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SOCIETY OF PIHROLEUMENG~ERS

OF AIME
k-.

6200 North Central Expressway

SPE

2544

Dallas, Texas 75206


THIS IS A PREPHNT --- SUBJECT TO CORRECTION

By
Amiel David* and Sullivan S. Marsden, Jr.,
Members AIME, Stanford U.
@ Copyright 1%9
and Petroleum Engineers, Inc.
AmerieanInstitute
of Mining,Metallurgieel,
This paper was prepared for the bbth Annual Fall Meeting.of the Society of Petroleum Engineers
of AIME, to be held in Denver, Colo., Sept. 28-Ott. 1, 1969. Permission to copy is restricted to an
abstract of not more than 300 words. Illustrationsmay not be copied. The abstract should contain
conspicuous acknowledgmentof where and by whom the paper is presented. Publication elsewhere after
publication in the J06RNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY o; ;he SOC~ETY OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERS JCURNAL is
usually granted upon request to the Editor of the appropriate journal provided agreement to give
proper credit is made.
Discussion of this paper is invited. Three copies of any discussion should be sent to the
Society of Petroleum Engineers office. Such discussion may be presented at the above meeting and,
with the paper, may be considered for publication in one of the two SPE magazines.
ABSTRACT
Both experimental and theoretical analyses
were carried out on the theological behavior
of foam. This foam was generated by simultaneously injecting compressed air and an aqueoua solution of a commercial foaming agent into
a snortporous medium. It then f10we6 iiit~a
capillary tube viscometer having four interchangeable glass tubes of different radii. A
mathematical anaiysis was deveioped whereby
both the very pronounced effects of fluid slippage at the tube wall and the foam compressibility were taken into consideration. The
..._...---*
..4----4*
.. .... 4-A...-.?.-A
.-.-+
#.#4=
....
vABLuaALy Wum AALu=pc&&ucL,L
L
J.sII!
-pp=~=i~
quality but not of tube radius.
Bubble size and bubble size distribution
were measured under a microscope and the change
of bubble size with time studied through photomicrographs. Both the mean bubble diameter
and bubble size distribution were functions of
foam quality. The cumulative size distribution
as a function of a quality is represented by a
modified Weibull function.
Although the flowing foam behaved like a
pseudoplastic fluid, the static foam had a
measurable gel strength which increased with
foam quality.

References and illustrations at end of paper.


*Now with Gulf Research & Development Co.

Foam is a gas-liquid dispersion in which


the liquid is the continuous phase and the gaa
is the discontinuous phase. It occurs widely
nd is used in many industrial applications.
In the petroleum industry; foams are often en--..
A---.
oun~erea iii gtlS-Oii S~p=~=tG~S
(i) . -Jr~eeer~

times, aqueous foams have been used in several


il field applications such as removal of brine
F
,..
..J .
from iow pressure gas weiia (2) and as a arulmg
nd completion fluid in low pressure, water sensi.
Their use has also
Itive reservoir rocks (3,4).
een proposed to plug thief formations and to
POGa.1.
ea.1 r..l..-alr
lamb. A..u,.u=.~.u..u,
4- .,Aav**n,,na
lm.tx,Ynl
........ g=~
GcLy.bna.=*?s.=
storage reservoirs (5), and as a displacing agent
Some of
in conjunction with water floods (6).
these applications are involved with foam flowing
through tubes or pipes whereas others are concerned with the flow or retention of foam in
porous media.
The many physical properties of foam have
been described by scientists and engineera in
numerous papers and these are reviewed elsewhere
(7). The many papers concerned with the flow
properties of foam are particularly pertinent
to its use in petroleum production (8,9,10,11,12)
In these, foam is usually considered as a fluid,
which ia probably a valid assumption if the
Ibubblesize is small compared to the instruments
dimensions or the size of the fluid conduit.

