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ElectricalEngineeringResearchVol.1,Iss.

3,July2013

ReviewonRenewableEnergyBasedModeling
andControlStrategies
M.Rizwan*1,NarendraKumar2,MasoodAnzar3
DepartmentofElectricalEngineering,DelhiTechnologicalUniversity,Delhi110042,India

1,2,3
*1

rizwaniit@yahoo.co.in;2dnk_1963@yahoo.com;3masoodanzar@gmail.com

Abstract

control strategies are taken into consideration. In

Renewable energy resources is regarded as an alternative


for future energy demand in India. The exploitation of RES
is increasing exponentially. As per Ministry of New and
RenewableEnergy(MNRE)data,thepresentcontributionof
RES in the installed capacity is more than 12.5% and the
share of RES would increase in the near future. However,
the power generated from RES is fluctuating in nature
particularly in solar photovoltaic and wind energy
conversion systems. In view of aforesaid, various control
strategieshavebeenusedbyresearchersandavailableinthe
literature. This paper presents the various issues related to
grid integration of renewable energy sources and their
controlstrategies.

addition, various issues related to hybrid modelling


are also addressed. It has been found that the
researchershaveworkedtoachievetwobroadresults
asmentionedabove.
Thispaperisorganizedasfollows:theapproachesand
methods adopted by different researchers to achieve
an optimal hybrid design are presented in Section 2.
Various performance optimization strategies have
been discussed in Section 3. Section 4 presents the
research gap and conclusion of the paper is given in
Section5.
Design Optimization

Keywords

As discusses earlier, the researchers worked under


twobroadoptimizationobjectives.Onesuchcategory
is the design of an optimal sizing of hybrid energy
sources. This includes the selection of proper
renewable energy sources with proper sizing, so that
an optimized hybrid energy system could be
developed, depending on the availability and
feasibilityofrenewableenergypowerrequiredofeach
source. Some of the key methodologies and
approachesadoptedareasfollows:

Renewable Energy Sources (RES); Control Strategies; Modelling;


Optimization

Introduction
The increasing concerns on air pollution and global
warming,thecleangreenrenewablesourcesofenergy
areexpectedtoplaymoresignificantroleinthefuture
of global energy [W. EI Khattam et al (2004), N.
Jenkins et al (2000), H. L. Willis et al (2000)]. Most of
them are environmentally benign and free from the
atmospheric pollution, acid rain, and global climate
warming. Furthermore, due to public support and
government incentives over recent decades, they are
growing rapidly, not only in technical performance,
but also in the breadth of applications. The public
attention has remained focused on these renewable
technologies as environmentally sustainable and
available alternatives. In recent years, tremendous
amount of work came into notice in the area of
renewable energy sources. It is seen that most of the
researchers worked on two broad categories, i.e,
design of hybrid energy system and performance of
thehybridenergypowersystem.

UsingSimulationPrograms
Optimum sizing is necessary to obtain economical
power output from an efficient renewable energy
based system thereby reducing the investment with
fullutilisationofthesystemcomponent[W.Zhouetal.
(2010)]. It has been found that simulation programs
are the most common tools used for optimization of
hybrid systems, among which, Hybrid Optimization
ModelforElectricRenewable(HOMER)hasbeenused
extensively [NREL: HOMER]. Later, researchers
developedHYBRID2,withveryprecisesimulation,as
it can define time intervals ranging from 10 min to 1
hour.Similarly,HOGAisdevelopedincorporatingan
optimization program by means of Genetic
Algorithms. It is seen that all these simulation
programs can only simulate one configuration at a

Anumberofresearchpapersrelatedtomodellingand
control strategies are available in literature. In this
paper, renewable energy based hybrid models and

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ElectricalEngineeringResearchVol.1,Iss.3,July2013

generation system by considering the monthly


average solar and wind energy values [T. Markvart
(1996)].However,inbothgraphicalmethods,onlytwo
parameters are included in the optimization process,
whilesomeimportantfactorsarecompletelyneglected.

