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# DESIGN FOR BEAMS - 1

2
Provided beam size = 250*500 mm

2
Fck = 20 N/ mm

Fy = 415 N/ mm

## From beam analysis moment = 189.13 KN-m

Factored moment = 283.70 KN-m
Shear = 121.06 KN
Factored Shear =181.59 KN
Assume the condition is severe. (from IS 456 page no. 47, table- 6 )
Nominal cover = 45mm
25
Effective cover = 45+ 2

## (25mm diameter steel bars are used )

= 57.5mm 60mm
There for effective depth, d = 500-60 = 440mm
Here

l
d

ratio =

9000
440

= 20.45

## Hence the condition is satisfied.

Live load, L.L = 5KN/m (from IS 875, part 2 )
Dead load, D.L = 0.250*0.50*25 = 3.125KN/m
Total load = 5+3.125 = 8.125KN/m
Design ultimate load, Wu = 8.125*1.5 = 12.18KN/m
Mu

= 189.13 KN-m

Mu lim = 0.36

Xumax
d

(1-0.42

Xumax
2
) fck*b d
d

## (from IS 456 page no. 96, equation b )

2
Mu lim = 0.138*20*250* 440

= 133.58KN-m
Here Mu > Mu lim
Hence the section designed as doubly reinforced beam.
Mu Mu lim = Fsc*Asc* (d-d' )
(from IS 456 page no. 96, clause G-1.2 )
Xumaxd '
Strain = 0.0035 (
Xu max

Here ,
d' = Top effective cover of beam
d' = 60mm
Xumax
d

## Xu max = 0.48 * 440

= 211.2
Strain = 0.0035 (

211.260
211.2

3
= 2.5* 10

Fsc

## = Stress corresponding to the strain

i.e.

stress
strain

=E

Where,
E = Modulus of elasticity
5
2
Steel = 2.5* 10 N/ mm

## Stress, Fsc = Strain * E

3
5
2.5* 10 * 2.5* 10

= 501.13 N/ mm

2

## 0.87fy = 0.87*415 = 361.05 N/ mm

Where,
Fsc > 0.87fy
2
There for Fsc = 361.05 N/ mm

We have
Mu-Mu lim = Fsc*Asc* (d-d' )
6

283.7010 133.5810

= 361.05*Asc (440 60 )

283.70106 133.58106
Asc =
361.05380
2

= 1094.18 mm

Asc = (

2
1 62
) = 201 mm
4

## Asc required = 702 mm

1094.18
201

Number of bars =

= 5.4 6 nos.
2
Provided Asc = 6*201 = 1206.36 mm

## There for 16 mm diameter bars are provided at compression zone

Total tension reinforcement

Ast =

Ast 1

Ast 2

## (from IS 456 page no. 96, clause G-1.2 )

Ast 1

Xu
0.36fckbd
*
d
0.87 fy

Ast 1

0.480.3620250440
0.87415

2
= 1052.9 1053 mm

From code,

Ast 2

Ast 2

=1206.36 *

AscFsc
0.87 fy

361.05
361.05

2
= 1206.36 mm

2
Ast required = 1053 + 1206.36 = 2259.29 mm

## Provide 25mm diameter steel bars at bottom

Area of one steel bar = (

Number of bars =

2260
490.62

2
2
25
mm
)
=
490.62
4

= 4.64 5 nos.

## From beam analysis shear force, Vu =191.06 KN

Factored shear = 181.59 KN
Shear stress,

Vu
bd
3

181.591 0
440250

Percentage of steel =

=
c

2
= 1.65N/ mm

100 Ast
bd
1002453
440250

= 2.23

2
=0.80 N/ mm ( from IS 456 page no. 73, table-19 )

v > c
There for shear reinforcement is must

)*bd

## = (1.65 0.80 )*250*440

= 93.5 KN
Provide 8mm diameter 2 legged stirrups
Asv
bsv

0.4
0.87fy

Asv =

2
8
4
) *2

2
= 101 mm

S =

Asv0.87415
2500.4

= 364 mm

## CHECK FOR SPACING

Spacing of stirrups should not greater than 0.75d
i.e. 0.75d = 0.75 * 440 = 330mm 330mm
Hence provide 8mm diameter stirrups at 300 mm centre to centre distance

## CHECK FOR DEFLECTION

A ST required
steel stress, fst = 0.58 *fy * AST provided
2259
= 0.58*415* 2453
2
= 221 N/ mm

A ST required
fsc = 0.58 *fy * AST provided
1094.18

=0.58*415* 1206.36
2
=218.38 N/ mm

## We have percentage of steel at tension = 2.23 and percentage of steel at compression =

1.10
Kt = 0.85 (from IS 456 page no. 38, Fig.4)
Kc = 1.25 (from IS 456 page no. 39, Fig.5)
l
d

effective length
e ffective depth

Effective Length
Centre to centre distance or l+d
= 8+0.1+0.1 = 8.2m
L+d

= 8+0.44

= 8.44m

l
d

l
d <
l
d

9000
440
l
d

= 20.45

*Kt* Kc

*Kt* Kc =21.73

There for

l
d

l
< d

*Kt