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Traction Motors

Under the guidance of:



3rd Year, Electrical department


T.M.E. Division, Block IX
BHEL, Bhopal

This is to certify that VARSHA KHEMKA, student of 2013-17
batch of Electrical Engineering branch, 3rd year of University College of
Engineering Rajasthan Technical University, Kota has successfully
completed her industrial training at BHEL, Bhopal from 23 rd May- 16th
July 2016. She has completed the training as per the training report
submitted by her.



T.M.E. Division, Block IX
BHEL, Bhopal


I, VARSHA KHEMKA, university scholar no. 13EUCEE090, student

hereby declare that the report entitled TRACTION MOTOR AND
TRACTION ALTERNATOR is my own work conducted under the
supervision of Mr.VIKAS RAWTIYA. I have put 8weeks attendance
with the supervisor at the Centre.
I further declare that, the project & project report, which has been
submitted for the award of degree in this university is an original and
authenticated work done by me


With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey
my thanks to complete the training here. I express gratitude to the
Program Manager and other faculty members of Electrical Engineering
Department of University College Of Engineering, Rajasthan Technical
University for providing this opportunity to undergo industrial training
at BHEL, Bhopal.
I do extend my heartfelt thanks to Mr. Suresh Nema, Mr. Vikas Rawtiya,
Mr. Shishu Pal, Mr. Raj Narayan Ram, Mr. HS Gurjar, Mr. Keshav
Trivedi, Mr. Kunal Prasad for providing me this opportunity to be a part of
this esteemed organization and the HR department for their guidance.
I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of BHEL for their cooperation and guidance that helped me a lot during the course of training. I have
learnt a lot working under them and I will always be indebted of them for this
value addition in me.

BHEL was established more than 50 years ago when its first plant was
setup in Bhopal ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment
Industry in India.
BHEL is largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the
energy related/infrastructure sector. BHEL has built over the years, a
robust domestic market position by becoming the largest supplier of
power plant equipment in India, and by developing strong market
presence in select segment of the industry sector and the Railway.
Currently, 80% of the Nuclear power generation in the country is
through BHEL sets.
A dream which has been more than realized with a well-recognized track
record of performance it has been earning profits continuously since
1971-72 and achieved a turnover of Rs 2,658 crore for the year 2007-08,
showing a growth of 17 per cent . Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited is
countrys Navratna company and has earned its place among very
prestigious national and international companies. It finds place among
the top class companies of the world for manufacture of electrical
BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power
Generation's & Transmission, Industry, Transportation,
Telecommunication, Renewable Energy, Defense, etc. BHEL has already
attained ISO 9000 certification for quality management, and ISO 14001
certification for environment management and OHSAS
18001 certification for Occupational Health and Safety Management
Systems. The Company today enjoys national and international presence
featuring in the Fortune International -500 and is ranked among the
top 10 companies in the world, manufacturing power generation
equipment. BHEL is the only PSU among the 12
Indian companies to figure in Forbes Asia Fabulous 50 list.
Probably the most significant aspect of BHELs growth has been its
diversification .The constant reorientation of the organization to meet the
varied needs in time with a philosophy that has led to total development
of a total capability from concepts to commissioning not only in the field
of energy but also in industry and transportation.

In the world power scene BHEL ranks among the top ten manufacturers
of power plant equipment not only in spectrum of products and services
offered, it is right on top. BHELs technological excellence and turnkey
capabilities have won it worldwide recognition. Over 40 countries in
world over have placed orders with BHEL covering individual
equipment to complete power stations on turnkey basis
BHEL has
Installed equipment for over 90000MW of power generation-for
utilities, captive and industrial users.
Supplied over 225000MW a transformer capacity and other
equipment operating in transmission and distribution network up
to 400Kv (AC&DC).
Supplied over 25000 motors with drive control system to power
projects, petro chemicals, refineries, steel, aluminum, fertilizers,
cement plants etc.
Supplied traction electrics and AC/DC locos to power over
12000kms railway network.
Supplied over one million valves to power plants and other
BHEL manufactures over 180 products under 30 major product groups
and caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation
& Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication,
Renewable Energy, etc. The wide network of BHEL's 14 manufacturing
divisions, four Power Sector regional centers, over 100 project sites,
eight service centers and 18 regional offices, enables the
Company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with
suitable products, systems and services -- efficiently and at competitive
prices. The high level of quality & reliability of its products is due to the
emphasis on design, engineering and manufacturing to international
standards by acquiring and adapting some of the best technologies from
leading companies in the world, together with technologies developed in
its own R&D centers.