time, but not designed to provide an optimised


configuration[A.Yiannisetal.(2012)].
UsingMeteorologicalYearData
Workwasthenfocusedonreducingthecomplexityof
the problem by the selection of proper data details.
Researchersusedtypicalmeteorologicalyeardatalong
periodmeteorologicaldata[U.Merteretal.(2000),Q.
Zhang et al. (2002), H. X. Yang et al. (2004), E.
Koutroulis (2006)] and worst month scenario data to
solve sizing problem [M. A. Egido et al. (1992), C.
Protogeropoulos et al. (1997), T. R. Morgan et al.
(1996)]. Some have used a combination of these data,
introducingtwosizingmethodswhichforstandalone
hybrid windsolar energy systems are reported in the
literature [C. Protogeropoulos et al. (1997)]. It is
proposed to used yearly average data firstly for the
optimizationandthentheworstmonthsdataformore
precise sizing. Similar method by using only worst
month data is also presented [T. R. Morgan et al.
(1996)]. Aiming towards more precise calculations,
researchers used timeseries simulation methods
which usually have a resolution of 1 hour interval. It
has been found that longterm hourly data and peak
load demand data can be used to optimize hybrid
systems[B.S.Borowyetal.(1994)].Incrementaltime
scale data have been used by some researchers at
incremental step time, 1 hour or 1 minute but this
methodrequiressignificantcomputationaleffort[E.I.
BaringGould (2002), G. Notton et al. (1996)]. Many
efforts, like the development of predictive algorithm,
has been conducted to decrease the simulation time
and/or reduce the number of variables used. Using
this technique, researchers could estimate the system
performance using simple parameters and thus
eliminating the necessity for timeseries hourly data.
Monthlyaverage values have been also used to
developapredictivealgorithm[A.Celik(2003)]thatin
the form of stochastic and dynamic optimization
models, incorporating uncertainties in demand,
component failure and weather behaviour were also
presented[M.Musellietal.(1999),R.J.Kaye(1994)].

ProbabilisticApproach
Probabilistic approaches have also been opted for
sizing hybrid system, as it accounted for the effect of
renewable sources variability in the system design.
Sizing method treating storage energy variation as a
random walk and the probability density for daily
incrementordecrementofstoragelevelapproximated
byatwoeventprobabilitydistributionispresented[A.
D.Baguletal.(1996)].Themethodisfurtherextended
toaccountfortheeffectofcorrelationbetweendayto
dayradiationsvalues[L.L.J.Bucciarellietal.(1986)],
thenmodifiedbyJ.M.Gordon(1987)andBaguletal
(1996),inwhoseworks,thestorageenergytransitions
were approximated by threeevent probabilistic
approach to overcome the limitations of conventional
twoevent approach in matching the actual
distribution of the energy generated by hybrid
systems. Probabilistic approach is based on the
convolution technique to incorporate the fluctuating
natureoftheresourcesandtheload,thuseliminating
the need for timeseries data, to assess the longterm
performance of a hybrid solar wind system for both
standalone and gridconnected applications [G. Tina
et al. (2006), S. H. Karaki et al. (1999)]. It has been
noticed that the major limitation of this probabilistic
approach is that it cannot represent the dynamic
changingperformanceofthehybridsystem.
IterativeApproach
Manyresearchershaveusediterativemethodstosolve
the problem. An iterative optimization technique for
power reliability and system cost is presented [H. X.
Yangetal.(2007)].Similarly,aniterativeoptimization
methodisalsopresentedtoselecttheRESsize[W.D.
Kellogg (1998)]. For iterative optimization method,
minimizationofthesystemcostisimplementedeither
by linearly changing the values of the corresponding
decision variables or employing linear programming
techniques, resulting in suboptimal solutions and
increased computational effort requirements. But, it
usually does not optimize other controlling
parameters, which also highly affect both, the
resultingenergyproductionandsystemcosts.Several
other optimization techniques like simulated
annealingandTabusearchhavebeenappliedtosolve

GraphicalApproach
Various graphical optimization techniques have been
reported in the literature. Graphical construction
technique to calculate the optimum combination has
beenpresentedusinglongtermdata[H.X.Yangetal.
(2008), H. X. Yang et al. (2007), B. S. Borowy et al.
(1996)]. Another graphical technique is used to
optimally design a hybrid solarwind power

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ElectricalEngineeringResearchVol.1,Iss.3,July2013

theoptimizedsizingproblem.HybridSATShavealso
been tested and found advantageous as compared to
individual SA and TS methods [A. Yiannis et al.
(2012)].

todeliverapurelysinusoidaloutputvoltageatafixed
frequency.Aswellthesystemmustbeabletocopeup
withthepowerrequirements.Thus,hybridrenewable
energysystemsneedtobedesignedandcontrolledfor
theproperfunctioningofthesystem.