lhile the literature is not unanimous in its


conclusions,there does seem to be good reason
;O believe that most aqueous foams behave like
~seudoplasticfluids when they flow in tubes
)r pipes. Apparently some foams exhibit a gel
strengthor yield value and so the possibility
?xists that they may be Bingham plastic fluids.
~y use of an approach proposed by Mooney (13),
Zaza and Msrsden (12) demonstrated that foam
Flowing in glass tubes did have the characteristics of pseudoplastic fluids, that is, a
>arabolicvelocity distribution across the
tube at low flow rates and a plug-like or semi>lug-likeof flow at higher flow rates. Their
results indicated an unexpected dependence of
Flow properties on tube radius as well as a
~ependenceon foam quality (ratio of gas volume
to total volume). They did not correct for
Fluid slippage at the tube wall and for the
compressibilityof the foam.
In the present work we have been able to
zorrect the experimental results for the semi:ompressibilityof the-foam as well as for the
-r- .AA-1+.I.-.
+-a.14------* *k...L-..-11
sAAppa&=
u!.
bile
Luu=
waAA.
Au
-UU.LL*WAA
s-w .=
Lating the theological behavior to the foam
quality, we have been able to relate it to
the foam texture (bubble size and bubble size
distribution)and the foam stability. Additional results on the gel strength of the same
foams were also recorded.

With some non-Newtonian fluids, there is a


~uddenrather than a gradual change in the ve.ocitygradient near the conduit wall and this
k known as slip. Mooney (13) has derived an
:quationfor the flow of an incompressible,nonlewtonianfluid when slip occurs. He defines
:he slip coefficient, B, as:
v

In order to get an equation which takes


into account both the semi-compressibility
of foam and the fluid slippage at the tube
wall, we must first get one for the foam compressibility, cf. If we consider foam to be
a fluid, thev its compressibility is given by:
/. av.\

(4)

Ta$

?here V6 is the slip velocity at the shear stress


it the wall, Ta. The total velocity of the fluid
Ls the summation of the velocities due to slip
tnd that due to fluidity, VV.
VT=VB+VV

(5)

C&=-VT
dr

(6)

md

vhere the fluidityv , is simply the reciprocal of


:he viscosity V. Using these several relationships,Mooney derived the following equation:

o
Sy introducing the foam compressibilitywe obtain
l-k-c-l1-...4...
1
,-a
L&&=

where:

SPE 2544

THE RHEOLOGY OF FOAM

AUAAUW4.LL6.

./

J
3

Jhen this is differentiated with respect to ra,


tieobtain an equation which gives the flow component which is due only to Slip:
aq
m:)

Vf = foam volume

(9)

=~$
2cgrL

For foams of a given quality flowing in tubes of


constant length, L, a plot of the flow rate, q,
versus r~ should be a straight line. The coT = temperature.
efficient of slip can be calculated from the
The foam volume is the sum of the gas volume, slope of this line and the slip velocity is then
v , which is compressible, and the liquid volume isolated by the use of Equations (4) and (5).
V!, which may be considered as incompressible.
The remaining flow due only to fluidity may be
fie following ~ equivalent to,Equation (l):
obtained in the following manner:
g1~
(2)
x. %
3P r
(10)
Let
Cf ~,-F
((] g
3
m ra
..
P

= pressure

Since Vg/(Vg + VI) is the foam quality, r, and


the quantity in the brackets is simply the gas
compressibility,c , we have:
g
Cf

=rc

(3)

c 1
and

~.+

Thus,

3Dx+DTa&T

(11)

= Tav
a

(12)

X is plotted versus Tat the slope at any


shear stress is measured and then the value of
the fluidity is calculated directly.

When

magnifications of 35 and 100 times. For some of


the work a Polaroid-Land Film holder was attached
to the microscope and photographs were taken.