BHEL has acquired certifications to Quality Management Systems

(ISO 9001), Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14001)
and Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems (OHSAS
18001) and is also well on its journey towards Total Quality
BHEL vision is to become a world class engineering enterprise,
committed to enhancing stakeholder value. The company is
striving to give shape to its aspiration and fulfill the expectations
of the country to become a global presence:Vision:
A world class engineering enterprise committed to enhance
stakeholder values.
To be an Indian multinational engineering providing total
business solution through quality product system and services in the
field of energy, transportation, industry, infrastructure and other potential
Ensure speed of response.
Foster learning, creativity and team work.
Respect for dignity and potential of individuals
Loyalty and pride in company
Zeal for the change.
Zeal to excel.
Integrity and fairness in all matters.
Strict adherence to commitments.
To maintain a leading position as supplier of quality equipments, system
and services in the field of conversion, transmission, utilization, and
conversation of energy for application in the area of electric power,
transportation oil and gas exploration and industries. To utilize

companys capability and resources to expand business in to allied area

and priority sector of economy like defense, communication and
A dynamic organization is one which keeps its aim high, adopts itself
quickly to changing environment, so we are in BHEL. The objectives of
the company have been redefined in the corporate plane for 90s.
To ensure a steady growth by enhancing the competitive edge of BHEL
in existing business, new area and international market so as to fulfill
national expectation from BHEL.
To ensure a reasonable and adequate return on capital employed,
primarily through improvements in operation, efficiency, capacity
utilization & productivity and to generate adequate internal resources to
finance the companys growth.
To build a high degree of customer confidence by providing increased
value of his money through international standards of product quality
performance and superior customer service.
People Orientation
To enable each employee to achieve his potential, improve his
capabilities, understand is role and responsibilities and participate and
contribute to the growth and success of the company.
To achieve technological excellence in operation of indigenous
technologies and efficient absorption and adoption of imparted
technologies to suit business.

Image To fulfill the expectations, which stack holders like government

as owner employee, customer and the country at large have from BHEL.

Heavy Electrical Plant, Bhopal is the mother plant of Bharat Heavy

Electricals Limited, the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise
in India in the energy-related and infrastructure sector, today. It is
located at about 7 kms. From Bhopal Railway station, about 5 kms. from
Habibganj Railway station and about 18 kms. From Raja Bhoj Airport.
With technical assistance from Associated Electricals (India) Ltd., a UK
based company, it came into existence on 29th of August, 1956. Pt.
Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime minister of India dedicated this plant to the
nation on 6th of November, 1960. BHEL, Bhopal with state-of-the-art
facilities, manufactures wide range of electrical equipments. Its product
range includes Hydro, Steam, Marine & Nuclear Turbines, Heat
Exchangers, Hydro & Turbo Generators, Transformers, Switchgears,
Control gears, Transportation Equipment, Capacitors, Bushings,
Electrical Motors, Rectifiers, Oil Drilling Rig Equipments and Diesel
Generating sets.
BHEL, Bhopal certified to ISO: 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001, is
moving towards excellence by adopting TQM as per EFQM / CII model
of Business Excellence. Heat Exchanger Division is accredited with
ASME U Stamp. With the slogan of Kadam Kadam milana hai,
grahak safal banana hai, it is committed to the customers.
BHEL Bhopal has its own Laboratories for material testing and
instrument calibration which are accredited with ISO 17025 by NABL.

The Hydro Laboratory, Ultra High Voltage laboratory and Centre for
Electric Transportation are the only lab of its in this part of the world.
BHEL today is the largest Engineering Enterprise of its kind in India
with excellent track record of performance, making profits continuously
since 1971-72.
BHEL's operations are organized around three business sectors, namely
Power, Industry - including Transmission, Transportation,
Telecommunication & Renewable Energy - and Overseas Business.
This enables BHEL to have a strong customer orientation, to be sensitive
to his needs and respond quickly to the changes in the market.
Defenses etc.
The greatest strength of BHEL is its highly skilled and committed
42,600 employees. Every employee is given an equal opportunity to
develop himself and grow in his career. Continuous training and
retraining, career planning, a positive work culture and participative
style of management all these have engendered development of a
committed and motivated workforce setting new benchmarks in
terms of productivity, quality and responsiveness.
Power is the core sector of BHEL and comprises of thermal, nuclear gas,
diesel and hydro business. Today BHEL supplied sets, accounts for
nearly 66 % of the total installed capacity in the country as against nil
till 1969-70.
BHEL manufactures boilers auxiliaries, TG sets and associate
controls, piping and station C & I up to 500 MW rating with technology
and capability to go up to 1000 MW range. The auxiliary products high
value capital equipment like bowl and tube mills, pumps and heaters,
electrostatic precipitators, gravimetric feeders, fans, valves etc.

BHEL has contracted so far around 240 thermal sets of

various ratings, which includes 14 power plants set up on turnkey basis.
Nearly 85 % of World Bank tenders for thermal sets floated in India
have been won by the company against international competition.
BHEL has adopted the technology to the needs of the
country and local conditions. This has led to the development of several
technologies in house. The fluidized bed boiler that uses low graded
high-ash abrasive Indian coal is an outcome of such an effort. With
large-scale availability of natural gas and the sudden increase in demand,
BHEL began to manufacture gas turbines and now
possesses two streams of gas turbine technology. It has the capability to
manufacture gas turbines up to 200 MW rating and custom built
combined cycle power plants. Nuclear steams generators, turbine
generators, sets and related equipment of 235 MW rating have been
supplied to most of the nuclear power plants in India. Production of 500
MW nuclear sets, for which orders have been received.
BHEL has developed expertise in renovation and
maintenance of power plant equipment besides specialized know how of
residual life assessment, health diagnostic and life extensions of plants.
The four power sectors regional centers at New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata
and Nagpur will play a major role in giving a thrust to this business and
focus BHEL's efforts in this area.
As part of Indias largest Solar Power-based Island
Electrification Project in India, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
(BHEL) has successfully commissioned two Grid-Interactive Solar
Power Plants of 100 KW each in Lakshadweep.
With this, the company has commissioned a total of eleven
Solar Power Plants in the Lakshadweep islands, adding over 1 MW of
Solar Power to the power generating capacity of the coral islands in the
Arabian Sea.
BHEL has proven turnkey capabilities for executing power
projects from concept to commissioning and manufactures boilers,
thermal turbine generator sets and auxiliaries up to 500MW.