ArtificialIntelligenceApproach

Controllers can be designed for the power system


stability improvement, power flow control, transients
controlofthesystem.Suchcontrollersareresponsible
for the functioning of RES at maximum power point,
improvementsinpowerquality,uninterruptedpower
supply, reduced internal losses and efficient cost
effective power sharing among renewable energy
sources in a hybrid system. Such control is extremely
importantbecauseanyfluctuationinpowerproduced
by any renewable energy resources considerably
affectsthepowersystemoperation,whichcanleadto
frequency oscillations [I. Serban et al. (2009), C.
Dufour et al. (2004)], and/or violations of power lines
capability.

Artificial intelligence methods such as Genetic


Algorithms, Artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy
Logic, have also been widely used to optimize a
hybrid system. In such cases, Genetic Algorithm has
been widely used as compared to other artificial
intelligence techniques because of their capability to
handle complex problems with linear or nonlinear
cost functions [E. Koutroulis (2006), H. X. Yang et al.
(2008), G. C. H. Seeling et al. (1997)]. Genetic
Algorithms address the problems of uncertain
renewableenergysupplies,loaddemandandthenon
linear characteristics of some components by
incorporatingpastandfuturedemand[A.Soterisetal.
(2004)]. GA is also widely used in conjunction with
ArtificialNeuralNetworks[YingYiHongetal.(2012)].
New design variables/constraints including cost
minimization, and both reliability and CO2 emission
aretakenasconstraints[LingfengWangetal.(2009)].
MarkovbasedGAisintroducedforthedetermination
of optimal sizes of renewable energy sources units. It
is found that Markovbased GA can help to reduce
CPUtimegreatlyandprovidecompetitivecost.

RealTimeorOnlineControlDesign
Realtime simulators are a complementary tool to
conventional offline simulation programs for power
systemstudies[L.F.Paketal.(2006),V.Dinavahietal.
(2004),C.Dufour(1996),D.Hercogetal.(2007),F.Gao
et al (2010), Y. Li et al. (2004), Wei Qi et al. (2011)].
With much more computational power, realtime
simulatorsareabletosimulateverycomplexandlarge
modelsinrealtimeorfaster.Thesimulationtimestep
of a realtime simulator can be as low as tens of
microsecondsattheCPU,andtensofnanosecondsat
the fieldprogrammable gate array (FPGA). Realtime
enables hardwareintheloop (HIL) simulation. As
only low power signals are exchanged between a
prototypecontrollerandasimulatedplant,itiscalled
signalHILsimulation.

In all the above mentioned approaches, the system is


taken to be independent to either grid or grid
uncertainties.Later,LingfengWangetal.investigated
both design scenarios, i.e., gridlinked hybrid
generation systems without and with uncertainties
consideration for the design of hybrid generation
system [I. Serban et al. (2008)]. Hybrid system is
designed using Particle Swarm Optimization for the
minimisationoftotalcost($/year)includinginitialcost,
operational and maintenance (OM) cost for each type
of power source, and the salvage value of each
equipment. For the gridlinked system design, the
annualcostforpurchasingpowerfromtheutilitygrid
is considered. Reliability and pollutant emission are
taken as additional design objectives, under
constrainedvariables.

