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StudyofCivilEngineeringandArchitecture(SCEA)Volume3,2014 www.seipub.

org/scea

ThreedimensionalNumericalAnalysisof
GroundVibrationInducedbySubway
Running
LinyaLIU1,QileZHANG*1,ShunmaoMAO2
EngineeringResearchCenterofRailwayEnvironmentVibrationandNoise,MinistryofEducation,EastChina
JiaotongUniversity,Nanchang330013,China
1

NanchangUrbanRailGroupCo.,Ltd,Nanchang330038,China

*306937988@qq.com

Abstract
Based on the finite element software ANSYS, the paper
establishes the railtrack plate tunnelsoil dynamic
interaction finite element model. Wheel/rail forces are
applied to the finite element model for calculating transient
analysis. From the point of view of time domain and
frequency domain, the paper analyses the influences on the
vibration characteristics of the earths surface caused by
factors such as the rule tunnel buried depth, soil elastic
modulus,uplineanddownlinktunneldistance.Theanalytic
results show that the increasing tunnel buried depth can
effectively reduce the surface vibration. Elastic modulus of
soil has great influence on the surface vibration, with the
increasingsoilelasticmodulus,thevibrationresponseofthe
ground first increases then decreases. Increasing the net
distancebetweendoublelinetunnelsisoneofthemeasures
tocontrolthegroundvibration.
Keywords
3DFiniteElementModel;Vibration;Acceleration;TimeDomain;
FrequencyDomain

Introduction
Underground railway has many advantages, such as
large capacity, high speed, safe and reliable, running
ontime,etc.Becauseoftheseoutstandingadvantages,
it becomes an important means to solve the urban
traffic jam. The vibration waves induced by metro
trains running go through rail, track plate, tunnel by
the rock and soil medium to ground surface and
surrounding buildings spread foundation, further
causing the vibration of the earths surface and
adjacent buildings. Many experts and scholars have
done a lot of research and obtained a series of results
about the ground vibration induced by the subway
(XiaandCao,2004)andtheircontrolmeasures(Haoet
al.,2008).

Rail- track Plate - tunnel - the Finite Element


Model
Environment vibration induced by the subway trains
isthespaceproblemofvibrationwavepropagationin
3D.Duetotherestrictionsofcomputationalefficiency,
numerical simulation of the finite element model is
usually the twodimension plane model (Feng et al.,
2007). While twodimensional model saves time and
cost, but the results are not very satisfactory. L.
Andersen established twodimensional model and
threedimensional model, combining with the finite
element and boundary element; the results show that
the twodimensional model is only applicable to
qualitative earth vibration caused by subway analysis
(AndersenaandJones,2006).XiaoyanLeifindsthatthe
twodimensional model assumes that wavelength is
infinitealongtrackdirection,itcausesthatthemobile
wave along the track and the load is out of
consideration (Lei and Sheng, 2008). In order to
simulate the characteristics of vibration wave
propagationinthreedimensionalinducedbythetrain
runningunder the ground more accurately, the paper
establishesthethreedimensionalrailrailplatetunnel
earth finite element model based on the ANSYS
software.Subwaytrainverticalwheel/railforceonthe
trackissimplifiedasamovingtrainaxleloadasFig.1.

FIG.1WHEELRAILFORCELOADING

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5
10
time/s

15

10

20 40 60 80 100
frequency/Hz

a/(mm/s )

PSD
PSD

-15
2

4 6
time/s

2
1
0
0

20 40 60 80 100
frequency/Hz

FIG.4ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOFDEPTH10m

15
PSD

a/(mm/s )

0
-15
-30
0

4 6
time/s

2
1
0
0

20 40 60 80 100
frequency/Hz

FIG.5ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOFDEPTH15m

15
PSD

a/(mm/s )

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0
-15
-30
0

4 6
time/s

2
1
0
0

20 40 60 80 100
frequency/Hz

FIG.6ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOFDEPTH20m

FIG.2WHEEL/RAILFORCEANDFORCESPECTRUM

Responses Induced by the Buried Depth on


Ground Vibration
Due to the different conditions limitation along the
metro lines such as lines planning, construction
technology and the geological parameters, the burial
depthofthetunnelalongtherouteischanging.Sothe
study of the law of the train vibration induced by

