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LRFD PPC I Design

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You are on page 1of 141

This design guide focuses on the LRFD design of PPC I-beams and Bulb T-beams. The design

procedure is presented first followed by two examples. The first is a simple span and the

second is a two span. All Article and Equation references are to the LRFD code unless noted

otherwise.

There are six standard beam cross sections supported by the Department. These are 36, 42,

48 and 54 in. PPC I-Beams and 63 and 72 in. Bulb T-Beams. Standard strand patterns for

LRFD designs have been developed and are provided in Bridge Manual (BM) Section 3.4.

Shear reinforcement has been standardized for most typical bridges and is shown in BM

Section 3.4.5.2. All other reinforcement details (splitting steel, top flange reinforcement, bottom

flange reinforcement, etc.) have been standardized and are shown on the base sheets. Aids for

designing lifting loops are also shown in BM Section 3.4.

The main items a designer has to calculate are section properties, distribution factors, moment

and shear envelopes, prestress losses, temporary stresses, service stresses and resisting

moment capacities; all of which are used to determine the required strand pattern and concrete

strength. A shear design is only required if the structure falls outside the limits of BM Table

3.4.5.2-1. For multi-span bridges, the longitudinal reinforcement in the deck over the piers must

be designed.

For most cases the standard strand patterns should satisfy all the design requirements.

However there could be some situations where a modification will need to be made, see BM

Section 3.4.4.1 for permissible variations.

The sign convention used in the examples was noted by labeling negative results with tension

and positive results with compression unless otherwise noted.

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-1

Design Guides

Dead Loads, Section Properties and Distribution Factors

Calculate the dead loads per linear foot due to beam, deck, future wearing surface, parapets

and any other dead loads on the bridge and group them in their appropriate types DC and

DW. Calculate the section properties. See BM Figures (3.4.4.2-1 through 3.4.4.2-6). Live

load distribution factors shall be calculated according to BM Section 3.3.1.

Modulus of Elasticity

The modulus of elasticity for concrete shall be determined from the following formulas:

Eci =

33,000K 1w c

1.5

f ' ci

Ec =

33,000K 1w c

1.5

f'c

(Eq. 5.4.2.4-1)

Where:

Eci =

Ec =

K1 =

wc =

fci =

prestressing (ksi)

fc =

Calculate the moment and shear envelopes using software written for this task.

The planning selection charts located in BM Section 2.3.6.1.3 can be used to determine a

trial strand pattern. The properties of the trial strand pattern can be found in BM Tables

3.4.4.1-1 through 3.4.4.1-12.

Page 3.4-2

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Prestress Losses

(5.9.5)

(5.9.5.1)

fpT

fpES + fpLT

(Eq. 5.9.5.1-1)

Where:

fpT

fpES

fpLT

losses due to long term shrinkage and creep of concrete, and relaxation

of the steel (ksi)

(5.9.5.2)

Instantaneous Losses

It is the Departments policy to consider elastic losses only.

considered.

fpES

Ep

E ci

(Eq. 5.9.5.2.3a-1)

f cgp

In which:

fcgp =

Ft Ft e 2 Mb (12)e

+

A

I

I

Ft =

0.9(Fi)

Fi =

Aps(fpbt)

Assumption

(fpbt fpES )

fpbt

Reiterate if necessary

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-3

Design Guides

Where:

fpES

Ep =

Eci =

fcgp =

member at the section of maximum moment (center) (ksi)

Ft =

Fi =

Mb =

A =

Aps =

fpbt =

(5.9.5.3)

fpLT

10.0

fpbt A ps

A

h st + 12.0 h st + f pR

(Eq. 5.9.5.3-1)

In which:

h =

st =

1.7 0.01H

5

1 + f ci'

(Eq. 5.9.5.3-2)

(Eq. 5.9.5.3-3)

Where:

fpLT

losses due to long term shrinkage and creep of concrete, and relaxation

of the steel (ksi)

fpbt =

Aps =

A =

h =

st =

fpR= estimate of relaxation loss taken as 2.4 ksi for low relaxation strands (ksi)

Page 3.4-4

Nov 2009

Design Guides

H =

fci =

prestressing (ksi)

Temporary Stresses

(5.9.4.1)

Temporary stresses are checked immediately after the release of the strands when the

concrete strength, fci, is weakest. The force in the strands is taken to be the prestressing

force immediately after transfer, Ft.