The realtime simulator is the most suitable research


tool for studies of the integrated wind ESS system as
the nature of the renewable energy resources is
stochasticandthedevelopedhybridmodeliscomplex
since the characteristics of the equipment are highly
nonlinear,andthebatterystorageperformanceisvery
dependentonpreviousoperatingconditions.
OperatingPointControl

Performance Optimization

Effort hasalso beendonein controlling the operating


point of the system keeping the system to work at
maximum power point. A costeffective control
technique for maximum power point tracking from
the photovoltaic array and wind turbine under

As discussed, only system sizing is not the matter of


concern for the researchers. An installed system also
requires optimized dynamic variables for an
optimized performance. Hybrid system must be able

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ElectricalEngineeringResearchVol.1,Iss.3,July2013

voltage source converter based on positive and


negative symmetrical components can be used to
investigate the voltage sag in [Amin Hajizadeh et al.
(2010),ZheZhangetal.(2012)].Phaseshiftangleand
duty cycle can be used to control a bidirectional
isolateddcdcconverterforthehybridenergysystem
[M.Komori,etal.(2001)].Similarly,aLyapunovbased
neurofuzzy controller has also been designed to
ensure the proper working of HES when a voltage
disturbanceoccursindistributionsystem[M.Komori,
etal.(2001)].

varying climatic conditions without measuring the


irradiance of the photovoltaic or the wind speed has
been developed [Paolo Maffezzoni et al. (2009)].
Predictive control has also been used to [Paolo
Maffezzoni et al. (2009)] to compute the operating
points of the wind subsystem and of the solar
subsystem together to generate enough energy to
satisfy the load demand. In addition to this,
supervisory control have also been used to optimize
theoperatingpointssoastoreducethepeakvalueof
surge currents. Predictive control has also been
extensivelyusedbyotherresearchers[C.Rodriguezet
al.(2007)].Itisshownthatthetemperatureprofilecan
bepredictedasafunctionofthecoolingstrategyfora
solarmodule. It is found that the IV electrical
characteristic of the whole module can be derived
from this information, thereby identifying those
average parameters that mainly affect the solar
module behaviour,thus facilitating the prediction on
thecurrentandvoltagelevelsthatcanbesustainedby
the solar panel as well as the maximum suppliable
power[M.Fortunatoetal.(2008)].Alloftheseaspects
areakeytotheproperdesignoftheelectroniccontrol
interface that tracks the maximum power point [N.
Femiaetal.(2005),N.Femiaetal.(2008),G.R.Walker
et al. (2004), P. K. Goel et al. (2011)]. Such control
techniques have been applied to control different
types of hybrid systems to maintain constant voltage,
constant
frequency,
MPT,
neutralcurrent
compensation, harmonics elimination, load balancing
and the highest efficiency optimization [Sylvain
Lemofouetetal.(2006),M.ShahidKhanetal.(2008)].

HybridEnergyStorageSystemControl
Powerqualitycanbeincreasedbytheproperselection
and control of Hybrid Energy Storage System. A
miniature flywheel energy storage system for energy
storage with a pair of hybrid magnetic bearings
(HMBs);consistingofbothsuperconductingmagnetic
bearings(SMBs)andactivemagneticbearings(AMBs)
applied with Hinfinity control method and zero bias
methodhasalsobeendeveloped[J.R.Miller(1995)].It
is seen that by using the HMBs the radial
displacement of the rotor is much smaller than
that with SMBs thus improving the dynamics of the
ESS.
Hybrid power sources that combine advanced
batteries with ultra capacitors can be operated for
longertimes[L.P.Jarvisetal.(1999),L.P.Jarvisetal.
(2000),R.A.Dougal etal. (2002)]. Peak power can be
greatly enhanced, internal losses can be considerably
reduced, and that discharge life of the battery is
extended using ultra capacitors [A. Yoshida et al.
(1992)]. The greatest benefits can be seen when the
load pulse rate is higher than the system eigen
frequencyandwhenthepulsedutyissmall.

ConverterControl
The operating conditions of the renewable energy
based system could be regulated by controlling the
converterparameters.Optimizedoperatingconditions
can be achieved by controlling the converter
parameters. A fast acting hybrid control of voltage
sourced converter (VSC), can manage and ensure
continuousoperationofthesysteminthepresenceof
temporary single line to ground faults on the utility
feederwithouttheneedforastorageprovision.Italso
limits reactive fault current contribution by the
converter, and therefore, avoiding problems
associated with over current protection of the feeder
[Yasser et. al. (2009)]. Thus converter side control
extremely improves the system performance. For fast
load changes and fast voltage disturbances, work has
also been done to control gridconnected PWM
voltage source inverters (VSIs). A control strategy for