At the beginning of a run, foamer solution


and air were introduced into the foam generator
simultaneously. Flow rates were controlled by
The equipment consisted of a foam generating
the needle valves shown in Figure 1 and as well
system, a capillary tube viscometer and auxiliary instrumentationfor measurement of quality as by varying the elevation of the foamer solution reservoir. The foam passed first through a
and texture. The arrangement of components is
3.Omm.
I.D. tube where the homogeneity could be
shown schematically in Figure 1. Construction
and assembly details are available elsewhere (7) checked visually and then it flowed into one of
the four interchangeablecapillary tubes. After
stabilized
flow had been established, pressure
Since foam was required at the highest pos-------s....-2...7*...
Zn6 flO-w- ~iit~ --->>---reuaAu~a
weze
umaue
aim
yuuAALy
b~tl
sible pressure, a foam generator having only a
measured.
--,. pressure
-------arop
>--- acrues
------ AL
JA ----A--2---2
was
aeu4~ueu
=id
sms~~
constructed. It consisted of a uniform bed of
For the study of foam texture and stability,
crushed pyrex glass (150-250 mesh) 0.5 mm. thick
the
thin cell was connected to the system outlet
This was supported on nylon screen having openand
quality
readings were taken as the foam
ings of 9.4 x 10-3mm. and contained in a lucite
flowed.
After
the cell was removed from the flou
tube. Both foamer solution and filtered, com-----------L..Ll.l...
-4- UADLL.LUULAUU.
a-lm+..-.t4*et4*e
ru,:~e
Al.
appaLuLu=,
LIUVUA=
DAfic
pressed air at 100 psi were introduced into the
tained
by
measuring
the
maximum
diameters
of at
top of the generator.
least 100 bubbles at random for each quality
setting. Any bubbles that had a diameter smellex
Aqueous solutions of a conuoercialfoamer
known as O.K. Liquid were prepared in tap water. than the thickness of the cell were seen at their
This foamer is a combination of an anionic com- natural size, but those with a diameter larger
than the gap were flattened when introduced into
ponent (CgH19 (CH2CH20)2 OS03NH4) plus nonion~c
the cell. The observed diameters of the latter
were converted to true or undistorted diameters
one (~1H23C gNg C2H40H). Fresh solutions
through use of a plot calculated from geometrical
having a concentration of 1.00% by volume were
principles. The few with diameters less than
prepared for each run. Prior to the initial
0.17 mm. were difficult to measure because of
run, foamer solution was passed through the
experimental limitations but those with diameters
generator to achieve adsorption equilibrium on
of 0.16 mm. were added to the numbers with this
the crushed glass.
diameter. For the stability study, the Polaroid
camera was used for selected portions of foam at
The viscometer consisted of precision bore
progressive times.
capillary tubes of various diameters and fixed
length (30.0 cm.) together with pressure drop
The gel strengths of fresh samples of foam
and flow rate measuring instruments. The aver- were measured in a Stormer viscometer using the
......
--- -.2*..--c -....L
..4=
*L- s-...
procedure normally used for aru~xng muds.
was determined by noting the weight of a measured length of mercury column within the capRESULTS AND DISCUSSION
illary tube. Pressure drops were measured with
a diaphragm type transducer together with indiA.
Rheology
cator and a strip chart recorder; this was
calibrated with a dead-weight tester. Flow rate
In the analysis of theological data proat atmospheric pressure was measured by noting
posed by Mooney (13), the logarithm of the shear
the time required to fill a known volume in a
stress is plotted versus the logarithm of the
25 ml. pipette. Foam quality was determined
shear rate. The slope of the resultant line is
through weighing this filled pipette on anaindicative of the type of flow in the correslytical balance.
nondinc
range of shear stresses and shear rates.
,-----=
A slope of unity indicates a parabolic velocity
In a supplementarystudy of the relationdistribution characteristicof Newtonian fluids,
ship between bubble size, bubble size distriwhereas a slope of less than unity is indicative
bution, stability and quality, foam coming out
of the semi-plug like type of flow. A slope of
of the viscometer was introduced into a thin
zero would presumably indicate a purely pistoncell constructed of microscope slides separated like flow and a slope greater than unity would
by a gap of 0.34 mm. and sealed on the edges
presumable be indicative of a dilatant fluid.
with epoxy resin. Separation was determined by
Pseudoplastic fluids usually are represented by
filling this cell with mercury, weighing it,
a line with slope of unity at low shear rates
and measuring the area of the mercury-glass
followed by a transition to another line of S1OPC
contact. Foam in this cell was observed under
less than unity. At very high shear rates there
a microscope by transmitted light and with
is another transition to a line of slope unity

