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Vocabulary Units 1-12. Word bank will be included.


Parts of speech:

• Nouns (common and proper) ex: Sally went to the Park.

• Verbs (action, verb of being) ex: Sally is a dog who loves to play.
• Adjectives ex: In the large park, Sally played with a green toy.
• Adverbs ex: Sally played nicely, so her owner Jack kindly bought
her a new chew toy later.
• Pronouns and possessive pronouns ex: One of his favorite things to
do with Sally is to rub her tummy.
• Preposition ex: One trick that Sally knows how to do is jump through
• Conjunction ex: Jack holds the hoop and she jumps through.
• Interjection ex: “Wow,” Jack shouts as Sally gracefully lands back
down on the ground.


• Subject- Kris went to an amusement park with his friends, Sam and
• Predicate- They went on many rides.
• Preposition- Sam and Alicia would wait extra time to be in the first row.
• Object of a preposition- They went through loops on roller coasters,
zoomed around the park, and had a ton of fun!
• Direct Object- After six hours of fun, the group bought ice cream to
cool off.
• Indirect Object- Then, Sam gave Kris a ride home.
• Subject Complement- Sam is a famous doctor, and has a lot of money.
• Appositive- Kris, an author, has an iPhone.
• Direct Address- “Sam, thank you for the ride home and for a great
day,” said Kris happily.

Part III

Short Stories:

➢ Cutie Pie by Nicholas Fisk

About an Alien named Cutie Pie by the people of the earth.

A spaceship from earth accidentally captures a lonely creature from the planet
QUATA PI. So people call him Cutie pie. The people of earth go crazy about him.
Millions of people over the world are glued to their television sets just to goggle at
the alien creatures colorful and shimmering feathers that covered his body. By the
Scientists he is put into a glass prison and the temperature is adjusted and careful
portion of gases and oxygen are passed in, to match the place from where CUTIE
PIE was captured. The scientists tried to adjust his prison to the climate of his home
world, but they were wrong- Ch’tsal was really from a different planet and had only
stumbled upon QUATA PI. Cutie pie felt miserable. All he longed for a friend and
companion to talk to. As the scientist could understand his language nor could he
understand theirs, he felt deaf, dumb, and cutoff from his world. As days go by, he
loses his beautiful feathers. He turns from a beautiful alien to a most ugly one.
Soon the people’s craze fades away, and no one is interested in him anymore. No
one wanted to see him. And one day he escapes from the glass prison into the
world earth. But he is not able to go back to his mom or to his people as he is
powerless and he cannot contact them. He finds a baby with whom he discusses
the history of Earth and Cutie Pie’s world’s history. Slowly, he recovers from his