Ultracapacitorsarealsoincreasinginterestbecauseof
their highenergy density (compared to conventional
capacitors) and highpower density (compared to
batteriesandfuelcells)[A.F.Burkeetal.(1995),B.E.
Conway(1999),R.Ktzetal.(2000),S.M.Halpinetal.
(1996)]. The use of ultra capacitor in power
distribution and in utility electronic apparatus has
shownimprovementsinpowerquality,uninterrupted
power supply, and memory backup [K. Harada et al.
(1998),P.Pillayetal.(1995),R.L.Spykeretal.(2000),
L.Zubietaetal.(2000),M.G.Molinaetal.(2007)].
Also,superconductingmagneticenergystorage(SMES)
has been utilized for better power quality by many
researchers. With the appropriate topology of the
power conditioning system (PCS) and its control

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ElectricalEngineeringResearchVol.1,Iss.3,July2013

systemdesign,theSMESunithasbeenfoundcapable
of simultaneously performing both instantaneous
active and reactive power flow control [Marcelo
Gustavo Molina et al. (2011), Toshifumi Ise et al.
(2005)]. Fuzzy control scheme has also been used for
theoptimizedperformanceofahybridenergystorage
system composed of a superconducting magnet
[CarlosAndrsetal.(2009)].

such fast dynamics, conventional optimization


techniquesaretooslowtobeusedfortheoptimization
of multiobjective and multiconstraint energy
management problem. As a result, researchers have
focused on the application of intelligent control not
only for unit sizing but also for energy utilization of
hybrid energy systems [Hanane Dagdougui et al.
(2010),V.Mirandaetal.(2005),C.L.Chen(2007),B.C.
Ummelsetal.(2007),C.ChunLung(2008),J.Hetzeret
al. (2008), F. A. Mohamed et al. (2007), C. A.
HernandezAramburo et al. (2005), Jorge L. Duarte et
al.(2007)].

Due to the emergent technology of fuel cells, much


amountofresearchhasalsobeenfocusedonit.
PEMFC control strategy has been developed to
produce the power, minimize the fuel consumption
andalsoprovidearegulateddcbusvoltagetotheload
[XinKongetal.(2009)].Thisisdonebycontrollingthe
voltage of air pump of FC for the control of fuel cell
current through a dc/dc switching converter. The
controlresults,fuelconsumption,andfuelcellprotect
againstoxygenstarvationphenomenon.

Itisseenthatvoltageregulationisaffectedmostlyby
thebalanceofreactivepowerandthetimeconstantof
the generator excitation system which also affects the
frequency variation in the system. Thus a proper
power balance and time constant are required for a
stable operation. Therefore, apart from system sizing
and performance control, researchers also have paid
attentiontotheselectionofrenewableenergysources
and energy storage system for an optimized hybrid
energysystem.Muchmoreattentionhasbeenpaidto
thepowersharedbyeachrenewablesource.

To incorporate some non linear structures, the


developmentofanANNbasedfuelcellmodelwithin
the hybrid model of a FC stack not only improves
accuracy but also allows the model to adapt itself to
operating conditions; giving a good estimate of the
relationship between current and temperature and
making the system work on maximum power
condition [Li Wang et al. (2010)]. Other types of fuel
cells have also been suggested in HESS for the
minimization of hydrogen rate using the output dc
currentoftheSOFCorthecurrentmagnitudeoftheac
load[ChadAbbeyetal.(2010)].

A suitable threeport, galvanic isolated, bidirectional


power converter has been proposed to control the
power flow [Eduard Muljadi et al. (2002)]. Many
topologies have been developed in this regard. Work
has also been focused on the dynamic interaction
among renewable power sources and loads [Torbjorn
Thiringeretal.(2001)].

The topology of ESS is also suggested by the


researchers for better power quality. A two level ESS
hasbeenproposed,wherethebatteryispairedwitha
fastacting lowpowercapacity ESS [Ke Jin et al.
(2009)]. The controller minimizes dump load, limits
the intrahour diesel ramp rates, and maximizes ESS
utilization. In addition, the operation of chargingand
dischargingofESScanbemanagedbycontrollingthe
bidirectional converter operated under buck boost or
shutdownmodeaccordingtotheoperationcondition
of the fuel cell and battery [Phatiphat Thounthong et
al.(2010)].FatnesspropertiesforaFC/supercapacitor
couldalsobeusedindesigningabettercontrollaw[J.
L.BernalAgustnetal.(2008)].