APPARATUS, MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUE

Us=

LUULUZ!

UL

eUGll

UL

LALC

LUUL

--al?---GU~LLAULy

~.ti~e~

SPE 2544
THE RHEOLI iOF FOAM
e size
It
is
possible
that
bubble
size
and
bubbl
when the fluid goes into turbulent flow (14).
distribution were responsible for this phenomeno
as was suggested by Becher for the case of emul~,e d=t= f~r the four capillary tubes and
sions (i5).
the different foam quality ranges have been
4

plotted in Figures 2 and 3. The results strongi


support those of Raza and Marsden (12) for tubes
of larger diameter and again indicate that these
aqueous foams behave like pseudoplastic fluids,
even in these relatively small diameter capillar
tubes. Since for a given shear stress the shear
rate increases as the tube diameter decreases,
slip at the tube wall is a significant factor.
In order to evaluate the actual apparent viscosity of the fluid, the slip has to be determined first. Flow rates are plotted as a
function of the tube radius ciibedat Vazicus
shear stresses in Figures 5 and 4. The slopes
of the lines for the low quality foam were
appreciably greater than those for the high
quality foam which indicates that at the same
shear stress, the slip coefficient data, was
higher for the wet foam. Figure 6 clearly
shows this phenomenon. The shape of the curves
ind$cates an accelerating increase of slip with
shear stress. The drier foam does not have the
available free liquid to wet the surface of the
glass that the wet foam does and therefore the
liquid layer is probably thinner. After correction for slip, the shear rates due only to
-l~+tQA
sc
n
flu~.cti~n
of
the
shear
fluidity are .......
_
.
stress for the dry and wet foam in Figures 7
and 8. The corresponding logarithmic plots are
In
FQttre
9
aiso given in Figures 9 aid 10.
a change in slope comparable to that shown in
Figure 2 is evident although it occurs at a
lower shear stress. On the other hand this
change in slope is not evident in Figure 10 but
it is possible that it occurred at a lower shear
rate than those measured here. In all cases,
the slopes of the lines are still less than
unity so that even with the slip corrections
the flow behavior is still non-Newtonian.

B.

Bubble Size and Bubble Size Distribution

When foam goes through a porous medium such


as that used here as a foam generator, we would
expect the bubble sizes to be related in some
way to the pore sizes of the porous medium. If
the porous medium was uniform throughout, we
might get a foam which had a uniform bubble size
However, porous media made of a range of grain
sizes will inevitably have a range of pore sizes
and we would in turn expect these to lead to a
range of bubble sizes. The frequency of ths~s
bubble sizes measured for foams of six different
qualities are shown in Figure 13. As has been
noted earlier, the diameters of the smallest
bubbles could not be measured, and so the dashed
lines have been drawn as an extrapolation of the
curve to the origin. Only in the case of the
driest foam, (r = 0.93), did the experimental
points go through a maximum; in the other five
cases the curves peaked at or below the smelles
size of bubbles measured.