It possesses the technology and capability to procure thermal

power generation up to 1000MW.
Co- generation and combined cycle plants have also been
For the efficient use of high ash content coal BHEL supplies
circulating fluidized boiler.
BHEL manufacturers 235MW nuclear sets and has also
commenced production of 500MW nuclear turbine generator sets.
Custom made hydro sets of Francis, pelton and kepian types for different
head discharge combination are also engineering and manufactured by
In, all 700 utility sets of thermal, hydro, gas and nuclear have been
placed on the company as on date. The power plant equipment
manufactured by BHEL is based on contemporary technology
comparable to the best in the world and is also internationally
The Company has proven expertise in Plant Performance Improvement
through renovation modernization and up rating of variety of power
plant equipment besides specialized know how of residual life
assessment, health diagnostics and life extension of plants.
BHEL offer wide-ranging products and
systems for T & D applications Products.
manufactured include power transformers, instrument transformers, dry
type transformers, series and shunt reactor, capacitor tanks, vacuum
and SF circuit breakers gas insulated switch gears and insulators.
A strong engineering base enables the Company to undertake turnkey
delivery of electric substances up to 400 kV level series compensation
systems (for increasing power transfer capacity of transmission lines and
improving system stability and voltage regulation), shunt compensation

systems (for power factor and voltage improvement) and HVDC systems
(for economic transfer of bulk power). BHEL has indigenously
developed the state-of-the-art controlled shunt reactor (for reactive
power management on long transmission lines). Presently a 400 kV
Facts (Flexible AC Transmission System) project under execution.
A wide range of transmission products and systems are produced by
BHEL to meet the needs of power transmission and distribution sector.
These include:
Dry Type Transformers
SF6 Switch Gears
400 KW Transmission Equipment
High Voltage Direct Current System
Series and Shunt Compensation Systems
In anticipation of the need for improved substations, a 33 KV gas
insulated sub station with micro processors base control and protection
system has been done.
BHEL is involved in the development design, engineering,
marketing, production, installation, and maintenance and after-sales
service of Rolling Stock and traction propulsion systems. In the area of
rolling stock, BHEL manufactures electric locomotives up to 5000 HP,
diesel-electric locomotives from 350 HP to 3100 HP, both for mainline
and shunting duly applications. BHEL is also producing rolling
stock for special applications viz., overhead equipment cars, Special
well wagons, Rail-cum-road vehicle etc., Besides traction propulsion
systems for in-house use,
BHEL manufactures traction propulsion systems for other rolling stock
producers of electric locomotives, diesel-electric locomotives, electrical
multiple units and metro cars. The electric and diesel traction equipment
on India Railways are largely powered by electrical propulsion systems
produced by BHEL. The company also undertakes retooling and
overhauling of rolling stock in the area of urban transportation systems.

BHEL is geared up to turnkey execution of electric trolley bus systems,

light rail systems etc. BHEL is also diversifying in the area of port
handing equipment and pipelines transportation systems.
65 % of trains in Indian Railways are equipped with BHEL's
traction and traction control equipment. These include:
Broad Gauge 3900 HP AC / DC locomotives
Diesel Shunting Locomotives up to 2600 HP
5000 HP AC Loco with thyristor control
Battery Powered Road Vehicles and Locomotives

BHEL also caters to telecommunication sector by way of
small, medium and large switching system.
Renewable energy
Technologies that can be offered by BHEL for
exploiting non-conventional and renewable resources of energy
includes: wind electric generators, solar power based water pumps,
lighting and heating systems.

The company manufactures wind electric generators of unit size up to

250 KW for wind farms, to meet the growing demand for harnessing
wind energy.
International operations
BHEL has, over the years established its references in
over 50 countries of the world, ranging from the united-states in the west
to new-Zealand in the far-east. These references encompass almost the
entire product range of BHEL, covering turnkey power projects of
thermal, hydro and gas based type sub-station projects, rehabilitation
projects, besides a wide variety of products, like switch gear,
transformer, heat exchangers, insulators, castings and forgings. Apart
from over 1100MW of boiler capacity contributed in Malaysia, some of
the other major successes achieved by the company have been in Oman,
Saudi Arabia, Libya, Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Egypt, Bangladesh,
Azerbaijan, Sri lanka, Iraq etc. execution of overseas projects has also
provided BHEL the experience of working with world renowned
consulting organizations and inspection agencies.