There are three support conditions to consider during this time frame. The first occurs when

the strands are released and the beam is still setting on the prestressing bed. The second

occurs when lifting the beam out of the prestressing bed. The third occurs when placing the

beam in temporary storage at the fabrication plant.

conditions could take place while the concrete is most vulnerable, however only the second

condition will govern if current IDOT policies are followed.

condition checked.

For this case, the stresses need to be checked in two locations. Those locations depend on

whether a draped strand pattern or a straight strand pattern is used. For draped strand

patterns, the stresses are checked at the center of the lifting loops and at the harping point.

For straight strand patterns, the stresses are checked at the center of the lifting loops and at

the center of the beam.

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-5

Design Guides

See Figure 1 for the support and loading diagram used to calculate the dead load moments

for checking temporary stresses:

Figure 1

@ Lifting Loops:

w (L )

Mbts = b c

2

@ Center:

w b (L b )

w L L

b b c

8

2

2

Mbts

3 w b (L b )

w L L

b b c

25

2

2

Mbts

Where:

Mbts=

locations (kip-ft.)

Page 3.4-6

wb =

Lcl =

Lc =

Lb =

Nov 2009

Design Guides

(5.9.4.1)

Compression:

0.60fci'

Tension:

0.24 f ci'

Where:

fci =

prestressing (ksi)

@ Lifting Loops:

ft

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

A St

St

fb

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

+

+

A Sb

Sb

ft

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

+

A St

St

fb

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

+

A Sb

Sb

In which:

Ft =

Where:

ft

fb

Ft =

A =

St =

Nov 2009

non-composite section modulus for the top fiber of the beam (in.3)

Page 3.4-7

Design Guides

Sb =

non-composite section modulus for the bottom fiber of the beam (in.3)

Mbts=

locations (kip-ft.)

Page 3.4-8

Aps =

fpbt =

fpES

Nov 2009

Design Guides

(5.7.3)

The design procedure for the positive moment area of a prestressed concrete member is

outlined below. Please note that it is the Departments policy to not utilize non-prestressed

tension reinforcement for positive moment.

Service Stresses

(5.9.4.2)

Service limit state stresses are checked for the beam in its final placement in the

structure. The concrete strength is equal to fc and the force in the strands is equal to FS.

Compressive service stresses are calculated for the two applicable Service I load

combinations given in Table 5.9.4.2.1-1.

nomenclature (a) and (b) in this design guide. Tensile service stresses are calculated

for the one applicable Service III load combination given in Table 5.9.4.2.2-1.

The

factored Service I and Service III load combinations are found in Table 3.4.1-1 and the

load factors have been applied to the equations shown below.

Service Stress Limits for Concrete after Losses

(5.9.4.2)

0.60 w fc'

(a)

0.45fc'

(b)

0.19 f c'

Where:

Nov 2009

fc =

w =

hollow column reduction factor, equals 1.0 for standard IDOT sections

Page 3.4-9

Design Guides

Service stresses are calculated from the following equations:

@ Center:

ft

+

+

A

St

St

S 't

(a)

ft

+

+

A

St

St

S 't

(b)

fb

(12 )

M

+

(0.8 ) LL +IM'

'

A Sb

Sb

Sb

Sb

In which:

Fs =

Where:

ft

fb

fc =

FS =

A =

and nonstructural attachments (kip-ft.)

MDC2= unfactored composite dead load moment of structural components and

nonstructural attachments (kip-ft.)

MDW1= unfactored non-composite dead load moment of wearing surfaces and

utilities (kip-ft.)

MDW2= unfactored composite dead load moment of wearing surfaces and utilities

(kip-ft.)

MLL+IM= unfactored live load moment (HL-93) plus dynamic load allowance (kip-ft.)

Page 3.4-10

St =

non-composite section modulus for the top fiber of the beam (in.3)

Sb =

non-composite section modulus for the bottom fiber of the beam (in.3)

St =

composite section modulus for the top fiber of the beam (in.3)

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Sb =

composite section modulus for the bottom fiber of the beam (in.3)

Aps =

fpbt =

fpT

Fatigue Stresses

(5.5.3.1)

The compressive stress due to the Fatigue I load combination and one-half the sum of

effective prestress and permanent loads shall not exceed the limit shown below. The

section properties used for calculating the compressive stress are determined based on

whether the tensile stress limit shown below is exceeded. The tensile stress is

calculated using the Fatigue I load combination plus effective prestress and permanent

loads.