➢ The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe

"The Tell-Tale Heart" is a first-person narrative of an unnamed narrator

who insists he is sane but suffering from a disease which causes "over-
acuteness of the senses." The old man with whom he lives has a
clouded, pale, blue "vulture-like" eye which so distresses the narrator
that he plots to murder the old man, though the narrator states that he
loves the old man, and hates only the eye. The narrator insists that his
careful precision in committing the murder shows that he cannot
possibly be insane. For seven nights, the narrator opens the door of
the old man's room, a process which takes him a full hour. However,
the old man's vulture eye is always closed, making it impossible to "do
the work". On the eighth night, the old man awakens and sits up in his
own bed while the narrator performs his nightly ritual. The narrator
does not draw back and, after some time, decides to open his lantern.
A single ray of light shines out and lands precisely on the old man's
eye, revealing that it is wide open. Hearing the old man's heartbeat
beating unusually and dangerously quick from terror, the narrator
decides to strike, jumping out with a loud yell and smothering the old
man with his own bed. The narrator chops up the body and conceals
the pieces under the floorboards. The narrator makes certain to hide
all signs of the crime. Even so, the old man's scream during the night
causes a neighbor to report to the police. The narrator invites the three
officers to look around. He claims that the screams heard were his own
in a nightmare and that the man is absent in the country. Confident
that they will not find any evidence of the murder, the narrator brings
chairs for them and they sit in the old man's room, right on the very
spot where the body was concealed, yet they suspect nothing, as the
narrator has a pleasant and easy manner about him. The narrator,
however, begins to hear a faint noise. As the noise grows louder, the
narrator comes to the conclusion that it is the heartbeat of the old man
coming from under the floorboards. The sound increases steadily,
though the officers seem to pay no attention to it. Shocked by the
constant beating of the heart and a feeling that not only are the
officers aware of the sound, but that they also suspect him, the
narrator confesses to killing the old man and tells them to tear up the
floorboards to reveal the body.
➢ The Fan Club by Rona Maynard
Laura thinks that some kids are whispering because they are planning to do
something to her later that day. In class, she gives an oral presentation
about how society does not care for each other and how people don’t care
about others and let things like discrimination and bullying happen. Then,
when a clumsy and ‘weird’ girl named Rachel gives her oral presentation,
she stumbles and makes mistakes, to which the teacher responds harshly
and reprimands Rachel. After class, the kids who Laura thought were
bullying her pull out HORTENSKY FAN CLUB cards. They all begin to clap.
Diane Goddard says to Laura, “She’s a creep, isn’t she?” “And Laura began
to clap.”
➢ Luke Baldwin’s Vow by Morley Callaghan
Luke Baldwin is orphaned because his mother is dead and his father dying.
He promises his dying dad that he will become just like his uncle one day.
Uncle Henry is a very practical and the-ends-justify-the-means type of
person. One day, Luke’s uncle decides that Dan the Collie is old and useless,
so he is going to drown him. Luke resolves to try to stop this as he and Dan
have a special bond. Luke saves Dan at the last minute and goes to Mr.
Kemp, a neighbor who had liked them both. Mr. Kemp helps Luke make a
deal with Uncle Henry that he will work for Mr. Kemp and with the salary, he
will pay for Dan’s well-being. Uncle Henry agrees because he believes Luke
will learn a lesson from it, while Luke learns to take the best of Uncle Henry
and Mr. Kemp and become a practical and caring person.
➢ The Fallen Angel by Evan Hunter
Anthony Mullins runs a circus act. One day, a man named Sam Angeli comes
in asking for a job. After seeing a sample of what Angeli can do, Mullins
accepts. Angeli’s act is that he can jump from rope to rope up high, without
a net, ‘accidentally’ fall, and land perfectly fine. People love Angeli, and
soon Mullins becomes rich. The day of a big performance, Angeli comes to
Mullins and tells him that he will not fall that night unless Mullins promises
Angeli something: his soul. Angeli is really a demon. The rest of the circus
fellows overhear and decide to help Mullins. That night, at the performance,
the rest of the fellows prevent Angeli from falling by holding him up with a
net and restraining him. Angeli disappears.
➢ The Widow and the Parrot by Virginia Woolf
Mrs. Gage learns that her brother Joseph died. In his will, he leaves her
his estate. She goes there, to find it is very run down and dusty. She
finds a parrot who says continuously, “Not at home.” While traveling
back home, Mrs. Gage hears cries of a house on fire. She correctly
guesses that it is her brother’s house. When she gets to the house, in
the rubble, she finds the parrot. The parrot leads her into the rubble
and to a brick. While removing it from its place, Mrs. Gage discovers
3000 pieces of gold. She suspects that the parrot started the fire in an
attempt to get her to discover the money.
➢ Raymond’s Run by Toni Cade Bambara
A girl is a very fast runner. A new girl threatens her record as one of
the best runners around. During a race in which the two of them are
both participating, the girl hears her brother Raymond cheer for her
and run alongside the race. She notes how gracefully he runs and
wonders about how he will grow up a runner and be very successful.
She wins the race.
➢ One Night Stand by Louis L’Amour
A man knows that someone has hired the Piosh kid to kill him in a duel
for his property. He waits for Bill Hickok to come and fight for him.
Instead, Stephen Malone comes and says he will pretend to be Hickok
and fight the Piosh kid for the man. He agrees. The Piosh kid runs
from Malone when Malone fires blanks at the Piosh kid.
➢ I’ll Give You Law by Molly Picon
A girl’s grandmother loves to read the lost and found sections of
newspapers, newsletters, and the like. One day, grandmother finds a
beautiful lavaliere. She brings it to the police. They, along with the
lost and found public department, say that if no one claims the
lavaliere in ninety days, she can keep it. In the ninety days,
grandmother befriends the property clerk at the department and the
policemen. No one claims the lavaliere after ninety days, so
grandmother takes it. Five days later, the property clerk shows up at
grandmother’s door with a woman who claims the lavaliere is hers.
She tells a story about how she lost it and why she didn’t claim it. She
wants it back. The girl cries that it isn’t fair-the law was that after
ninety days, one can keep a lost item if it is not claimed. The woman
says, “I’ll give you law! Does the law say after ninety days thieves and
murderers can do whatever they want? Law! I’ll give you law!”
Against the girl’s complaining, grandmother gives the lavaliere back to
the woman and says, “For three months I lived in a dream, and for five
days I lived like a queen. Is that bad?”