To remain competitive and meet customers
expectations, BHEL lays great emphasis on the continuous up gradation
of products and related technologies, and development of new products.
The company has upgraded its products to contemporary levels through
continuous in house efforts as well as through acquisitions of new
technologies from leading engineering organizations of the world.
Research and product development centers at each of the manufacturing
divisions play a complementary role.
BHELs investment in R&D is amongst the largest in the corporate
sector in India.
BHEL's vision is to become a world-class engineering enterprise,
committed to enhancing stakeholder value. The company is striving to

give shape to its aspirations and fulfill the expectations of the country to
become a global player.
The greatest strength of BHEL is its highly skilled and committed
42,600 employees. Every employee is given an equal opportunity to
develop himself and grow in his career. Continuous training and
retraining, career planning, a positive work culture and participative
style of management all these have engendered development of a
committed and motivated workforce setting new benchmarks in terms of
productivity, quality and responsiveness.
BHEL has a corporate R & D center supported by R & D groups at each
of the manufacturing divisions. The dedicated effort of BHEL's R & D
engineers have produced several new products like automated storage
retrieval system automated guide vehicles for material transportation etc.
Establishment of Asia's largest fuel evaluation test facility at Tiruchi was
high light of the year. This facility will enable evaluation of combustion,
heat transfer and pollution parameters in boilers.
Major R & D achievement include:
Design manufacture and supply of countries first 17.2 MW
industrial steam turbines.
Development of 4700 HP AC / DC loco for Indian Railways.
Development of largest capacitor voltage transformers of 8800 PF
400 KV rating.
Development and application low cost ROBOTS for job
According to ex- CMD Mr. R.K.D. Shah, "BHEL is spending Rs.
60 Crores on Research and Development. Earning from product which
has been commercialized has gone up 26 % to Rs. 760 Crores."
PRODUCTSThermal Power Plants
Steam turbines, boilers and generators of up to 800 MW capacity
for utility and combined-cycle applications ; Capacity to

manufacture boilers and steam turbines with supercritical system

cycle parameter and matching generator up to 1000 MW unit size.
Steam turbines, boilers and generators of CPP applications;
capacity to manufacture condensing, extraction, back pressure,
injection or any combination of these types of steam turbines.
Nuclear Power Plants
Steam generator & Turbine generator up to 700 MW capacity.
Gas-Based Power Plants
Gas turbines of up to 280 MW (ISO) advance class rating.
Gas turbine-based co-generation and combined-cycle systems of
industry and utility applications.
There are other products given as follows
Hydro Power Plants, DG Power Plants, Industrial Sets, Boiler,
Boiler Auxiliaries, Piping System, Heat Exchangers and Pressure Vessels
Pumps, Power Station Control Equipment, Switchgear, Bus Ducts,
Transformers, Insulators, Industrial and Special Ceramics, Capacitors,
Electrical Machines, Compressors, Control Gear, Silicon
Rectifiers, Thyristor GTO/IGBT Equipment , Power Devices,
Transportation Equipment Oil Field Equipment, Casting and Forgings,
Seamless Steel Tubes, Distributed Power Generation and Small Hydro
# Thermal Sets, Hydro Sets, Motors &
Control Gears.
# Bypass & Pressure Reducing Systems

Sulzer Brother Ltd.


# Electronic Automation System for

Steam Turbine & Generators

Siemens AG.

# Francis Type Hydro Turbines

General Electric

# Moisture Separator Reheaters

Baloke Duerr

# Christmas Trees & Conventional Well

National Oil Well

Head Assemblies, USA

# Steam Turbines , Generators and Axial


Siemens AG.

# Cam Shaft Controllers and Tractions

Current Control Units

Siemens AG.


Supplied to all major utilities in India :
National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)
ALL State Electricity Boards (SEBs)
TNB, Malaysia
PPC, Greece
MEW, Oman
OCC, Oman
GECOL, Libya

Trinidad & Tobago

New Zealand
Tanzania etc
There are 20 Divisions of BHEL, they are as follows:
HEEP, Haridwar
HPEP, Hyderabad
HPBP, Tiruchi
SSTP & MHD, Tiruchi
CFFP, Haridwar
BHEL, Jhansi
BHEL, Bhopal
EPD, Bangalore
ISG, Bangalore
ED, Bangalore
BAP, Ranipet
IP, Jagdishpur
IOD, New Delhi
COTT, Hyderabad
IS, New Delhi
CFP, Rudrapur

HERP, Varanasi
Regional Operations Division ARP, New Delhi
TPG, Bhopal
Power Group (Four Regions and PEM)


First Generation Units


Heavy Electrical Plant


Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant


Heavy Electrical Power Equipment


High Pressure Boiler Plant

Second Generation Units


Transformer and Locomotive Plant


Central Foundry and Forge Plant


Seamless Steel Tube Plant

Unit Through Acquisition and Merger


Electronic Division
Electro Porcelain Division

New Manufacturing Units


Boiler Auxiliaries Plant


Insulator Plant


Component and Fabrication Plant


Industrial System Group

BHEL Bhopal has total 14 blocks spreaded around 20 sqkm. It

Block (1A)
PFM- pre fabrication manufacturing.
SFM- start fabrication manufacturing.
HCM-heat and condenser manufacturing.
hydro turbine
WTM- water turbine manufacturing.
FBM- fabrication manufacturing.
EM- electric manufacturing.
LEM- large electric motor manufacturing.
PLM- plant large motor.
HRP- heavy rotor plant.
IMM- industrial motor manufacturing.

TAM- traction alternator motor

TXM- traction motor.
TCB-transformer capacitor and bushing.
SCR- switch gear, control gear and rectifier.
FYM- foundry manufacturing.
STM- steam turbine manufacturing.
MOD & WEX modernisation & work engineering
CIM- coil & insulation mgf.
TXM- traction motor & mgf.