Fatigue Stress Limits for Concrete after Losses

(5.5.3.1)

Compression:

0.40fc'

Tension limit for determination of cracked verse uncracked section:

Uncracked

0.095 fc'

Cracked

Where:

fc =

Fatigue stress is calculated from the following equation:

@ Center:

ft

Nov 2009

F

+ MDW 1 )(12 ) (MDC 2 + MDW 2 )(12 )

F e (M

MFL +IM (12 )

+

0.5 S S + DC1

+ 1 .5

'

A

S

S

St

S 't

t

t

Page 3.4-11

Design Guides

(This stress is only used to determine whether the section is considered cracked or

uncracked for fatigue evaluation)

@ Center:

fb

(12 )

M

+

(1.5 ) FL +IM'

'

A Sb

Sb

Sb

Sb

Where:

ft

fb

fc =

FS =

A =

and nonstructural attachments (kip-ft.)

MDC2= unfactored composite dead load moment of structural components and

nonstructural attachments (kip-ft.)

MDW1= unfactored non-composite dead load moment of wearing surfaces and

utilities (kip-ft.)

MDW2= unfactored composite dead load moment of wearing surfaces and utilities

(kip-ft.)

MFL+IM= unfactored fatigue live load moment plus dynamic load allowance (kip-ft.)

Page 3.4-12

St =

non-composite section modulus for the top fiber of the beam (in.3)

Sb =

non-composite section modulus for the bottom fiber of the beam (in.3)

St =

composite section modulus for the top fiber of the beam (in.3)

Sb =

composite section modulus for the bottom fiber of the beam (in.3)

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Strength I Moment

Mu =

(Table 3.4.1-1)

Impact shall be taken as 33% (Table 3.6.2.1-1). Engineering judgment may be used when

determining the value of the load modifiers specified in Article 1.3.2. As these are

normally assumed to be 1.0 in standard bridges and therefore do not affect the design,

they will not be addressed any further in this design guide.

Factored Flexural Resistance

Mr =

Mn

Mn =

a 1

A ps fps dp

2 12

Mn =

a

a hf

'

A ps fps dp + 0.85f c (b b w )h f

2

2 2

rectangular

1

12

(Eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1)

flanged

(Eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1)

rectangular

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4)

flanged

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3)

In which:

a

1c

A ps fpu

0.85 f c' 1b

+ kA ps

fpu

dp

fpu

0.85f c' 1b w + kA ps

dp

fps =

c

fpu 1 k

dp

fpe =

fpu fpT

c

1 =

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

(Eq. 5.5.4.2.1-1)

(5.7.2.2)

Where:

Mr =

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-13

Design Guides

Mn =

distance from the extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis (in.)

fps =

2005 LRFD code and are now checked indirectly using Eq. 5.5.4.2.1-1)

1 =

Aps =

dp =

tendons (in.)

width of the compression face of the member (equals effective flange width)

(in.)

bw =

web width (equals width of the top flange of the beam) (in.)

hf =

fpu =

fpe =

0.28

(Table C5.7.3.1.1-1)

f c' =

dt =

distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the extreme

tension steel element (in.)

fpT

The factored flexural resistance equations shown above have been simplified to include

only the prestressing steel. All other reinforcement shall be ignored.

Page 3.4-14

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Minimum Reinforcement

The Department requires minimum reinforcement be adequate to develop a factored

flexural resistance of 1.2 times the cracking moment for prestressed beams. This is

done to ensure ductility in the event of an unexpected overload.

Mr

1.2Mcr

(5.7.3.3.2)

In which:

Mcr =

fr

fcpe =

12

S'

S' f

MDC1 b 1 b r

S

12

b

0.37 f c'

(Eq. 5.7.3.3.2-1)

(5.4.2.6)

Fs Fs e

+

A Sb

Where:

Mu =

Mr =

Mcr=

fr

fcpe =

allowance for all prestress losses) at extreme fiber of section where tensile

stress is caused by externally applied loads (ksi)

Sb =

non-composite section modulus for the bottom fiber of the beam (in.3)

Sb =

composite section modulus for the bottom fiber of the beam (in.3)

nonstructural attachments (kip-ft.)

Nov 2009

f c' =

FS =

A =

Page 3.4-15

Design Guides

(5.7.3)

proportioned to resist the total moment due to composite dead loads and live loads including

dynamic load allowance. The negative moment capacity shall be based on the 28 day

compressive strength of the concrete in the girders regardless of the diaphragm concrete

strength (see Article 5.14.1.4.10). Both the top and bottom longitudinal reinforcement in the

deck may be utilized to resist this moment.