Even with the lack of data for very small


bubbles, there are several features of these
curves which are worth iiotiiig,
the Skewless of
the curves and the sharpnees of the peak both
increase with a decrease in quality. The same
is true for the uniformity of the foams. As
the quality increases both the average bubble
size and the range of bubble sizes also increases. Since all of these foams were produced
by the same sand packing in the foam generator,
other factors must be influencing the bubble
size and size distribution. It is probable that
those leading to foam instability such as membrane rupture and transport of gas from the
smaller bubbles to the larger ones are the most
A comparison of Figures 9 and 10 shows that significant ones.
the lines for both the wet and dry foam ranges
Various attempts were made to correlate the
are almost coincident for each tube. This
bubble
size frequency distribution shown in
suggests that once the correction for slip is
Figure
14.
Plotting on probability paper indimade, the shear stress-shear rate relationship
:ated that the distributionwas not normal, and
is independent of the quality. This justifies
Pearsonsmethod of smoothing frequency curves
VdUe
fGi
the fimm quelity
taking an average
ras not applicable (i6j. The Weibuii diSt~ithe calculation of the slip coefficient.
bution (17) was found to be easily adapted to
Lhis type of distribution. If the distribution
The intercepts of the tangents drawn at
Eunction is D(d) then:
various shear stresses were found in Figures 7
i~

and 8, and then substituted in Equation (12) to


obtain the apparent viscosity. Figures 11 and
12 are plots of the apparent viscosity as a
function of the shear stress. For the dry foam
the apparent viscosity decreased from about
9.0 to 0.5 Cp. and for the wet foam from 8.7 to
0.6 cp. for the same range of shear stresses.
One would expect the apparent viscosity of the
foam to be independent of the tube diameter
which is not indicated by Figures 11 and 12.

D(d) = l-exp ~(d)]

(13;

zhere G(d) is a non-decreasing function of the


variable. This distribution function can also
be written as:
Y
D(d) = l=exp - ~
(14:
i
where Y is a constant anu u a function of foam
quality. This relationship was found to fit the

(1

SPE 2544

A. David and

data best when u = 0.344rmm. and Y = 2.1. The


agreement between experimental points and the
calculated curve is shown in Figure 14 for two
foam qualities. Comparisons for other qualities
are available elsewhere (7).

c.

6
.

S. Marsden, Jr.

short transfer time from foam generator to


capillary tube exit. This same change of bubble
size with time has a negligible effect on the
bubble size distribution measurements made over
the course of a few minutes.

D.

Foam Stability

Since foam is a two-phase system possessing


a considerable emount of interracial area, it
possesses a significant amount of surface free
energy. Decomposition of the foam into its two
constituent phases results in a decrease of this
surface free energy and hence is a spontaneous
process. This decrease can take place suddenly
as happens when a film is ruptured either mechan
ically or spontaneously,or it can take place
slowly through the diffusion of gas from smaii
bubbles through the solution membrane into
larger bubbles. The latter process occurs both
because of the higher capillary pressure of the

Gel Strength

While a study of gel strength was not a


major purpose of this investigation, it was
desirable to know something about gel strengths
of the foams studied here in order to see if it
might have a significant influence on the theological properties. Thus the gel strength measured with the Stormer viscometer were intended
to give an order of magnitude rather than accurate values. These were made on foams of dif-----Lerenc quulLLAea =UU Lll= L=SULLS
UL=
~LUCL=U
.I.L1
_.._1JAi--