PRM- press shop mgf.
TGM- tool & gauge mgf.
In it heavy transformer are manufactured.
UHV- ultra high voltage. It is used for testing the turbine and and
equipment comes from all over Asia.
HLX- hydro turbine testing lab.

Traction is defined as a physical process in which a tangential
force is transmitted across an interface between two bodies through
dry friction or an intervening fluid film resulting in motion,
stoppage or the transmission of power.
Traction refers to max. Frictional force that can be produce b/w
surface without slipping. Or uniform pulling railways.

The units of traction are those of force, or if expressed as a

coefficient of traction (as with coefficient of friction) a ratio.
The traction produced by a vehicle if expressed as a force is
synonymous with tractive effort, or tractive force, and closely
related to the term drawbar pull.

Types of Traction Systems:

Steam Locomotives
Internal Combustion Engines
Diesel Locomotives
Diesel Electric Locomotives
Battery operated Locomotives
Electric Traction Systems

Railways traction
Classification of trains

Diesel-electric locomotives were introduced in the United States
in 1924, and have become the most widely used type of
locomotive. The modern diesel-electric locomotive is a selfcontained, electrically propelled unit. Like the electric
locomotive, it has electric drive, in the form of traction motors
driving the axles and controlled with electronic controls. It also
has many of the same auxiliary systems for cooling, lighting,
heating, and braking. It differs principally in that it has its own
generating station instead of being connected to a remote
generating station through overhead wires or a third rail. The
generating station consists of a large diesel engine coupled to an

alternator or generator that provides the power for the traction


An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electricity
from an external source. Sources include overhead lines, third
rail, or an on-board electricity storage device such as a battery,
flywheel system, or fuel cell.
Electric locomotive receives current from overhead line through
pantograph. This high voltage is step down in case of single
phase 25 KV supply and then fed through control and stabilizing
circuit to the motors. In case of DC supply, it is fed to motor
through control equipment.

Multiple units
The term multiple unit or MU is used to describe a self-propelling train
unit capable of coupling with other units of the same or similar type and
still being controlled from one cab. The term is commonly used to
denote passenger train sets that consist of more than one carriage, but
single self- propelling carriages, or rail cars, can be referred to as
multiple units if capable of operating with other units.
Multiple units are of three main types:

Electric Multiple Units (EMUs)

Diesel Multiple Units (DMUs)
Diesel Electric Multiple Units (DEMUs)
Most MUs are powered either by a diesel engine driving the wheels
through a gearbox or hydraulic transmission (DMUs), or by traction
motors, receiving their power through a live rail or overhead wire


This division consists various sections as follows:1.

Stator machine shop

Commutator & core manufacturing
Rotor manufacturing
Armature winding
Magnetic frame shielding

6. Assembly
7. Testing


In this shop stator frame is manufactured as shown in fig.
Manufacturing process
1. Pinion end semi finished boring
2. Commutator end semi finished boring
3. Centre line marking (by CNC machine)
4. Drilling and Tapping of both ends
5. Pole Pad Machining
6. All round machining
7. All round drilling and tapping
8. Clearance bore
9. Final boring
10. Central Distance(CD) Machining
11. Blocks welding(for brush holder)
12. Deburring

All Round machining perform various function.

a) Pole hole machining.
b) The facing of dust and other openings (for brush changing)
c) Milling of suspension Pad.
d) Axle tube milling.
e) Pole pad milling
f) Joint Face Machining.
g) Gang Machining.
h) Resting Pad Machining.
i) Brush Gear Pad Machining.
j) Joint Hole.
k) Cover Machining.
l) Cable Hole.
m) Cable Clit.

An armature generally refers to one of the two principal electrical
components of an electrical machine generally in
a motor or generator but it may also mean the pole piece of
a permanent magnet or the moving iron part of a solenoid or relay.
The other component is the magnetic field (magnetic flux) in the air-gap,
which the armature interacts with, thus the field component can
comprise either permanent magnets, or electromagnets formed by a
conducting coil, such as another armature.

The armature, in contrast, must carry current, so it is always

a conductor or a conductive coil, oriented normal to both the field and to
the direction of motion, torque (rotating machine), or force (linear
machine). The armature's role is twofold. The first is to carry current
crossing the field, thus creating shaft torque in a rotating machine or
force in a linear machine. The second role is to generate
an electromotive force (EMF).

A commutator is a moving part in certain type of electric motors and
electrical generators that periodically reverses the current direction
between the rotor and the external circuit. It consists of a cylinder
composed of multiple metal contact segments on the
rotating armature of the machine. The windings (coils of wire) on
the armature are connected to the commutator segments.
Commutators are used in direct current (DC) machines. In a motor the
commutator applies electric current to the windings. By reversing the
current direction in the rotating windings each half turn, a steady
rotating force (torque) is produced. In a generator the commutator picks
off the current generated in the windings, reversing the direction of the
current with each half turn, serving as a mechanical 0rectifier to convert
the alternating current from the windings to unidirectional direct
current in the external load circuit.