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frequency/Hz

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a/(mm/s )

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amplitude/(kN/Hz)

force/kN

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Wheel/RailforceusedinthispaperisgotbytheKaller
calculation theory in the multibody dynamics
software SIMPACKs Wheel/Rail (Rail) module. The
SIMPACKvehiclemodelforNanchangsubwayadopts
metroBvehiclemodelparameters.Themaximumaxle
loadmodelis13tons.Andthedesignedhighestspeed
is 80Km/h. Load step takes 0.005 s. The integration
time interval is 0 to 15 s. So, the paper calculates and
draws the curves of wheel/rail forces and power
spectrumasFig.2.Thiscalculationresultisequivalent
toFengJunhessynthesisbytrackaccelerationmethod
(FengandYan,2008).

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The Loads Simulation of the Subway Train

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60
40
20
0
-20
-40
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FIG.3ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOFDEPTH5m

Geological parameters of the model gained by


geological reports from China NanchangNo.1 subway
lineBaYisquaretoZhongshanRoadsectionandsome
are got by calculating the parameters if not given in
geological report. Considering to the smaller strain
material, soil is assumed to be homogeneous soil; all
the materials are always in elastic state. Calculation
parameterofrail:Ec=2.1x105MPa,=7830Kg/m3,=0.3;
parameter of concrete materials: Ec=2800MPa,
=3000Kg/m3, =0.2; parameter calculation of fastener:
K=5x107N/m,5x104Ns/m;Theprincipleofstiffness
anddampingequal,theCAsandlayerissimplifiedas
spring damping system is evenly distributed between
the track plate and track foundation, calculating the
parameters of CA mortar: K= 3.4 107 N/m,
Cv=932.7Ns/m.Inordertoreducethereflectionwave,
the element model applied local viscoelastic dynamic
artificial boundary element in the computational
domainboundaries(LeiandWei,2005).

differentburialdepthhasaguidingsignificance.Inthe
finiteelementmodel,selectasensitivebittovibration
directly above the tunnel. Vibration spectrum
changingwiththedepthisshowninFig.3toFig.7.

a/(mm/s )

Model Parameters Selection

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frequency/Hz

FIG.7ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOFDEPTH25m

Fig.3toFig.7showthelawofvibrationinthesoftsoil,
speed 80km/h, uplink and downlink spacing is 15m.
From the acceleration curves we can see that the
deeper the depth, the smaller the vibration response;
the curves become more cyclical when the depths

StudyofCivilEngineeringandArchitecture(SCEA)Volume3,2014 www.seipub.org/scea

become shallower. From the Fourier spectrum curves,


we can see with the increase of depth, the spectral
amplitudeinhighfrequencydecriesfasterthanthatin
thelowfrequency.

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PSD

a/(mm/s )

Effects on the Ground Vibration by the Soil


Characteristics

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FIG.8ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOF95MPa

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-15
-30
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a/(mm/s )

FIG.9ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOF165MPa

0
-15
-30
0

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1

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frequency/Hz

30

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3
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a/(mm/s )

FIG.10ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOF235MPa

0
-15
-30
0

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1

4 6
time/s

0
0

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frequency/Hz

30

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a/(mm/s )