Part IV


Bud, Not Buddy by Christopher Paul Curtis

In 1936, during the Great Depression, 10-year-old Bud Caldwell lives in the
orphanage in Flint, Michigan that has been his home since his mother died
when he was six. Because of his mother's death, Bud had no family members
near to him, and was sent to live in the local orphanage, which he calls "The
Home". He hates the orphanage, but his situation does not improve when he
is sent to live with a foster family, the Amoses, who prove to be abusive.
Todd Amos, the Amos' twelve year old son, abuses Bud harshly, including
shoving a pencil up Bud's nose and accusing him of bed wetting, which Mrs.
Amos, the leader of discipline in the family, despises. To punish him, the
Amoses lock Bud up in a shed, which is filled with many terrors including
sharp-toothed fish and a hornets’ nest, giving him a night full of frights and
injuries. Eventually, Bud escapes the shed and goes back to the house to
gather his things. Before he leaves, however, Bud attempts to make Todd
wet his bed to get even. After unsuccessfully trying to put Todd's hand in a
glass of warm water that was just a bit too small, Bud just pours the glass of
water over Todd's pajama pants, finally resulting in Todd wetting the bed.
Later, Bud sets off in search of his father, who he has never met. The journey
is wrought with narrow escapes, including being rescued just barely from the
uniformly prejudiced town of Owosso by "Lefty Lewis". He undertakes this
journey to find Herman E. Calloway, who he believes to be his father, and is
currently living in Grand Rapids. His only clue is a flyer advertising a jazz
band that used to belong to Bud's mother, Angela Janet Caldwell. Bud aims
for "Herman E. Calloway and the Dusky Devastators of the Depression",
convinced that this is the man he is looking for.
Upon arriving at the establishment where Herman E. Calloway and his band
are playing, Bud begins to tell his story . Bud notices that Herman E.
Calloway is far too old to be his father. Bud's mother turned out to be
Herman E. Calloway's daughter, who had run away, and the man in the
picture, who Bud believes to be his dad, is his grandfather. He finally accepts
his new family.
Homecoming by Cynthia Voigt
One day in early summer, Dicey Tillerman's mother begins a trip with her
children in their battered station wagon to see their Aunt Cilla in Bridgeport,
Connecticut. When they have driven about half the distance between their
home in Provincetown and Bridgeport, Momma stops the car and gets out,
telling the three younger children, James, Maybeth, and Sammy to mind
Dicey. Their Momma does not return, and the next day the children, under
Dicey's determined leadership, set out to walk to Bridgeport, with only a
map, a change of underwear, and seven dollars. The children walk for days
on end, buying food as cheaply as possible, scrounging for change alongside
of the road, and sleeping in or near empty houses. After several days, they
stop to rest in a state park, where clams, mussels, and fish abound, and they
meet a young runaway couple, Edie and Louis. In the park, Sammy, to
Dicey's dismay, steals both food and money, and they leave in a fright when
the police begin looking for them.

By the time they reach the Connecticut River, they are completely out of
money. Dicey decides to earn money by washing windows, and soon has the
children carrying bags in the parking lot of a grocery store. Before long, they
have enough money to continue on. They cross the forbidding river in a
rowboat, and continue on towards the west. When they reach New Haven,
however, they are once again out of money, and Dicey is near despair. A
couple of Yale students, Stewart and Windy befriend them, take them in for
the night, and feed them. That night, James steals twenty dollars from their
benefactors, which he grudgingly returns the next morning. Dicey chastises
him severely, and Stewart talks seriously to him about the moral implications
of his actions. The next day, Stewart drives them to Bridgeport, leaving them
at their aunt's door.