Manufacturing process of COMM

COMM. bar is mainly copper bar having two part align at 90 deg. The copper bars
and mica sheets are put alternatively in commutator.
Bottom ring > pad segments(for support) > copper bars and mica sheets aligned
at 90deg. > ring fixture > tapping > job is pressed(90-110 Ton) &
heated(160deg) [this process is done 3 to 4 times] > v-turning (CNC machine)
>assembly >cum hub, mica v-ring, steel v-ring, bolts > leveling(by pad) >

Testing of COMM
There are two type of testing:Bar to bar testing
This is the testing in which short circuit between the copper bars of
COMM checked. If there is any breakage in mica sheet, overlapping,
dust particle or burr then short circuit will occur.
HV testing
This the testing done for separator mica. By this we check insulation is
proper or not.
In this basically rotation of COMM is done. Around 3000rpm is checked
according to rotation of railway engine shaft. We rotate the COMM

double the train movement and also temperature is checked. So that

commutation is smooth.
CORECore is a combination of silicon steel punchings.
The armature core shall be built of high permeability steel laminations
assembled with an interference fit on the armature shaft. The laminations
shall be secure, clamped between thick end plates, which shall also act
as supports for the winding overhangs. The end plates shall have stepped
-back design to facilitate the use of U -piece in the slot to avoid
mechanical damage of the coil insulation.
A punching is as shown in fig. a stack of punchings is made according to
length needed & then shaft is inserted in b/w by shrink fitting.

The armature winding is the main current-carrying winding in which the
electromotive force or counter-emf of rotation is induced. The current in
the armature winding is known as the armature current. The location of

the winding depends upon the type of machine. The armature windings
of dc motors are located on the core, since they must operate in union
with the commutator.

Process chart for winding area

Armature from COMM. & core section
Equaliser Winding
Armature/Main Winding
Oven for5-6 hrs. at 160-165deg.

Temporary Bending

Wedging & Patching

First Turning
TIG Welding
Oven for5-6 hrs. at 160-165deg.

Permanent Bending(resin glass)

Oven for5-6 hrs. at 160-165deg.

Vaccum Pressure Impregnation

Oven for 10-12 hrs. at 190-195 deg.

Second & Final turning

Mica under cutting & PTFE Fitment

Shipment to Assembly

HV /FT TestingThis the testing done for coil insulations like hostrip & captain
paper. By this we check insulation is proper or not.
TM 4907- 4.5 kV for 15 sec
Impulse TestingThis the testing done for checking interturns & coil
In this test HV is given to armature only for few micro sec.
TM 4907 After 1st turning 1.5 kV
After TIG Welding 1.5 kV
After PB/final 0.75 kV

A rotor is the rotating part used in the most common form
of AC induction motor. It consists of a cylinder of steel with aluminum
or copper conductors embedded in its surface.
The motor rotor shape is a cylinder mounted on a shaft. Internally it
contains longitudinal conductive bars (usually made of aluminum or
copper) set into grooves and connected at both ends by shorting rings
forming a cage-like shape. The name is derived from the similarity
between this rings-and-bars winding and a squirrel cage.
The solid core of the rotor is built with stacks of electrical steel
laminations. The rotor has a smaller number of slots than the stator and
must be a non-integer multiple of stator slots so as to prevent magnetic
interlocking of rotor and stator teeth at the starting instant.
The rotor bars may be made either of copper or aluminum. Some larger
motors have aluminum or copper bars which are welded or brazed to
end-rings. Since the voltage developed in the squirrel cage winding is
very low, no intentional insulation layer is present between the bars and
the rotor steel.


Here poles, interpoles, coils are set in the stator

Poles from CIM block

The main pole shall be laminated. The optimum compole tip
profile and compole air gap shall be fixed after intensive
commutation and black band testing.
The field coils shall be placed around pole cores with minimum of
overhang on the sides. The main field and commutator field inter
-connectors shall be brazed with sliver solder.
The field -to -field connections may be provided with rigid copper
bus bar, but all connections to and from the brush boxes, shall be
with flexible cables.

The support points of inter connections shall be provided with

50% higher ground insulation level than that on field coils.
The field coil connectors shall be firmly supported by tying with
glass fiber cord etc. to suitable projecting damps fixed to the stator
inside surface.

In this area the armature and stator is assembled together .Brush holder
and fixture are attached & bearing assembly is done. Clearance is also

brush holder provided in the motor shall be Radial Type.


brush box design shall be such that the brushes should be

staggered to cover the entire working length of the commutator
to avoid grooving.

Brush holder spring shall be conical spiral type.

It shall be possible to remove and refit the brushes easily during


For convenience in AC M/C dropping is done horizontal.

While in DC M/C dropping is done vertical.
In bearing assembly, inner & outer bearing are attached to
armature (to decrease friction & smooth rolling). End shields
&clambering are also attached for safety purpose. Lubrication is
also done (for minimum friction).
The traction motors than be provided with four lead cables, two
for armature and compole and two for the main field, which
shall be terminated in a terminal box mounted on the stator and
suitably sealed at cable entry / exit points with RTV compound.

1. Light Run TestTesting used to test vibration, temperature, sound, rpm. For measuring
rpm optical tachometer is used.
In this test firstly machine is driven at a fix speed for some time then
at some more speed then finally at over speed for 2 min.

TM 4907- Speed 1- 1100 rpm for 30 min.

