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As populations increase, there is also an increase in the need for shelter or structures

thereby increasing the demand for the materials of concrete. Costs of materials are becoming
unaffordable and resources are decreasing, therefore the need for an alternative binding material
as partial replacement for cement and aggregates of concrete are being considered. The main
focus of the journals that I have read about is to find materials which could replace or
supplement the materials used in concrete. Materials that could be reclaimed or recycled from
waste products or by-products of various industries which could then be adequately used in
making a usable concrete.
There are already several researches that have been made in the effort of replacing the
materials in making concrete. Attempts have been made to recycle waste materials and create
concrete composites which could be used for selected applications. We have recycled tires as
chipped rubber aggregates [Shah 2014 Boudaoud 2012], concrete filled with glass reinforced
plastic waste [Osmani 2010]and aggregates that are coated with waste plastics [Rajasekaran
2013]. Viable use would be in precast concrete products such as precast concrete paving blocks,
precast concrete wall elements, light weight concrete and architectural cladding materials
[Osmani 2010]. There are also studies on the use of recycled concrete aggregates wherein it is
observed that up to 60% replacement of natural coarse aggregate may be utilized in
infrastructural applications like concrete pavements and blocks [Shodolapo 2015]. Another study
used 100% replacement of coarse aggregates and it proved capable of achieving design slumps
and compressive strengths within the range of 40 N/mm 2 after 28 days [Noor, 2014]. Other
studies suggest 30% replacement of natural aggregate with recycled aggregate for structural
concrete [Chavhan 2016].
Researches were also conducted on using other alternative sources for the replacement of
cement and aggregates. Experiments on using foundry slag for replacement of fine aggregates
and alccofine for cement which suggests a 10% for alccofine and 45% for foundry slag can be
used to prepare a reasonably high strength concrete [Sharma 2016]. Iron slag can also be
substituted to fine aggregates at an optimum value of 30% with 20% silica fume [Balachandiran
2016]. Results were attained that with the addition of limestone fines as cement paste
replacement without changing the w/c ratio not only decreased the penetration depth, but also
increased the strength of the concrete [Chen 2016]. It is reported that 40% replacement of
natural coarse aggregate with crushed concrete aggregate can be recommended [Krishnakumar
Other materials that were incorporated into concrete are waste glass and steel waste for
the replacement of natural coarse aggregates at 20% [Agarna 2016]. There is also the use of
waste glass powder for the replacement of cement at about 20% [Vasudevan 2013]. For the use
of sawdust, an optimal replacement ratio of 5% can be used [Cheng 2013].
I also read about the study on the effects of curing methods and environment on the
properties of concrete. It is where they compared the mechanical properties of concrete when
cured in water and in air. Results show that water cured concrete specimens incurred higher
strength compared to air cured specimens in all ages of curing [Preetha 2014].
The researches that I found promising are the ones that use of pozzolans like silica fumes,
fly-ash and other materials which exhibit pozzolanic activity. Pozzolans have that micro filling
abilities which render greater strength compared to ordinary Portland cement concretes. Fine
particles of the pozzolans fill the gap between the cement and aggregates thereby enhancing its
microstructure. Studies were made to find the optimum percentage replacements of cement with
these pozzolans and mostly are within the range of 5%-25% cement replacement. 7.5% silica
fume replacement of cement is optimum in chloride ion penetration [Krishnakumar 2013]. A
comparative study was made on the use of silica fume, fly-ash and super pozz and it was found
out that the silica fume caused greater results compared to others [Elsayed 2012]. It was found
out that among the different fly-ash content, maximum strength is found to be for the mix
containing the fly-ash content of 410 kg/m3 [Deepa 2013]. A ternary blend of concrete with 5%
micro silica and 15% fly-ash performed best at all ages and at all w/b ratios studied in terms of
compressive strength [Audinarayana 2013]. Results from experiment suggest a replacement of
sand with stone dust up to 40% and cement with fly-ash up to 30% can be used in making
durable concrete structures [Verma 2013]. A research also concludes that it is more economical
to add fly-ash up to 30% with 10% rubber to obtain a good combination of strength and weight of
concrete [Bala 2014]. An experimental investigation was conducted in the use of fly-ash and
waste foundry sand, and it was found out that 30% of the latter and 40% of the former is the
optimum percentage at which the cement and fine aggregate can be replaced [Madhavan 2016].
Compared to using kaolin, 10% fly-ash obtained the best result which increases the concrete
strength [Gais 2014]. A study suggests that with river sand replaced with 50% quarry sand along
with 25% replacement of cement with fly-ash, it will yield an economical concrete also
[Sreekantan 2013]. Lastly a comparative study shows that SCC containing fly-ash has better
concrete strength than SCC containing rice husk ash [Pai 2014].

The incorporation of ashes of biogenic wastes in concrete are currently being studied for
their engineering properties. Biogenic wastes that were studied include sugarcane bagasse ash,
crushed palmyra palm shells, coconut shells, corn cob ash and rice husk ash. A study was
conducted on the use of rice husk ash and coconut husk ash for the partial replacement of
cement in concrete and results show that up to 15% replacement level is not substantially
different from that of the control, which satisfies the basic requirements for pozzolans. The use of
rice husk ash alone shows an improved strength at an optimum mixture of 25% replacement and
with a w/b ratio of 0.4 [Nair 2013]. Ternary blend of ordinary Portland cement, rice husk ash and
sawdust ash was tested and data shows that a very high strength could be achieved at 10%-15%
replacement of OPC with pozzolans at 50 to 90 days of curing [Ettu 2013].
The use of waste products like fly-ash and rice husk ash would not only decrease the
effects of such wastes to the degradation of the environment but would also help the structural
integrity of infrastructures even with minor implication. Globally, agriculture takes up a
sustainable percent of a countries economy, so the use of biogenic wastes (ashes of these waste
or by-products) in concrete structures will be supplied greatly. The country itself has an
agriculture which could provide the means of using biogenics in making green concrete. Rice
husks are obtained from rice milling factories as by-products. Utilization of this by-product in
concrete would result to a satisfactory environmental implication. I choose to work on the effects
of using fly-ash as partial replacement to cement and rice husk ash for the partial replacement of
sand as fine aggregates. Rice husk ash is considered as a pozzolan and therefore is a
supplementary cementitious material which is usually used for the partial replacement of cement
in concrete. In my study, I want to experiment on the physical properties of concrete when the
rice husk ash is used as a replacement for fine aggregates instead of cement. In this case,
cement would only be replaced partially by fly-ash thereby still permitting a sufficient amount of
binding agent for the concrete structure. It is consistent with all the researches that Ive read
that when cement is replaced to higher percentages, its strength is greatly reduced compared to
control mixes without replacement. Methods of research that will be used will provide the fresh
and hardened properties of concrete samples to be tested. The fresh properties of concrete will
entail a workability test such as slump test. Hardened properties will be obtained through
compressive, split tensile and flexural strength tests. Aside from studying the mechanical
properties of concrete with partial replacement of its materials, I would also want to study the
effects of curing methods. These methods consist of curing the concrete samples in water and
also in air.