The children find that Aunt Cilla is dead, and their fussy and pious cousin,
Eunice, occupies the house alone. Eunice takes the children in, and soon the
three younger children are attending a church camp every day while Dicey
helps Eunice care for the house. Dicey also begins to earn money by washing
windows around town. In Bridgeport, Dicey talks to the police about
Momma's disappearance, and before long, the police have located her: she is
comatose in a mental hospital in Boston. The Tillerman children are unhappy
in Bridgeport. Sammy gets in fights, upsetting Eunice, the nuns want to label
Maybeth as retarded and give her special schooling, and Dicey feels the
children growing apart from one another. When Eunice decides to give up
her dream of becoming a nun and adopt the children—although she still
considers handing the belligerent Sammy over to the state—Dicey acts
quickly. While in Bridgeport, they have learned of their grandmother, Abigail
Tillerman, who lives in Crisfield, Maryland, and Dicey decides they must meet

Dicey and her siblings leave without Eunice's permission, boarding a bus one
morning for New York. They eventually take a bus to Wilmington, where
Dicey panics when she finds they have missed the bus to Crisfield and buys
tickets for Annapolis, worried that Eunice may have the police looking for
them. In Annapolis, they convince two boys, Tom and Jerry to sail them
across the bay, and during the trip, Dicey falls in love with sailing. Once
across, Dicey, determined to save money for a possible return trip, decides
they must walk again. They find a circus and befriend the proprietor, Will.
After a couple of days, they see signs advertising work picking tomatoes, and
Dicey and the children approach a local farmer, Rudyard, asking for work.
The children sense the man's untrustworthiness, but work through the
morning. By the time evening comes, they are sure the man means them
harm, and when he pulls up in his truck, they dash away into the night,
crossing a nearby river. He pursues, but soon gives up his chase. The next
day, however, he finds them in a nearby town and pursues them hotly. The
circus has come to the town, however, and Will protects the Tillermans from
the evil man.

The Tillermans spend the next several days with the circus, and Will offers to
drive them to Crisfield when the circus moves to a town near it. When they
finally arrive in Crisfield, Will wants to stay and make sure the children are all
right, but Dicey explains they must face this challenge alone. The children
find their belligerent and eccentric grandmother on a run-down farm seven
miles outside of town. The grandmother agrees to let them stay the night,
but adamantly refuses to let them stay for good. Dicey and the others,
however, start to fall in love with their grandmother's beautiful farm on the
shore, and Dicey has found an old sailboat in the barn, which she is
determined to use. The children decide that they will start doing work around
the farm, postponing their departure one day at a time until their
grandmother gets used to them. The children work diligently for about five
days, until Will pays a visit, bringing the children used bicycles as a gift. That
night, however, their grandmother explodes when Sammy rides off without
permission and Dicey refuses to allow their grandmother to punish him by
sending him to bed without supper. When Dicey resignedly asks if they can
stay, their grandmother refuses.
That night, Dicey finds her grandmother writing a letter to Eunice in the kitchen.
She takes this opportunity to explain to Dicey the reasons she cannot take the
children in: she has little money and no income, she cherishes the freedom and
independence she gained when her stern husband died four years ago, and she is
afraid of repeating the mistakes she made as a mother that drove her children
away. Dicey's grandmother admits to Dicey, however, that she likes the children
and wants them to stay. The next morning, their grandmother seems to remember
little of her proclamation of the night before, and several days later, she takes the
children to town to register for school, explaining that it may take weeks for Eunice
to write back to her letter, expressing whether she will take the children back. At
school, Maybeth passes a test allowing her to study in the third grade, much to the
joy of all her family members. As they are preparing to return home, Dicey realizes
her grandmother has forgotten to mail the letter to Eunice. She reminds her
grandmother of the letter, but before she can get to the letterbox, Dicey stops her,
telling her that she should take the children in, even if she does not want to. To her
surprise, her grandmother agrees, stating in mock exasperation that the children
have worn her down. Overjoyed, the five return home together, united in their
sense of hope and relief.

Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare

I N THE STREETS OF VERONA another brawl breaks out between the servants of the
feuding noble families of Capulet and Montague. Benvolio, a Montague, tries
to stop the fighting, but is himself embroiled when the rash Capulet, Tybalt,
arrives on the scene. After citizens outraged by the constant violence beat
back the warring factions, Prince Escalus, the ruler of Verona, attempts to
prevent any further conflicts between the families by decreeing death for
any individual who disturbs the peace in the future.

Romeo, the son of Montague, runs into his cousin Benvolio, who had earlier
seen Romeo moping in a grove of sycamores. After some prodding by
Benvolio, Romeo confides that he is in love with Rosaline, a woman who does
not return his affections. Benvolio counsels him to forget this woman and
find another, more beautiful one, but Romeo remains despondent.

Meanwhile, Paris, a kinsman of the Prince, seeks Juliet’s hand in marriage.