--s

AL-

---..7--

---

--1-**-A

4-

Figure 16. Here the results are given in the


usual units of grams for this instrument and
also in terms of atmospheres. Although there is
---1
1 -L..LLI -&L.a*L... 1 . . . ---- ~.d~~~e~
.-a
g ~~ight i~.~rea~eof ~-u-l ~trenoth
-.--.-=--- with aualftv
~---, :
a&.u
alUU.LL=L
UUUU.L=a
LUa&l
ALA
Lk&=
J.aA~GA
also because the ratio of surface area to surfac it is important to note that the maximum values
obtained are smaller by several orders of magnitvolume decreases with increasing diameter.
ude than the minimum shear stress used in the
DeVries (18) has presented a relationship bethis
capillary tube flow measurements. ThUS
tween the initial radius of a bubble r. and the
radius at any time rt in terms of the diffusion minor gel strength did not significantly influence the latter.
coefficient of the gas and liquid D, the volubility of the gas in the liquid S, the surface
tension of the liquid u, the atmospheric presCONCLUSIONS
sure PO, the film thickness @ and the time t.
The following conclusions apply to aqueous
(15) foams made with a commercial foaming agent,
(O.K. Liquid), but are believed to be applicable as well to other similar foams:
where R is the gas constant and T is the2tem1.
perature. This suggests that plots of r versus
time, t, should be straight lines. Experimental
-..-..1
*- c-...
L..LLIA..
a-4=~
Lcau.1.LD

J.UL

uuuu.L=a

AL1

fmiii

UJ.

n
09
u.7&

-.
aLG

SC

plotted in Figure 15. The expected change of


radius with time is apparent. If we assume that
air has the same volubility in and diffusivity
2.
through the foamer solution as it does through
water,
then the film thickness data can be calculated from Equation (15). The film thickness
r.sIle,,ln+aA-----*s-lam h-----*-
...
*-*-M
.f?rwn.
----(16)

where ~ and ~ are the average volume and average


surface area, respectively. Considering the
assllmnticms
==--.-- .... inVOIVed
-.-= ------ ~~.d annroximations

in thf2

Although the uncorrected apparent viscosity


changes with foam quality, that corrected
for both slippage and foam compressibility
is independent of foam quality.

3.

The slip coefficient increases with shear


stress but the apparent viscosity, corrected for slip, still increases with tube
diameter.

4.

The corrected apparent viscosity decreases


as t-hesnearstress increases. 13nefourfold increase in shear stress causes a
reduction by half in the apparent viscosity
of the foam.

5.

These foams behaved like PseudoPlastic


fluids with a very low gei strength.

derivation of both equations, the calculated


values of film thickness by the two equations
are in reasonable agreement.
Among other things this stability study
shows that the spontaneous decay of foams
through gas transfer from the small to the
large bubbles has no significant effect on the
bubble size distribution during the relatively

Pronounced foam slippage occurs at the tube


walls, but a method is presented here for
taking into account both this and the foam
compressibility,in interpretationof the
flow results.

THE RHEOLOGY OF FOAM

6.

The gel strength increases slowly with

fluidity, Cp-l

)-

quality.
7

7.

8.

A bubble size frequency distribution is


assymetrical, resembling a x2 distribution, T=
but approaching a normal distribution at
v=
high foam quality. This distribution fits
a modified Weibull distribution function.
The arithmetic mean bubble diameter is pro- J
portional to foam quality.
The change of bubble diameters with time,
leads to a bubble-membrane thickness which
is in reasonable agreement with that calculated from material balance.

surface tension, dyne - cm-1


shear stress, atm
dimensionlesss

function of quality

Subscripts
%

= tube radius

= fluid

NoMENcLAm

= gas phase

c=

compressibility,atm-~

= iiquid phase

D=

diffusion coefficient, cm2/sec

= initial

= time

= slip

= fluidity

D?

= defined by Equation 11, atm-1

D(d) = function of diameter

SPE 2544

. diameter, cm

G(d)

function of diameter

length, cm

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

pressure, atm

flow rate, cm3/sec

Acknowledgementis made to the donore of


the Petroleum Research Fund, administered by
the American Chemical Society, for partial support of this research.

gas constant

R
r

radius, cm
REFERENCES

volubility, moleslliter

average surface area, cm2

s=

temperature, K

time, seconds

volume, cm3

average volume, cms

velocity, cmlsec

defined by Equation 10, see-l

(3

slip coefficient, cm-sec-1 - atm-1

e
u

quality, fraction

film thickness, cm

Viscosityy Cp

1. Worley, M.S., Laurence, L.L., Oil and Gas


Separation is a Science, J. Pet. Tech.
(1957) ~no. 4.
2. Eakin, J.L., Echard, W.E., Foams Purge
Well Bore and Formation Waters, Petroleum
Engineer (July 1966) pg. 71.
3. Anderson, G.W., Harrison, F.F., Hutchison,
So., The Use of Stable Foam as a Low Pressure Completion and Sand Cleancut Fluid,
Paper presented at the Spring Meeting of the
Pacific Coast District, API (May 10, 1966).
4.