It is also required that the renewable energy sources


must try to keep unity power factor as long as the
voltageonthegriddoesnotexceedanominalvoltage
limit. Researchers have used supervisory control to
ordertherespectivecomponentssoastomaintainthe
voltage/frequency level [F. Valenciaga et al. (2005)].
Supervisory control system has also been used to
satisfy the load power demand and to maintain the
stateofchargeofthebatterybanktopreventblackout
asenergystoragesystemalsoplaysanimportantrole
in deciding the hybrid topology and power sharing
betweenthem[TomonobuSenjyuetal.(2005)].
Another techniques like sliding mode control have
alsobeenappliedforaproperpowersharingsoasto
satisfy total instantaneous power demand in highly
uncertainenvironment[FranciscoJuradoetal.(2003)].

PowerManagementControl
Effective energy management of hybrid energy
systems is necessary to ensure optimal energy
utilization. The energy management system (EMS) is
complex and needs to find solutions quickly and
continuously,inagivenintermittentenvironment.For

64

It is seen that conventional control depends on the


mathematical model of the plant controlled. Since,
energystoragemodelisuncertain,adaptivecontroller

ElectricalEngineeringResearchVol.1,Iss.3,July2013

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2012.

Dr. Narendra Kumar obtained his


doctoral
degree
in
Electrical
Engineering from University of
RoorkeenowIITRoorkee,India.Heis
currently working as Professor and
Head Department of Electrical
Engineering. Delhi Technological
University (Formerly Delhi College of
Engineering),Delhi,India.

Zhou, W., Lou, C., Li, Z., Lu, L., and Yang, H., Current
status of research on optimum sizing of standalone
hybrid solarwind power generation systems, Applied
Energy,vol.87,pp.380389,2010.
Zubieta,L.andBonert,R.,Characterizationofdoublelayer
capacitors for power electronics applications, IEEE
Transactions on Industrial Applications, vol. 36,pp. 199

He has published more than 150 papers in peer reviewed


refereed International/National journals and conference
proceedingsincludingIEEETransactions.

204,Jan./Feb.2000.

Dr. M. Rizwan received the doctoral


degreeinElectricalEngineeringfrom
Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi,
India.Heispresentlyassociatedwith
Delhi
Technological
University
(Formerly
Delhi
College
of
Engineering), Delhi, as Assistant
Professor in the Department of
Electrical Engineering. He has published more than 30
papers in peer reviewed refereed International/National
journals and conference proceedings including IEEE
Transactions.

HeistheMemberofIEEE,LifeMemberoftheIndianSociety
of Technical Education, Life Member of System Society of
India,MemberInstitutionofEngineers,India.
His area of interest includes Power Systems dynamics and
stability, FACTS devices, distributed power generation and
automaticgenerationcontrol.
Masood Anzar was born in 1978 and
received the Bachelor degree in
Electrical Engineering from Aligarh
Muslim Universty, Aligarh, India, in
2001and then the Master degree from
Aligarh Muslim University (A. M. U.),
Aligarh in 2004. He is pursuing Ph.D
from Delhi Technological University,
Delhi, India. His interests include robotics, soft computing,
evolutivecomputation,clusteringtechniques,applicationof
neurofuzzy approaches for the modeling and control of
dynamicsystemsuchasrenewableenergybasedsystems.

Dr.Rizwanisactivelyassociatedwithvariouspeerreviewed
internationalandnationaljournalsinthecapacityofeditor,
membereditorialboardandreviewerincludingIEEE,Taylor
andFrancisetc.Inaddition,heisactivelyengagedinvarious
professionalsocietieslikeMemberIEEE,LifeMemberofthe
Indian Society of Technical Education, Life Member of
System Society of India and Automatic Control and
DynamicOptimizationSociety(ACDOS),India.
His area of interest includes Emerging Power Systems,

70