leaders motivate and inspire
persons by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. These leaders
are focused on the performance of group members, but also on each person to fulfilling his or her
potential. Leaders of this style often have great ethical and moral standards (Charry, 2012).
Skills Theory
Skills theory by no means refuses to acknowledge the connection between inherited traits and the
capacity to lead effectively, but argues that learned skills, a developed style, and acquired
knowledge, are the real keys to leadership performance.

Application of Theories
In Sh. AEC principals job toooften focus on a to-do list, helping teachers improve theirteaching,
using data to review and refine the instructionalprogram, and ensuring that the school is kept
clean andsafe.Principal Cultivating leadership in others so thatteachers and other adults assume
their part inrealizing the school vision. In Sh. AEC Principal improves instruction to enable
teachers toteach at their best and students to learn at their utmost manage people, data and
processes.

As transformational theories, focus on the influences formed between leaders and followers Sh.
AEC live up to that, by a complete involvement with others thus creating a connection which in
turn results in enlarged inspirationand morality both in supporters and leaders.
By focusing on regulation, organization and group presentation and the exchanges that take
place between Principal, vice principal and followers, Sh. AEC also practices Transactional
theories.
Western College Sri Lanka
7

Research and Study Skills

Supervisors and HODs act as Participative leaders boost partaking and contributions from group
members and help group members to sense relevant and committed to the decision-making
procedure.
In sh. AEC the Democratically led groups do nearly as well as the autocratic group. School
Board members have more positive feelings and the efforts of group members last even when the
front-runner is absent.

Head of the Departments in leadership roles support Supervisors in their daily work, identify and
share effective practices in the classroom. The leadership practice to enhance student learning
concluded that collective leadership has positive effects on student success.Teachers use Skill
theory state that learned knowledge and acquired skills are noteworthy factors in the practice of
active leadership.
Inspiring teachers to assume leadership roles appears to be working at Sh. AEC. They are
indicating a greater respect for each other and for students. They are working across the
curriculum and coordinating their efforts, help colleagueswork collaboratively, make judgments,
manage conflict, and promote significant change.In Sh. AEC, teachers at all levels are
encouraged. They find time to interact with other teachers, develop resources, deal with struggles
and build collegial relationships.
The involvement of school boards in recruitment decisions has the major advantage that it allows
them to adjust selection procedures taking into account the different needs of school. It also
raises concerns whenever the effectiveness and transparency is at stake. At Sh. AEC, committees
of School Board are regularly met and provide a structure to elect leaders and investigate options
for school improvement.
Professional growth in Sh. AEC was more often the result of collaboration with peers than
activities separated from the normal school routine. Growth occurred as HODs and supervisors
observed and assisted other teachers, worked with Principal and Vice Principal, and were
exposed to new concepts and ideas.

Western College Sri Lanka


8

Research and Study Skills

Conclusion
Sh. AEC Schools has a history of promoting leadership and change. The supervisors, Vice
Principal and principals have long encouraged and supported teachers who provide leadership in
the development and implementation of innovative programs, particularly those to which the
teachers exhibit a strong personal commitment. Teachers are also encouraged to bring ideas back
from conferences or meetings and report their recommendations for change both at faculty
meetings and independently to the supervisor. High talented teachers are identified proactively
and encouraged to developtheir skills. Teachers are exposed to In-house professional growth
opportunities to test their potential for management and leadership. Training opportunitiesare
targeted to develop leaders for schools particularly in need. While theprincipals role in this
institution remains very strong in the management of financial resources andpersonnel, varying
degrees of responsibility are also increasingly shared with others within the school and with
school board members thus making the governance more democratic.

Western College Sri Lanka


9

Research and Study Skills

References
[1]

Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current Theories,
Research, and Future Directions. Annual Review of Psychology 60 (2009), pp. 421-449.
doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163621.
[2] Charry, K. (2012). Leadership Theories - 8 Major Leadership Theories. Retrieved March
23, 2014 fromhttp://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/p/leadtheories.htm
[3] Lamb, L. F., & McKee, K. B. (2004). Applied Public Relations: Cases in Stakeholer
Management. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Routledge.
[4] Lamb, R. (2013). How can Managers Use Participative Leadership Effectively? Retrieved
March 17, 2014, from http://www.task.fm/participative-leadership.
[5] Naylor, J. (1999). Management. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall.
[6] Ololube, N. P. (2012). Sociology of education and society: an interactive approach. Owerri,
Nigeria: SpringField Publishers.
[7] Ololube, N. P., Dudafa, U. J., Uriah,O. A., &Agbor, C. N. (2013). Education for
Development: Impediments to the Globalization of Higher Education in
Nigeria. International Journal of Educational Foundations and Management, 1(2), 109130.
[8] Ololube, N. P. (2013). Educational Management, Planning and Supervision: Model for
Effective Implementation. Owerri: SpringField Publishers.
[9] Wolinski, S. (2010). Leadership Theories. Retrieved June 14, 2014,
fromhttp://managementhelp.org/blogs/leadership/2010/04/21/leadership-theories/.
[10] Ololube, N. P., Egbezor, D. E., Kpolovie, P. J., &Amaele, S. (2012). Theoretical debates on
school effectiveness research: lessons for Third World education development agendas. In
N. P. Ololube& P. J. Kpolovie (Eds.), Educational management in developing economies:
Cases n school effectiveness and quality improvement, (pp. 1-18). Saarbucken: Lambert
Academic Publishers
[11] Dierks, K., Dillard, S., McElliot, K., Morgan, J., Schultz, B., Tipps, L., &Wallentine, K.
(1988). Teacher leadership: Commitment and challenge. Seattle: University of Washington,
Puget Sound, Educational Consortium.
[12] Fay, C. (1992). Empowerment through leadership: In the teachers' voice. In C. Livingston
(Ed.), Teachers as leaders: evolving roles. NEA School Restructuring Series. Washington,
DC: National Education Association.
[13] Hart, A. (1990). Impacts of the school social unit on teacher authority during work
redesign. American Educational Research Journal, 27(3), 503-532.
[14] Lieberman, A. (1992). Teacher leadership: What are we learning? In C. Livingston
(Ed.), Teachers as leaders: Evolving roles. NEA School Restructuring Series. Washington,
DC: National Education Association.
[15] Porter, A. (1986). Teacher collaboration: New partnership to attract old problems. Phi
Delta Kappan, 69(2), 147-152.
[16] Troen, V., & Boles, K. (1992, April). Leadership from the classroom: Women teachers as a
Western College Sri Lanka
10

Research and Study Skills

key to school reform. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education
Research Association, San Francisco, CA.
[17] Wasley, P. (1989, April). Lead teachers and teachers who lead: reform rhetoric and real
practice. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research
Association, San Francisco, CA.

Western College Sri Lanka


11