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EGCH 403

Sira Srinives

References
Bird, R.B., Stewart, W.E., and Lightfoot, E.N.,

Transport Phenomena, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons,


2002.
Welty, J.R., Wicks, C.E., Wilson, R.E., Rorrer, G.
Fundamentals of momentum, heat and mass
transfer, 4th ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2002

COURSE SYLLABUS

Vector and Tensor analysis


Fluid static and introduction to transport phenomena
Momentum shell balance
General isothermal momentum equation
Multivariable flows

Introduction to conduction and convection heat transfer


Generalized non-isothermal equation of change
Multivariable energy transfer
Introduction to mass transfer
Steady-state diffusion with reaction
Generalized multicomponent
Multicomponent mass transfer

Vector, Tensor, and Coordinates


-In Catersian coordinates, a coordinate
is assigned using x, y and z.
-In many cases, choosing the right
coordinate can help simplifying the
system significantly.
-The most important thing is to
understand and know how to apply
each coordinate to the right system and
to convert from one coordinate to the
other.

Vector, Tensor, and Coordinates

Cartesian: x, y, z
Cylindrical: r, , z
Spherical: r, ,

Vector, Tensor, and Coordinates


Correlation between Cartesian and cylindrical
coordination

x = r cos
y = r sin
z=z

2
2
x
y
+
+
r=

= arctan (y/x)
z=z

Vector, Tensor, and Coordinates


Spherical coordinates
x = r sin cos
y = r sin sin
z = r cos

2
2
2
+
x
+
y
+
z
r=

= arctan x 2 + y 2

= arctan (y/x)

Integral operation in different coordinates


Cylindrical coordinates

z 2 2 r2

z1

1 r1

f (r , , z )rdrddz

Differential volume element


r dr d dz

r d

dr

Integral operation in different coordinates


z 2 2 r2

f (r , , z )rdrddz

z1

1 r1

when

Differential volume element


r dr d dz

r = r0 (constant)

z2 2

f (r , , z )r ddz
0

z1

when

= 0 (constant)

z 2 r2

f (r , , z )rdrdz
0

z1 r1

when
2 r2

z = z0 (constant)

f (r , , z )rdrd
0

1 r1

r d

dr

From
z 2 2 r2

f (r, , z )rdrddz

BUZZ
GROUP 2

z1 1 r1

If

f (r, , z ) = r

find
z1 = H 1 = 2 pi r1 = R

f (r, , z )rdrddz

z1 = 0 1 = 0 r1 = 0

r d

dr

Integral operation in different coordinates


Spherical coordinates
2 2 r2

1 r1

f (r , , )r 2 dr sin dd
Differential volume element
r2 dr sin d d
Z-axis

r sin d

Integral operation in different coordinates


2 2 r2

f (r , , )r 2 dr sin dd

1 r1

when

r = r0

2 2

2
(

)
g
,
,
r

r
0 sin dd
0

when
1 1

= 0

2 r2

2
g
(
)
r
,

r
sin 0 drd
0

when
1 r1

2 r2

= 0

2
g
r

,
)
r
sin drd
(
,

1 r1

Differential volume element


r2 dr sin d d

BUZZ GROUP
2

From
2 2 r2

f (r, , )r dr sin dd
2

1 1 r1

f (r, , ) = r

If
find

2 = 2 pi 2 = pi r2 = R

f (r, , )r dr sin dd
2

1 = 0 1 = 0 r1 = 0

MOMENTUM TRANSPORT

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/
86/Billard.JPG

http://drjudywood.com/articles/BBE
/BBEpics/momentum.jpg

Fluid dynamics in transport phenomena

Newtons law of viscosity


- Define a system as two parallel plates. Each
plate has a surface area of A, located at a
distant of from one another.
- Fill the empty space between these two
plates with fluid and pull the lower plate at a
constant velocity V in +x direction.

Fluid dynamics in transport phenomena


Fig 1.1-1

Fluid dynamics in transport phenomena


- As soon as the fluid flow reaches steady
state (constant velocity, V), constant force (F)
required to maintain the steady motion can
be presented as
F
V
=
A

, whereas

fluid viscosity

- F/A was defined as yx that represented the


force in x direction exerted on a unit area
perpendicular to the y direction.

Newtons law of viscosity


- Then, the shear force in x direction that
exerts on the unit area perpendicular to y
direction is proportional to the negative value
of velocity change in x direction with respect
to y direction.

dv x
yx =
dy

This is known as Newtons


law of viscosity