Speed 2- 1500 rpm for 15 min.
Over speed- 2300rpm for 2 min.
Then temperature of bearing is checked which should not be more
than 35 deg.
Vibrations & noise should be limited.
Grading of carbon brush & bedding should be done 80%.
2. Routine TestSeries Hopkinson Test For DC MotorsHopkinson's test is a useful method of testing the efficiency of a dc
machine. It is a full load test and it requires two identical machines
which are coupled to each other. One of these two machines is
operated as a generator to supply the mechanical power to the
motor and the other is operated as a motor to drive the generator.
For this process of back to back driving the motor and the
generator, Hopkinson's test is also called back-to-back test or
regenerative test.

When the machine is started it is started as motor. The shunt field

resistance of the machine is adjusted so that the motor can run at
its rated speed. The generator voltage is now made equal to the
supply voltage by adjusting the shunt field resistance connected
across the generator. This equality of these two voltages of
generator and supply is indicated by the voltmeter as it gives a zero
reading at this point connected across the switch.
Step1:- Cold resistance (R1) is measured at constant V-I.
Step2:- Hot resistance (R2) is measured after one hour running of
motor at constant V-I.
Step3:- Temperature rise is measured from R1 to R2.
If temperature rise is under limit then tested further otherwise go back
for repairing.
Step4:- Speed Load Test- characteristics test

Step5:- Commutation Test- sparking level is checked at constant V-I.

Step6:- Over speed test- motor is rotated at maximum speed for 2 min
Step7:- HV Test- insulation is checked.
NO Load & Full Load Test for AC MotorsThe efficiency of large motors can be determined by directly
loading them and by measuring their input and output powers. For larger
motors it may be difficult to arrange loads for them. Moreover power
loss will be large with direct loading tests. Thus no load and blocked
rotor tests are performed on the motors. As the name suggest no load test
is performed when rotor rotates with synchronous speed and there is no
load torque. This test is similar to the open circuit test on transformer.
Actually, to achieve synchronous speed in an induction motor is
impossible. The speed is assumed to be synchronized. The synchronous
speed can be achieved by taking slip = 0 which creates infinite
impedance in the rotor branch. This test gives the information regarding
no-load losses such as core loss, friction loss and windage loss. Rotor
copper loss at no load is very less that its value is negligible. Small
current is required to produce adequate torque. This test is also wellknown as running light test. This test is used to evaluate the resistance
and impedance of the magnetizing path of induction motor. The test is
performed at poly-phase voltages and rated frequency applied to the
stator terminals. When motor runs for some times and bearings get
lubricated fully, at that time readings of applied voltage, input current
and input power are taken. To calculate the rotational loss, subtract the
stator I2R losses from the input power.

SHIPMENTAfter testing , painting & cleaning of motor is done.

A pre-dispatch inspection is done by Customer representative officer and
then it is shipped to customer.
The traction motor shall be supplied complete with pinion, gear case,
suspension tube and bearing assembly components, connecting lead
cables and with any other accessories that may be required for its correct
assembly and commissioning as well as to ensure its reliability and
maintainability on the locomotive.

An alternator is an electrical generator that converts mechanical energy
to electrical energy in the form of alternating current.
The traction alternator generates AC electricity which is used to
provide power for the traction motors mounted on the trucks (bogies).
In older locomotives, the alternator was a DC machine, called a
generator. It produced direct current which was used to provide power
for DC traction motors.
The traction alternator is single bearing machine designed for operating
directly connected to the diesel engine with a flexible disc type coupling.
The high voltage capability of the alternator provides a wide
locomotive speed range without the need for field weakening.
The traction alternator has salient rotating field, which provides
low Inductance design of field circuit and contributes to quick
response of the alternator in cooperation with static exciter.
The main pole field winding is provided with mechanical rigidity
and good heat transfer characteristics.
Coil supports are provided to prevent distortion of the main pole
coils due to centrifugal forces.
The armature of the exciter consisting of low loss steel laminations
is also mounted on the shah.
The class H Insulation System with solvent less resin provides best
protection against moisture, sand, salt, humidity and corrosive
atmosphere ensuring trouble free operations under the most
demanding conditions.
Transient voltage dips are lower.
Higher rating diodes have been used in rotating rectifier assembly
to ensure high product reliability & performance.
The rotating diodes are protected by a surge suppressor, which has
the ability to chop the high voltage transients.

The alternator is forced cooled by an engine driven centrifugal

blower. Cooling air enters the air box and first cools the diode
rectifier banks before cooling the alternator.
Reduced temperature rise and Higher Thermal stability.
Silicon rubber insulation provides cushioning effect to stator
Classification of alternator
1) According to application
Automotive type - used in modern automobile.
Diesel electric locomotive type - used in diesel electric
multiple unit.
Marine type - used in marine.

Brush less type - used in electrical power generation

Plant as main source of power
Radio alternators - used for low brand radio
Frequency transmission.
2) According to their design
Salient pole type.
Cylindrical rotor type


Traction alternator consists of-

Rectifier Bridge.
Slip rings, brushes


Stator is the stationary part of the alternator and contains 3phase armature windings. Stator core is built up of silicon
steel laminations to reduce eddy current losses.

The laminations are provided with slots on its inner

periphery and are packed tightly together by cast iron frame.

