Introduction Social marketing theory is a combination of theoretical perspectives and a set of marketing techniques.

Social marketing has been defined as: "differing from other areas of marketing only with respect to the objectives of the marketer and his or her organization. Social marketing seeks to influence social behaviors not to benefit the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society" (Kotler and Andreasen 1991).Social Marketing was “born” as a discipline in the 1970s, when Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman realized that the same marketing principles that were being used to sell products to conusmers could be used to “sell” ideas, attitudes and behaviours (kolter and Zalman 1971 ).In social marketing the intervention is developed from a solid base of communication and social-psychological theories: marketing techniques are used to supplement message development and program implementation. Shine - I dont know how to add the concept of the whole project in the introduction.

1. Social Marketing Social marketing is the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social idea, cause, or practice in a target group(s). It utilizes market segmentation consumer research, concept development, communications, facilitation, incentives and exchange theory to maximize target group response .

Social marketers can pursue different objectives, produce understanding (knowing the nutritional value of different foods), trigger a one-time action (participating in a mass immunization campaign), attempt to change behavior (auto seatbelt campaign), change a basic belief (convincing anti-abortion adherents to believe in a woman’s right to abortion).

Social marketing is new, and its effectiveness relative to other social change strategies is hard to evaluate. It is difficult to produce social change with any strategy, let alone one that relies on voluntary response. Social marketing has mainly been applied to family planning, environmental protection, energy conservation, improved nutrition, auto driver safety, and public transportation and there have been some encouraging successes. But more applications are needed before we can fully assess social marketing’s potential for producing social change.

Marketing Mix --Product, price, place and promotion (4Ps) The principle of social marketing is to use marking principles to influence behavior and improve the value to customers. In this situation, marketing mix is playing the important roles to maximize value to customers. It includes product, price, place and promotion.

Product: It is generally refers to the tangible product or provided service which purchased by customers (Rob.D.& Nadine.H 2003). Product is also an idea, desired behavior, goods or service that can be exchange by pricing. It can be tangible or intangible. However, in social marketing concept, the product considerations are different from commercial marketing in number of ways (Rothschild 1979). For most social marketing programs, the core product represents the health or wellbeing of the individual, the desired behavior or health idea to target individuals. It can be an action, service, or a set of beliefs. It also consider as inflexibility, intangibility, complexity, controversial, and personal benefits (Rob.D.& Nadine.H 2003).

Price: Price is the cost when target audiences making an exchange based on financially, emotionally, psychologically or timely. When talking about commercial marketing, price is simply about financial. It more refers to monetary cost when buying a product or service (Rob.D.& Nadine.H 2003). However, as the changing of social marketing, the concept of price is more widely defined. Rob Donovan and Nadine Henley defined price in social marketing includes monetary cost, but it more involved time, effort, physical discomfort, and psychological cost. (Rob.D.& Nadine.H 2003). It more refers to opportunity cost, status loss, social embarrassment based on values and time. Weinstein pointed out that the cost in social marketing usually in short-term and certain. Nevertheless, the benefits are often long term and less certain (Weinsterin 1998).

Place: Place is where and when the target audience performs their behavior to purchasing product or service. It involves physical distribution, number and type of outlets, opening hours, public transport availability, and other environmental issues. In social marketing, place concepts as a message delivery channels. It also helps to develop a sales force.


As a part of marketing mix, promotion is including advertising, public relations, sponsorship, sales promotion, and personal sales. It is the communication message which related the product or service to the target audiences.

Rossiter & Percy pointed out that in social marketing, sales promotion may consider more serious than others. The explanation here is, advertising and other communication modes are more refers on primarily impact on beliefs and attitudes. However, sales promotions are more likely to act directly on audience behaviors. It is more efficiency (Rossiter & Perry, 1997).

Rob & Nadine pointed out another key method to challenge social marketing is how to utilize the concept of point of sale advertising and promotions.

Additional social marketing “P’s” Partnerships As the improvement of market mix definition, the partnerships and policy has been considered as other important issues to marketing mix.

Social and health issues are often so complex that one agency cannot make a dent by itself. You need to team up with other organizations in community to really be effective. You need to figure out which organizations have similar goals to yours- not necessarily the same goalsand identify ways you can work together.

Policy Policy and environmental changes are very important for social marketing. It influences audience behavior by consideration of the laws or regulations. And it may also act as important barriers to the performance.

Social marketing programs can do well in motivation individual behavior change, but that is different to sustain unless the environment they are in supports that change for the long run. Often, policy change is needed and media advocacy programs can be an effective complement to a social marketing program.

Publics Social marketers often have many different audiences that their program has to address in order to be successful. “Publics” refers to both the external and internal groups involves in the program. External publics include the target audience, secondary audiences, policymakers, and gatekeepers, while the internal publics are those who are involved in some way with either approval or implementation of the program.

Purse strings Most organizations that develop social marketing programs operate through funds provided by sources such as foundations, governmental grants or donations. This adds another dimension to the strategy development-namely, where will you get the money to create you program.

3. Community-Based Social Marketing – The new tool: There are numbers of different technical tools have been developed to support the implementation of social marketing into practice. Traditional tools such as education campaign or awareness complain are reported as have uncertainties in changing behaviour. More recently, community-based social marketing is adopted as a promising new approach to effectively alter behaviours. The advantages and limitation of these tools are represented as below:

Traditional approach Education campaign: Education or information campaign was widely utilized in the 90s. Basically, the idea of education is the shortage of knowledge causes the shortage of behaviour. Thus, this type of campaigns tends to deliver and distribute related knowledge/information, in form of brochures, posters, fact sheets and TV and radio ads, to reach and educate the community about a specific behaviour. Unfortunately, numbers of scholars has demonstrated that knowledge may not directly influence on behaviour. This assumption of education campaign, in fact, has neglected the importance of motivation in behaviour change. People involve in

behaviours for several different reasons, such as individual pressure, financial motive, personal inconvenience, just name a few. Knowing what and when to do something just is not a motivation – and when there isn’t a motivation, no behaviour change is taken into account (Tabanico and Schultz 2007).