An example design procedure could consist of the following steps:

1. Calculate the maximum moments at the pier.

2. Estimate the total area of reinforcement required.

3. Estimate the area of reinforcement required to continue past the cutoff point.

4. Determine trial reinforcement arrangement to satisfy number 2 and number 3 using

the limitations defined in Figure 2.

5. Check the adequacy of the total reinforcement and the continuing reinforcement for

the strength limit state, the service limit state and the fatigue limit state.

The theoretical cutoff point for the longitudinal reinforcement shall be located where the

resisting moment capacity of the continuing reinforcement is greater than or equal to the

applied moment at that location. However this point shall not be less than a distance of 0.2L

from either side of the pier (where L is the length of span under consideration). The cutoff

reinforcement shall be fully developed. The actual cutoff point for the reinforcement is then

determined by adding an embedment length past the theoretical cutoff point per Article

5.11.1.2.1.

The area of continuing reinforcement is determined from Article 5.11.1.2.3. It states that at

least one third of the total tension reinforcement provided shall extend an embedment length

past the point of inflection. The Department uses the one third rule to calculate the area of

continuing reinforcement required however this reinforcement is not terminated at the

inflection point. Instead this reinforcement is extended the full length of the deck. This was

done mainly for simplicity and since the amount of reinforcement saved is negligible.

Page 3.4-16

Nov 2009

Design Guides

The compressive stress in the bottom fiber of the bottom flange shall be checked near the

pier. The compression block area at the bottom flange of the beam has been modified as

shown in Figure 3 in order to simplify the calculations. The tapered portion of the bottom

flange has been converted into a rectangle that is one third the height of the triangle it

replaced.

The provisions of Article 5.14.1.4 address design requirements for positive moments which

may occur in the negative moment regions of simple span prestressed beams made

continuous for live load and superimposed dead loads. These positive moments can be

caused by creep and shrinkage in the girders and deck slabs and/or live loads from remote

spans. Experience has demonstrated that the Departments continuity details (2-# 8 G6

bars for I-Beams and 3-# 8 G6 bars for Bulb T-Beams) have been fairly successful in

minimizing distress from these forces.

Department to change the detailing of the G6 bar to a spliced bar assembly shown on the

beam base sheets. The new dimensions address some of the provisions concerns about

development of this reinforcement.

5.14.1.4 has been sufficiently addressed with the new G6 rebar revisions and no further

design consideration is required for structures within the Departments design parameters

and details. Structures beyond the Departments design parameters and details are subject

to all requirements of Article 5.14.1.4.

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-17

Design Guides

Figure 2

Figure 3

Page 3.4-18

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Strength I Moment

Mu =

(Table 3.4.1-1)

Impact shall be taken as 33% (Table 3.6.2.1-1). Engineering judgment may be used when

determining the value of the load modifiers specified in Article 1.3.2. As these are

normally assumed to be 1.0 in standard bridges and therefore do not affect the design,

they will not be addressed any further in this design guide.

Factored Flexural Resistance

Mr =

Mn

Mn =

a 1

A s f s d s

2 12

Mn =

a

a hf

'

A s f s d s + 0.85 f c (b b w )h f

2

2 2

1

12

rectangular

(Eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1)

flanged

(Eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1)

rectangular

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4)

flanged

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3)

In which:

a

fs

1c

A s fs

0.85 f c' 1b

A s f s 0.85f c' (b b w )h f

0.85fc' 1b w

fy

if

1 =

if

c

0.6

ds

(5.7.2.1)

c

> 0.6 , fs shall be determined using strain compatibility

ds

c

(Eq. 5.5.4.2.1-2)

(5.7.2.2)

Where:

Nov 2009

Mu =

Mr =

Mn =

Page 3.4-19

Design Guides

distance from the extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis (in.)

fs

resistance (ksi)

2005 LRFD code and are now checked indirectly using Eq. 5.5.4.2.1-2)

1 =

As=

total area of non prestressed tensile reinforcement within the effective flange

width (in.2)

ds =

tensile reinforcement (in.)

width of the compression face of the member (equals bottom flange width) (in.)

bw =

hf =

compression flange depth (equals bottom flange thickness, see Figure 3) (in.)

fy

fc =

dt =

distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the extreme

tension steel element (in.)