Stable Foam Circulating Fluid,


World Oil (1966) 163, 6, 85.

5.

Albrecht, R.A., Marsden S.S., Sealing Gas


Storage Reservoirs with Foam, Paper presented at the Eastern Regional Meeting of
the AIME (Nov. 7, 1968).

A. David and [

SPE 2544
6.

Fried, A.N.$ The Foam Drive Process for


Increasing the Recovery of Oil, U.S.B.M.
Report of InvestigationNo. 5866 (1961).

7.

David, A.,The Rheology of Foam Ph.D.


Dissertation Stanford University (NovemL-LJ~E

ln<O\
L7C)OJ

8.

Sibree, J.O., The Viscosity of Froth,


Trans. Farad. Sot. (1934) 30, 325.

9.

Penney, W.G., Blackman, M., The Mechanical Properties of Foam and the Flow of
Foam Through Pipes, Ministry of Home
Security (Britain),Note 282 (1943).

10.

Grove, C.S., Jr., Wise, G.E., Jr., Marsh,


woc., Gray, J.B., Viscosity of Fire
Fighting Foam, Ind. Eng. Chem. (1951)
~, 1120.

11. Wenzel, H.G., Stelson, T.E., Brungraber,


R.J., Flow of High Expansion Foams in
Pipes, J. Eng. Mech. Proc. of ASCE
(Dec. 1967) ~, 153.
n an.,
,. marsaen,
...----r.H . naza,
a.a., II-t@---..-4-1ne aLLetuuALLg
Potential and the Weology of Foam, Sot.
Pet. Eng. J. (1967) ~, 4.
~~

14.

fnr
slip
l!~vml+eit
Fo?ln,,lzye
~QQp.$y,M
.. . ,
. . ..y. . . ----. . . . .. . . .
. . .
and Fluidity, J. of Rheology (1931)
~, 210.

Streeter, V.L., Handbook of Fluid Dynamics,


McGraw-Hill Co., N.Y. (1961).

15. Becher, P., Emulsions: Theory and Practice, Reinhold Pub. & Co. N.Y. (1965).
AAX,.-.--A
Th,ativ.,
~~. ~e~ds~~, E., Th,a
. ..=
=U.-...-.=u
. ..=..
Vol. 1, London, (1952).
~,

-G
*

C+.t4..-.*=

17. Weibull, W., A Statistical Distribution of


Wide Applicability, J. App. Mech. (1951)
18.
18. DeVries, A.J., Foam Stability, RubberStichting, Deift, CommunicationNo. 326
(1957).

S. Marsden, Jr.

AIR

FILTER
AIR

PRESSURE

REGULATOR
2

FOAMER
SOLUTION
FOAM
GENERATOR

!!Ji!J

w&-lmTil.*.,.
INDICATOR

------ .. .. . .
I WPOTENTIOWER

vOLTAGE

1A

I-SCHEMATIC

571xIOS23

571X10423

CSVIOER

SHEAR

FIGURE

0.4

2XI0-4
RAT14 y,

SEC-l

FLOW DIAGRAM
FIGURE 2- SHEAR STRESS VERSUS SHEAR
RATE FOR 1.0% O.K. LIQUID, 0.90 <r< 0.96

3.5

I
CU=AD
.,---ATM.

3.0

2.5

b
+
V

8
31

~?