FIG.11ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOF305MPa

0
-15
-30
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1

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frequency/Hz

FIG.12ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOF375MPa

Urban metro lines connect various counties; however,


the geological conditions of different counties will be

different. So studying the influence has a practical


significance. There are five different soils, select the
sensitivepointsjustabovetheuplinktunneltoanalyse.
DrawtheaccelerationcurvesasshowninFig.8toFig.
12.
From the acceleration time curves in Fig. 8 to Fig. 12,
we can see that when the elastic modulus of soil is
95MPa, the acceleration curve is shaped as a spindle,
no periodic variation. When the modulus of elasticity
increasesgraduallyfrom165MPato305MPa,thepeak
of acceleration increases, and a periodic changing
appears; when it increases from 305MPa to 375Mpa,
acceleration amplitude decreases gradually, and the
periodic acceleration disappears. We can see from the
figures, when the soil is very soft, acceleration
amplitude spectrum is wide, and ranges in 050HZ.
Increasing of soil hardness, low frequency gradually
decreases;thefrequencyrangebecomesnarrowerand
istendto31Hz.
This is because when the soil is soft, the dissipation
effects on the vibration wave energy are large; the
groundvibrationfrequencyissmall,andthenisclose
tothelowfrequencyvibrationfrequencytransferredto
thewheel/railforce,theyproducecoresonancesinthe
low frequency. With the increase of the soil hardness,
thenaturalfrequencyincreases,locatesinintermediate
frequency which is transferred to the wheel/rail force
of soil. When the soils elastic modulus is 305MPa,
selfvibration frequency is close to the predominant
frequency of the wheel/rail force going after the
fastener and CA mortars damping, so the vibration
response reaches a maximum value. But with the
continue increasing of the soil elastic modulus, the
selfvibration natural frequency of is further more
higher than the predominant frequency that
transferred to the wheel/rail force, sothe responseof
ground vibration reduces, and produce the
phenomenon of low frequency vibration wave in the
hardsoilisfilteredout.
The Net Distances Effects on the Ground
Vibration between Uplink and Downlink
Nanchangsubwaylineverticaldistancesfromtheline
to another along the line are extending from 10m to
25m. Analysing the ground vibration caused by the
different net distances between the uplink and
downlink can provide reference to the following
design.Inthefiniteelementmodel,authorscontrolthe
net distances, and select a sensitive bit to vibration
which is both 15 m from two lines. Draw the
accelerationcurveshowninFig.13toFig.17.

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sensitivebit,andthenthevibrationresponseismainly
caused by the closer line. Therefore, when a line of
double line tunnel is far more than 25m from the
sensitive points, designers can only consider the
influenceofthenearbytunnel.

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frequency/Hz

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PSD

a/(mm/s )

FIG.13ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOFDISTANCE8m

4 6
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frequency/Hz

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FIG.14ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOFDISTANCE12m

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REFERENCES

Feng Junhe, Yan Weiming. Numerical Simulation for Train

Stochastic Vibrating Loads. Journal vibration and shock,

4 6
time/s

0
0

20 40 60 80 100
frequency/Hz

PSD

a/(mm/s )

FIG.16ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOFDISTANCE20m

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-5
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0

In this paper, we can get the following conclusions:


Firstly,effectsofburieddepthonthegroundvibration
responseareobvious.Theshallowertheburieddepth,
the greater the surface vibration acceleration is. If the
cost and construction conditions permit, authors
propose increasing the depth to reduce the ground
vibrationinthevibrationsensitivearea.Secondly,the
soil modulus of elasticity is one of the important
factors that affect the ground vibration responses.
Modulus of elasticity increases from 95 Mpa to 305
Mpa, the acceleration increases; when the modulus of
elasticityincreasesfrom305Mpato445Mpa,andthe
acceleration decreases. Finally, the clear distance
between uplink and downlink has much effect on the
ground vibration response. If one line of uplink and
downlink is 25m far away the sensitive point,
designerscanonlyconsidertheinfluenceofthenearby
lines.

3
PSD

a/(mm/s2)

FIG.15ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOFDISTANCE16m

Conclusion

4 6
time/s

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FIG.17ACCELERATIONANDSPECTRUMOFDISTANCE24m

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when the net spacing is 16 m, sensitive vibration
response has an amplification phenomenon, which is
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Zhangetal.,2006).Studieshavesuggestedthatthisis
duetothatwavesinthesoilhaverepeatedreflection.
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farfromthesensitivebit,theuplinkis5mfarfromthe

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StudyofCivilEngineeringandArchitecture(SCEA)Volume3,2014 www.seipub.org/scea

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