strain - strength of materials

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strain - strength of materials

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STRAIN

SIMPLE STRAIN

SIMPLE STRAIN

PROPORTIONAL LIMIT (HOOKES LAW)

From the origin O to the point called proportional limit, the stress-strain curve

is a straight line. This linear relation between elongation and the axial force

causing was first noticed by Sir Robert Hooke in 1678 and is called Hooke's

Law that within the proportional limit, the stress is directly proportional to

strain or

SIMPLE STRAIN

The constant of proportionality k is called the Modulus of Elasticity E or

Young's Modulus and is equal to the slope of the stress-strain diagram from O

to P. Then

SIMPLE STRAIN

ELASTIC LIMIT

The elastic limit is the limit beyond which the material will no longer go back

to its original shape when the load is removed, or it is the maximum stress

that may be developed such that there is no permanent or residual

deformation when the load is entirely removed.

SIMPLE STRAIN

ELASTIC AND PLASTIC RANGES

The region in stress-strain diagram from O to P is called the elastic range. The

region from P to R is called the plastic range.

YIELD POINT

Yield point is the point at which the material will have an appreciable

elongation or yielding without any increase in load.

SIMPLE STRAIN

ULTIMATE STRENGTH

The maximum ordinate in the stress-strain diagram is the ultimate strength or

tensile strength.

RUPTURE STRENGTH

Rupture strength is the strength of the material at rupture. This is also known

as the breaking strength.

SIMPLE STRAIN

MODULUS OF RESILIENCE

Modulus of resilience is the work done on a unit volume of material as the

force is gradually increased from O to P, in Nm/m 3. This may be calculated as

the area under the stress-strain curve from the origin O to up to the elastic

limit E (the shaded area in the figure). The resilience of the material is its

ability to absorb energy without creating a permanent distortion.

SIMPLE STRAIN

MODULUS OF TOUGHNESS

Modulus of toughness is the work done on a unit volume of material as the

force is gradually increased from O to R, in Nm/m3. This may be calculated as

the area under the entire stress-strain curve (from O to R). The toughness of a

material is its ability to absorb energy without causing it to break.

SIMPLE STRAIN

WORKING STRESS

Defined as the actual stress of a material under a given loading.

ALLOWABLE STRESS

The maximum safe stress that a material can carry is termed as the allowable

stress .

SIMPLE STRAIN

ALLOWABLE STRESS

The allowable stress should be limited to values not exceeding the

proportional limit. However, since proportional limit is difficult to determine

accurately, the allowable stress is taken as either the yield point or ultimate

strength divided by a factor of safety.

FACTOR OF SAFETY

The ratio of this strength (ultimate or yield strength) to allowable strength.

AXIAL DEFORMATION

In the linear portion of the stress-strain diagram, the stress is

proportional to strain and is given by

since = P / A and = / L, then P / A = E / L. Solving for ,

Where:

= deformation (in or mm)

P = applied load (lb or Newton)

L = length (in or mm)

A = cross sectional area (in2 or mm2)

E = modulus of elasticity (psi or MPa)

= stress (psi or MPa)

AXIAL DEFORMATION

To use this formula, the load must be axial, the bar must have a

uniform cross-sectional area, and the stress must not exceed the

proportional limit.

AXIAL DEFORMATION

If however, the cross-sectional area is not uniform, the axial

deformation can be determined by considering a differential length

and applying integration.

Where:

A = ty

t and y, if variable, must be

expressed in terms of x

AXIAL DEFORMATION

For a rod of unit mass suspended vertically from one end, the total

elongation due to its own weight is

Where

= unit mass in kg/m3

L = length of the rod in mm

M = total mass of the rod in kg

A = cross-sectional area of the rod in mm2

g = 9.81 m/sec2

SHEARING DEFORMATION

Shearing forces cause shearing deformation. An element subject to

shear does not change in length but undergoes a change in shape.

SHEARING DEFORMATION

The change in angle at the corner of an original rectangular element is

called the shear strain and is expressed as

SHEARING DEFORMATION

The ratio of the shear stress and the shear strain is called the

modulus of elasticity in shear or modulus of rigidity and is denoted as

G, in MPa.

SHEARING DEFORMATION

The relationship between the shearing deformation and the applied

shearing force is

Where:

V = shearing force (lbs or Newton) area

As = area acted upon by shearing force (in2 or mm2)

POISSONS RATIO

When a bar is subjected to a tensile loading there is an increase in

length of the bar in the direction of the applied load, but there is also

a decrease in a lateral dimension perpendicular to the load. The ratio

of the sidewise deformation (or strain) to the longitudinal

deformation (or strain) is called the Poisson's ratio and is denoted by

. For most steel, it lies in the range of 0.25 to 0.3, and 0.20 for

concrete.

POISSONS RATIO

where x is strain in the x-direction and y and z are the strains in the

perpendicular direction. The negative sign indicates a decrease in the

transverse dimension when x is positive.

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