E
:
w
U-

=,.-iL

I
CTDI?CC
-.
..--,

2.0
1.5/0
i.o
0.8
0.6
0,4

/0

n~~

2.0
1

x 10-3

.o-----

Ido

571x1052357

SHEAR

FIGURE 3- SHEAR
RATE FOR 1.0%

RATE,

STRESS

y,

VERSUS
SHEAR
0.81 <r< 0.89

O.K.LIQUID,

10203040606070

SEC-l

r3-

FIGURE

4-

FLOW
0.90

10

-6

, cm

RATE
<r< 0.96

VERSUS

r3,

0.25

I
1

T
E

0.20

QUALITY,

&
u!
0
N
E
u

o.e14r~o.89

o.90.

r.o.96

0.15

Ql-2.
#

AA
/

-*A
0.10

C
u.
w
o
0

0.05

a
i
u

/:
2

o~
o
.

~m

1.5

I .0

0.5
SHEAR

STRESS,

T,

20

ATM

2.5

x 10-3

10203040
x 10

r3

-6

FIGURE

. cm

6-SLIP

COEFFICIENT

VERSUS SHEAR STRESS


FIGURE

0
2.0,

5-

0.4
I

FLOW
RATE
0.81 ~1< 0.89

VERSUS

SHEAR

RATE,

q-irr.

sEc

0.8
I

1.2

16

2.0

r3

x 104
24
1

28
1

3.2
I

.~
o

Lo

2.0

3.0

4.0

SHEAR RATE, q, krs,

FIGURE

FIGURE

7- CORRECTED SHEAR STRESS


SHEAR

RATE FOR 0.90< 1~0.96

VERSUS

8-

CORRECTED

SHEAR

RATE

5.0

6.0

SEC-l

8 104

SHEAR

FOR

STRESS
0.81 <r<

7.0

8..3

VERSUS
0.s9

[ TUBE

DIAMETER

21
23

IXI04

2
SHEAR

,
3
RATE,

+-,

z~

2357

23

571-52345

SHEA;

SEc-

FIGURE 9- SHEAR STRESS VERSUS SHEAR


CORRECTED FOR SLIP FOR 0.90~ I< 0.86

RATE

FIGURE

IO-SHEAR

CORRECTED

2.5

2.0

TuBE

~
1.5

.
iA

\n

y:,

STRESS

S7EC !?

VERSUS

SHEAR

RATE

FOR SLIP FOR 0.80PO.89

t
TUBE

OIAMETER

DIAMETER
mm
0

A
+

10

RA:E,

0.8
07
06
0.4

1.0
KA

\+

00

\
kbyo.

0.5

o~

0123456

0123456

7e910
VISCOSITY

FIGURE

\
769
VISCOSITY,

p , CP

II -SHEAR STRESS VERSUS


FOR 0.90< r<0.96

VISCOSITY

FiGu RE i2 -SHEAR

p, CP

STRESS

FOR 0.81 r

VERSUS
0.89

V! SCOS!TY

Loo

50

OUALITY,

075

OUALITY,

0. !)0

~,&

} EXPERIMENTAL

CALWLATEO
0.25

I
1)

0-

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.60

BUflELE

FIGURE

13-BUBBLE

a20

OIAMETER,

SIZE

d,

0.40

0.60

0.60

0.10

0.20

mm

FREQUENCY

POLYGONS

FIGURE

07214060001W

0.50

OL

0.70

BUBBLE

DISTRIBUTION

~o

:
a60

FOAM

fi=*o

Q60

d,mm

----1451

30r

0.40
DIAMETER,

14-CUMULATIVE
SIZE

!kYL__l

0.30

BUBBLE

QUALITY,

r,

0.95

100

FRACTIONAL

TIUE, l, UIN

FIGURE

15-BUBBLE
VERSUS

RADIUS
TIME

SQUARED

FIGURE

16- STORMER GEL STRENGTH


O.K. LIQUID
FOAM

OF