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AIM of this course

Obtain knowledge of processes for making


ceramic materials
How to control microstructure of a ceramic
Find relations between processes and
microstructure

Understand the necessity of powder


processing

Metals vs Ceramics
Metals

Ceramics

What is a CERAMIC
Inorganic materials that consist of metallic and
non metallic (or two nonmetallic) elements
Bonded by ionic and/or covalent bonds
ZrO2 has 72% ionic and 27% covalent character

Properties
Good electrical and thermal insulators
Hard and brittle (low toughness and ductility)
Tensile strength 0.69-200 MPa (7000 MPa for Al2O3
whiskers)

Ceramic
Materials
Ceramic Materials
Glasses
Clay
(Amorphous, Products
silica based)
Glass
Ceramics
(poly cry stalline,
eg. Py roceram)

Refractories

Abrasives

Alumina, Silica
Diamond
high purity oxides SiC
Graphite
Silica Sand
Alumina

Cements
Calcium
Silicon

Advanced
Ceramics
Si N
3 4
SiC, BC, WC
ZrO
2

Ceramic-Matr ix
Composites
(f ibre and whisker
reinf ored)

Advanced Ceramics
Electroceramics, Capacitor, Resistor, Piezoelectric
Have been developed over the past half century
Thermal barrier coatings to protect metal structures,
wearing surfaces, etc.
Engine applications made from silicon nitride (Si3N4),
silicon carbide (SiC), Zirconia (ZrO2) and Alumina
(Al2O3)
Heat resistance and other desirable properties have
lead to the development of methods to toughen the
material by reinforcement with fibers and whiskers
opening up more applications for ceramics
COMPOSITES

Engine Components

Rotor (Alumina)

Gears (Alumina)

Turbocharger Comparison
g/cm3
MPa
GPa

(1000C)

Crystalline or Amorphous
The strong dependency of the bonding
on crystallographic direction for covalent
compounds result in a barrier to the
formation of a crystal structure.
Strictly periodic arrangements cannot be
established during solidification, and only
chain molecules are firmed.
GLASS?
An inorganic product high
temperature treatment
(fusion) that has been
cooled to a rigid condition
without crystallization.

Silica Polymorphs

Glass Compositions

Glass Shaping/ Pressing


Softened
Gob

Blow Molding
Softened
glass

Plate Glass Drawing


Processes

Tempered Glass
The strength of glass can
be enhanced by inducing
compressive residual
stresses at the surface.
Two methods are used:
Thermal Tempering
Chemical Hardening
The surface stays in
compression - closing
small scratches and
cracks.

Small Scratches

Hardening Processes
Tempering:
Glass heated above Tg but below the softening
point
Cooled to room temp in air or oil
Surface cools to below Tg before interior
when interior cools and contracts it draws the
exterior into compression.

Chemical Hardening:
Cations with large ionic radius are diffused into the
surface
This strains the lattice inducing compressive
strains and stresses.

Common Ceramic Fabrication


Methods
Starting materials
Gases
Gasliquid
Gassolid
Liquidsolid
Liquids
Solids (powders)

Method (Naming)

Product

Chemical vapor deposition


Directed metal oxidation
Reaction bonding
Reaction bonding
Solgel process
Polymer pyrolysis
Melt casting
Sintering of powders

Films, monoliths
Monoliths
Monoliths
Monoliths
Films, fibers
Fibers, films
Monoliths
Monoliths, films

Why Powder Processing


Ceramics have high Tmelting (ZrO2,
2600C) with a melting point of 2600C) or
decomposes on melting (Si3N4)
Casting results in large grain size (Ingot
microstructure (large grain size).
For advanced ceramics grain size <10m is
desired

The melt casting method is therefore


limited to the fabrication of glasses.

Ceramic Processing
Slip Casting
Sinter
and
Serve

Powder Pressing Process

Filling
Mould

Compaction

Green part
ejected - then
sintered

Sintering/Firing Process

Pressed Ceramic
Particles

Sintered for
a short time

Sintered for
a long time

Why processing is Important?

With PROCESSING, MICROSTRUCTURE is


controlled (designed) which at the end
determines the final product PROPERTIES.

How to Control Microstructure


Microstructure
*Chemical Composition
*Crystal structure
Particle size and
morphoology
Grain size
Homogeneity
Pore size
Dispersion
* Not processing parameters but important in ceramic processing

Examples of Powder and Ceramic


Microstructures

Glass Ceramics
These are primarily silicates containing oxides
such as Alumina (AL2O3), TiO2, LiO2, and
others.
In amorphous form, the glasses are transparent.
Most glasses can be made to transform into a
polycrystalline state by a suitable heat-treatment
process, called devitrification.
An initiator, such as TiO2, is added to begin the
nucleation of ceramic crystals. The product is
called a glass ceramic.
Desirable properties include: high strength and
thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion,
resistant to thermal shock, ease of fabrication.
using conventional methods.

Refractories
Used to provide thermal protection of other
materials in very high temperature applications,
such as steel making (Tm=1500C), metal
foundry operations, etc.
They are usually composed of alumina
(Tm=2050C) and silica along with other oxides:
MgO (Tm=2850C), Fe2O3, TiO2, etc., and have
intrinsic porosity typically greater than 10% by
volume.
Specialized refractories, (those already
mentioned) and BeO, ZrO2, mullite, SiC, and
graphite with low porosity are also used.