Awareness campaign: This type of campaign focuses on stressing the seriousness of a specific problem by indicating incidence rates. This campaign is mostly based on the idea of the alarmingly real statistics will lead to greater concerns and greater influence on behaviour change. Indeed, people normally tend to follow social norms. The only concern about this particular type of campaign is it can cause boomerang effects. Commonly, the awareness campaign focuses on introducing the high proportion of the wrong thing have been done, or the very small proportion of people who do the right thing. These promotions can accidently lead to wrong social norm. Thus, marketers need to be very careful when designing communication messages (Tabanico and Schultz 2007).

Even though both information and awareness campaigns can certainly gain public knowledge and awareness about a particular behaviour, their potential effects on behaviour change still remain uncertain. Despite numbers of research have indicated the ineffectiveness of these traditional campaigns, they still widely employed by practitioners due to the lack of alternative tools(Schultz 2002). Fortunately, by the late 90s a more effective tool is introduced as the new opportunity for the implementation of social marketing – the community-based social marketing.

Community-based social marketing: Community-based social marketing (CBSM) is firstly introduced by Pose (1996) and McKenzie-Mohr (1996) a new effective program to foster behaviour change. Filling with psychological principles and systematic research methods, the CBSM can provide practitioners a more valuable framework in promoting behaviour change across various

settings. Basically, CBSM working process constructs five main steps: selecting target behaviour, identifying related barriers, developing a plan/strategy to overcome these barriers, testing the strategy with a small segment of the whole population and evaluating the program after being practically implemented (McKenzie-Mohr 1996; Prose 1996; McKenzie-Mohr 1999; McKenxie-Mohr 2000).

The procedure of CBSM program: Selecting a behaviour: the most important step of effectively implementing CBSM program is choosing a target behaviour. Commonly, there is more than one behaviour can be promoted in order to achieve desired outcomes. For example waste reduction can be promoted through various forms such as reuse, recycling or reduction. Each of these activities may be worth promoting however the available information and resources may not be sufficient to support them. Thus, it is relatively significant to focus on a single behaviour that much more likely to associate with behaviour change …. Indentifying related barriers: this step is one of the most valuable components that make CBSM superior than traditional ones. CBSM is digging deeper in to the root of problems that why people don’t use the program. The barriers are identified by analysing the related information of the population, the context and the behaviour interested. These barriers can be internal to an individual (e.g., motivations, knowledge base) or external to an individual (e.g., structural elements of the program). Moreover, each behaviour can simultaneously hold multiple barriers. Certainly, identifying barriers is a fundamental first step in improving the quality of CBSM. There are various strategies marketers can utilize to identify barriers. Some popular methods can be named as focus group, observation and survey. More systematic methods are also available such as logistic regression and discriminate analysis. Designing program: this step involves the selection of appropriate strategies and tactics to overcome identified barriers. Some of useful tools can be employed in this step are:

Reciprocity: The idea of using reciprocity is to emphasize preferred behaviour by giving out incentives, such as free offerings or small cash refund.

Commitment and consistency: normally, then an individual agrees to initially response to an action, the likelihood that she/he will maintain his or her engagement in the future. Commitment techniques, thus, focus on leveraging and fostering the environment-oriented activities (Katzev and Wand 1994; McKenzie-Mohr 2000).

Social proof: refers to guiding community by indicating preferred behaviour which have been done by a major of population.


Testing and evaluating the program: once the behaviour change strategy has been designed, it is important to test this strategy on a small percentage of the entire target population. The main purpose of this step is to experience the effectiveness of designed strategy – whether or not the strategy actually change behaviour. Also, the results of testing samples can support and reinforce the performance of the strategy. Evaluation is the final step of CBSM program which focus on assessing the performance and outcomes of CBSM strategy applied. Lessons from practical implementation of the strategy are also taken into account for future research.

The advantages of CBSM: With an extensive number of advantages, the application of CBSM has been widely accepted recently. Some of these advantages can be named as: - Statistic analysis: the development and implementation process of CBSM is strongly based on quantitative and empirical data. This makes CBSM superior than other traditional approaches in term of ability to build up a “real” and effective program to alter behaviour. - Testing model: normally, the program is tested in a small population before widely implementing in a larger scale. This not only helps the development team in improving the quality of program employed but also reduces the risk of launching failure. - Behaviour-oriented: it is assumed that numbers of social marketing campaign went to fail because they did not take into account the importance of behavioural outcomes. Most of

those campaigns tended to change audiences’ knowledge or attitudes rather than behaviour. In other words, they tended to change what people think rather than what people actually do. Changes in attitudes or intentions can be mediators to changes in behaviours; however focusing solely on these as primary outcomes does not alternative for measurement behaviour. By adopting a more behaviour-focused approach, all these challenges in changing behaviour can be easily solved with the assistant of the new CBSM.

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Measures in Environmental Protection. T. Dietz and P. Stern, National Academy of Sciences: 67-82. Tabanico, J. J. and P. W. Schultz (2007). "Community-Based Social Marketing." BioCyycle 48(8): 41-44. Weinsterin, N. D. (1998). "The Precaution Adoption Process." Health Psychology 7: 355-386.

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