Her father Capulet, though happy at the match, asks Paris to wait two years,
since Juliet is not yet even fourteen. Capulet dispatches a servant with a list
of people to invite to a masquerade and feast he traditionally holds. He
invites Paris to the feast, hoping that Paris will begin to win Juliet’s heart.
Romeo and Benvolio, still discussing Rosaline, encounter the Capulet servant
bearing the list of invitations. Benvolio suggests that they attend, since that
will allow Romeo to compare his beloved to other beautiful women of
Verona. Romeo agrees to go with Benvolio to the feast, but only because
Rosaline, whose name he reads on the list, will be there.

In Capulet’s household, young Juliet talks with her mother, Lady Capulet, and
her nurse about the possibility of marrying Paris. Juliet has not yet
considered marriage, but agrees to look at Paris during the feast to see if she
thinks she could fall in love with him.

The feast begins. A melancholy Romeo follows Benvolio and their witty friend
Mercutio to Capulet’s house. Once inside, Romeo sees Juliet from a distance
and instantly falls in love with her; he forgets about Rosaline completely. As
Romeo watches Juliet, entranced, a young Capulet, Tybalt, recognizes him,
and is enraged that a Montague would sneak into a Capulet feast. He
prepares to attack, but Capulet holds him back. Soon, Romeo speaks to
Juliet, and the two experience a profound attraction. They kiss, not even
knowing each other’s names. When he finds out from Juliet’s nurse that she
is the daughter of Capulet—his family’s enemy—he becomes distraught.
When Juliet learns that the young man she has just kissed is the son of
Montague, she grows equally upset.

As Mercutio and Benvolio leave the Capulet estate, Romeo leaps over the
orchard wall into the garden, unable to leave Juliet behind. From his hiding
place, he sees Juliet in a window above the orchard and hears her speak his
name. He calls out to her, and they exchange vows of love.

Romeo hurries to see his friend and confessor Friar Lawrence, who, though
shocked at the sudden turn of Romeo’s heart, agrees to marry the young
lovers in secret since he sees in their love the possibility of ending the age-
old feud between Capulet and Montague. The following day, Romeo and
Juliet meet at Friar Lawrence’s cell and are married. The Nurse, who is privy
to the secret, procures a ladder, which Romeo will use to climb into Juliet’s
window for their wedding night.

The next day, Benvolio and Mercutio encounter Tybalt—Juliet’s cousin—who,

still enraged that Romeo attended Capulet’s feast, has challenged Romeo to
a duel. Romeo appears. Now Tybalt’s kinsman by marriage, Romeo begs the
Capulet to hold off the duel until he understands why Romeo does not want
to fight. Disgusted with this plea for peace, Mercutio says that he will fight
Tybalt himself. The two begin to duel. Romeo tries to stop them by leaping
between the combatants. Tybalt stabs Mercutio under Romeo’s arm, and
Mercutio dies. Romeo, in a rage, kills Tybalt. Romeo flees from the scene.
Soon after, the Prince declares him forever banished from Verona for his
crime. Friar Lawrence arranges for Romeo to spend his wedding night with
Juliet before he has to leave for Mantua the following morning.

In her room, Juliet awaits the arrival of her new husband. The Nurse enters,
and, after some confusion, tells Juliet that Romeo has killed Tybalt.
Distraught, Juliet suddenly finds herself married to a man who has killed her
kinsman. But she resettles herself, and realizes that her duty belongs with
her love: to Romeo.

Romeo sneaks into Juliet’s room that night, and they are united. Morning
comes, and the lovers bid farewell, unsure when they will see each other
again. Juliet learns that her father, affected by the recent events, now
intends for her to marry Paris in just three days. Unsure of how to proceed—
unable to reveal to her parents that she is married to Romeo, but unwilling to
marry Paris now that she is Romeo’s wife—Juliet asks her nurse for advice.
She counsels Juliet to proceed as if Romeo were dead and to marry Paris,
who is a better match anyway. Disgusted with the Nurse’s disloyalty, Juliet
disregards her advice and hurries to Friar Lawrence. He concocts a plan to
reunite Juliet with Romeo in Mantua. The night before her wedding to Paris,
Juliet must drink a potion that will make her appear to be dead. After she is
laid to rest in the family’s crypt, the Friar and Romeo will secretly retrieve
her, and she will be free to live with Romeo, away from their parents’

Juliet returns home to discover the wedding has been moved ahead one day,
and she is to be married tomorrow. That night, Juliet drinks the potion, and
the Nurse discovers her, apparently dead, the next morning. The Capulets
grieve, and Juliet is entombed according to plan. But Friar Lawrence’s
message explaining the plan to Romeo never reaches Mantua. Its bearer,
Friar John, gets confined to a quarantined house. Romeo hears only that
Juliet is dead.