STATOR WINDING The three phase windings are placed in the slots and serves as
the armature windings of the alternator.
The stator winding has three sets of windings. Each is formed
into a number of evenly spaced coils around the stator core
Common properties of armature winding.
1. First and most important property of an armature winding
is, two sides of any coil should be under two adjacent
poles. That means, coil span = pole pitch.
2. The winding can either be single layer or double layer.
3. Winding is so arranged in different armature slots, that it
must produce sinusoidal emf.
There are different types of winding used in alternator. The windings can
be classified as
Lap winding

wave winding

After winding the job of alternator TA-1010 is put into VPI Plant
containing varnish RE-009 for 3hrs & then into oven for 10 hrs.
[5hrs at 140deg. & 5hrs at 170deg].
The job of alternator TA-9901 & 9201 is dipped into poly buta dyne
varnish & then into oven for 10 hrs. [2hrs at 120deg, 2hrs at 150deg. &
6hrs at 175deg.].
TestingTwo types of testing is done during and after winding.
1) Resistance test(at 20deg) for checking brazing.
2) HV testIt is done two times.
a) After winding & before brazing
b) After VPI & before dispatch
After this job is dispatched to assembly section.
ROTOR The rotor is rotating part of the alternator. It carries a field
winding which is supplied with dc current through two slip
rings by a separate dc source.
This dc source (exciter) is generally a small dc generator
mounted on the shaft of the alternator.

The rotor contains the field winding wound over an iron core
which is part of the shaft.
Each end of the rotor field winding is attached to a slip ring.
Stationary brushes connect the alternator to the rotor.
Diode Rectifier BridgeThe Diode Rectifier Bridge is responsible for the
conversion or rectification the AC voltage into DC voltage.
Two diodes are connected to each stator lead. One positive the other
A rectifier bridge can contain 3, 6, or sometimes 8 diodes depending on
its design. Diodes are like one way check valves that allow current to
flow in only one direction. A positive biased diode allows only positive
voltage to pass through and a negative bias diode allows only negative.
The bridge's job is to convert AC voltage to DC voltage. This process is
known as rectification. It allows the positive voltage to pass onto the
Bat+ terminal and onto the battery, while allowing negative voltage to
pass to the ground. Most alternators have 3 or 6 diodes. If one of these
fail, it will reduce alternator output by approximately 1/3.
Diodes are mounted in a heat sink to dissipate the heat generated by the
diodes. Diodes redirect the AC voltage into DC voltage so the battery
receives the correct polarity.

Voltage Regulator
The regulator will attempt to maintain a predetermined charging system voltage level.
When charging system voltage falls below this point, the regulator will
increase the field current, thus strengthening the magnetic field, which
results in an increase of alternator output.
When charging system voltage raises above this point, the regulator
will decrease field current , thus weakening the magnetic field, and
results in a decrease of alternator output.
Working of alternatorAs the rotor assembly rotates within the stator winding.

The alternating magnetic field from the spinning rotor induces an

alternating voltage into the stator winding.
The strength of the magnetic field and the speed of the
rotor affect the amount of voltage induced into the stator.
The generated voltage value depends upon the speed, the
dc field excitation and the power factor of the load.
This AC voltage is converted by the output diodes into pulsating DC
voltage, which charges the battery.
The field current is supplied from either the battery, via the diode trio.
The amount of field current allowed to pass through the regulator to the
rotor, or field coil, is controlled by the voltage feedback from the battery.
TESTING1) Polarity Test this test is done for checking N & S pole
position by using galvanometer point deflection.
2) HV Test- job is kept at 5kv for 2 min.
ASSEMBLY SECTIONIn this area the rotor and stator is assembled
together .Brushes, slip rings and diode Rectifier Bridge are attached &
bearing assembly is done.
TESTING1) Current Injection TestThis test is done for healthiness of
electrical connections. High current is given to alternator so
that it heats up & all connections are checked.
2) Heat Run TestAlternator is driven at full load current for one

hour. Then vibrations, temperature, air outlet & inlet all are measured on
each side, all should be under limit.
3) Open Circuit TestIn This test field voltage & output of both
rectifier are measured by varying field current.
The open-circuit test or the no-load test, is performed by driving
the generator at its rated speed while the armature winding is left
open. The field current is varied in suitable steps and the
corresponding values of the open-circuit voltage varied in suitable
steps and corresponding values of the open-circuit voltage
between any two pair of terminals of the armature windings are
recorded. The OCC follows a straight-line relation as long as the
magnetic circuit of the synchronous generator does not saturate. In
the linear region, most of the applied mmf is consumed by the airgap; the straight line is appropriately called the air-gap line. As the
saturation sets in, the OCC starts deviating from the air-gap line.
4) Short Circuit TestIn this test field voltage & field current are
measured by varying load current. The short-circuit test
provides information about the current capabilities of a
synchronous generator. It is performed by driving the generator
at its rated speed when the terminals of the armature winding
are shorted. An ammeter is placed in series with one of the
three shorted lines. The field current is gradually increased and
the corresponding value of the armature current is recorded.
When the per phase short-circuit current is plotted as a function
of the field current, the graph is called the short circuit
characteristic of a generator.

The current for the traction motor is obtained from traction alternator.
The 6 traction motor on the locomotives will work either in parallel (6P)
or series parallel (2S-3P), with or without field weakening (49%FF).