Romeo learns only of Juliet’s death and decides to kill himself rather than live
without her. He buys a vial of poison from a reluctant Apothecary, then
speeds back to Verona to take his own life at Juliet’s tomb. Outside the
Capulet crypt, Romeo comes upon Paris, who is scattering flowers on Juliet’s
grave. They fight, and Romeo kills Paris. He enters the tomb, sees Juliet’s
inanimate body, drinks the poison, and dies by her side. Just then, Friar
Lawrence enters and realizes that Romeo has killed Paris and himself. At the
same time, Juliet awakes. Friar Lawrence hears the coming of the watch.
When Juliet refuses to leave with him, he flees alone. Juliet sees her beloved
Romeo and realizes he has killed himself with poison. She kisses his
poisoned lips, and when that does not kill her, buries his dagger in her chest,
falling dead upon his body.

The watch arrives, followed closely by the Prince, the Capulets, and
Montague. Montague declares that Lady Montague has died of grief over
Romeo’s exile. Seeing their children’s bodies, Capulet and Montague agree
to end their long-standing feud and to raise gold statues of their children
side-by-side in a newly peaceful Verona.

Romeo and Juliet quotes

1. My only love sprung from my only hate!

a. Said by Juliet
b. How tragic it is that the lovers are from feuding families.
c. Act One, Scene Five
2. But, soft! What light through yonder window breaks?
a. Said by Romeo
b. Romeo sees Juliet’s light go on, and compares her to the rising
c. Act Two, Scene Two
3. O Romeo, Romeo! Wherefore art thou Romeo?
a. Said by Juliet
b. Why are you Romeo?- your name separates us
c. Act Two, Scene Two
4. What’s in a name? That which we call a rose.
a. Said by Juliet
b. Names are artificial and meaningless- Juliet tells Romeo that
their names mean nothing.
c. Act Two, Scene Two
5. Goodnight, good night! Parting is such sweet sorrow!
a. Said by Juliet
b. Good bye- after exchanging vows of love, the lovers must part
before the Nurse enters
c. Act Two, Scene Two
6. A plague o’ both your houses
a. Said by Mercutio
b. Curse you, Montague and Capulet- Mercutio dies as a result of
the feud.
c. Act Three, Scene One
7. Oh, I am fortune’s fool!
a. Said by Romeo
b. What have I done?- after killing Tybalt
c. Act Three, Scene One
8. O true apothecary
a. Said by Romeo
b. With these words, Romeo dies by drinking his poison.
c. Act Five, Scene Three
9. O happy dagger!
a. Said by Juliet
b. Juliet picks up Romeo’s dagger and plunges it into her chest, but
not before saying this famous line. Her suicide will bring her
c. Act Five, Scene Three

Part V

Literary Terms:

 Alliteration
○ The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words or
within words.
 Characterization
○ The methods an author uses to acquaint a reader with the
characters in a work.
 Flashback
○ An interruption in the action of a story, play, or piece of
nonfiction to show an episode that happened at an earlier time.
 Imagery
○ Concrete words or details that appeal to the senses of sight,
sound, touch, smell, taste, and to internal feelings.

 Inference
○ The process of arriving at some conclusion that, though it is not
logically derivable from the assumed premises, possesses some
degree of probability relative to the premises.
 Irony
○ A contrast between what appears to be and what really is.
 Metaphor
○ A figure of speech that involves an implied comparison between
two basically unlike things.
 Mood
○ The atmosphere or feeling within a work of art.
 Personification
○ A figure of speech or figurative language in which human
characteristics are given to nonhuman things.
 Plot
○ A series of happenings in a literary work. Plot consists of these
elements: a conflict, a pattern of events, a climax, and a
 Point of view
○ The relationship between the narrator of a story and the
characters and action in it.
 Setting
○ The time and place in which the events in a narrative occur.
 Simile
○ A comparison in which the word like or as is used to point out a
similarity between two basically unlike things.
 Symbol
○ A person, place, event, or object that has a meaning in itself but
also suggests other meanings.
 Theme
○ The main idea or underlying meaning of a literary work.
Good Luck!