The factored flexural resistance equations shown above have been simplified to include

only the tension reinforcement. All other reinforcement shall be ignored.

Minimum Reinforcement

The Department requires minimum reinforcement be adequate to develop a factored

flexural resistance of 1.2 times the cracking moment for prestressed beams. This is

done to ensure ductility in the event of an unexpected overload.

Mr

1.2Mcr

(5.7.3.3.2)

Mcr =

S 'ts (fr )

12

(Eq. 5.7.3.3.2-1)

fr

0.37 f c'

(5.4.2.6)

Page 3.4-20

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Where:

Mr =

Mcr=

Sts =

composite section modulus for the top fiber of the slab (in.3)

fr

fc =

specified compressive strength of concrete for use in design (ksi)

For the calculation of stresses for service and fatigue limit states, the straight line theory

of stress and strain shall apply. See Article 5.7.1 and Figure 4 below.

Figure 4

Determine expression for fss:

Nov 2009

fss =

sE s

fc

cEc

Es

Ec

solve for c

fc

Ec

Page 3.4-21

Design Guides

s

=

c

ds x

x

Substitute c =

Substitute s =

fc

Substitute n

fss =

d x

c s

fc

into s

Ec

d x

c s

fc ds x

E c x

s =

fss =

solve for s

fc ds x

into fss

E c x

sE s

E s ds x

E c x

Es

into fss =

Ec

fc

E s ds x

E c x

d x

fc n s

By equilibrium:

Case 1:

Case 2:

M =

C1 + C2 + C3

0

Where:

T

Page 3.4-22

Asfss

d x

A s fc n s

C1 =

x h f x h f

fc

b w

x 2

C2 =

x h f h f

fc

b

x 2

C3 =

h

f c f b

2

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Case 1:

d x

x h f h f

h

x h f x h f

A s fc n s

= f c

b + f c f b

b w + fc

x 2

2

x 2

x

Divide by fc

d x

x h f h f

h

x h f x h f

A s n s

=

b + f b

b w +

x 2

2

x 2

x

Multiply by x

h

h

x hf

A s n(d s x ) = (x h f )

b w + (x h f ) f b + f bx

2

2

2

Insert known variables, put into quadratic form and solve for x

Case 2:

d x

x h f x h f 2(x h f )

A s f c n s

(d s x ) + f c

b w

3

x 2

2h

h

x h f h f

h

fc

b x f + fc f b x f

3

3

x 2

2

Divide by fc

M

fc

d x

A s n s

(d s x )

x

x h f x h f 2(x h f )

b w

3

x 2

2h h

h

x h f h f

b x f + f b x f

3

3 2

x 2

Sbc

M

fc

s

700 e

2d c

s f ss

(5.7.3.4)

(Eq. 5.7.3.4-1)

In which:

s =

1+

dc

0.7(h d c )

Where:

s

row of longitudinal reinforcement) (in.)

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-23

Design Guides

s =

ratio of flexural strain at the extreme tension face to the strain at the

centroid of the reinforcement layer nearest the tension face

e =

dc =

center of the flexural reinforcement located closest thereto (in.)

fss =

Fatigue of Reinforcement

(f)

(F)TH

(5.5.3.2)

(Eq. 5.5.3.1-1)

In which:

(F)TH =

24 0.33 fmin

(Eq. 5.5.3.2-1)

Where:

(F)TH =

(ksi)

f =

force effect, live load stress range due to the passage of the fatigue load

as specified in Article 3.6.1.4 (ksi)

fmin =

plus permanent loads (ksi) (positive if tension, negative if compression)

The compressive stress in the bottom flange is checked a transfer length from the end of

the beam near the pier for both the service and fatigue limit states. The transfer length

is 60 strand diameters as defined in Article 5.11.4.1. This location is checked because it

is the first point where the prestressing force is fully effective. The standard strand

patterns for multiple spans have been developed to account for this stress however, due

to the large number of loading cases, it may be necessary to drape additional strands.

For fabrication purposes the maximum number of draped strands shall be 16.

Page 3.4-24

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Compressive service stresses are calculated for the two applicable Service I load

combinations given in Table 5.9.4.2.1-1.

nomenclature (a) and (b) in this design guide. The factored Service I load combination

definitions are found in Table 3.4.1-1 and the factors have been applied to the equations

shown below.

Compressive fatigue stress is calculated for the Fatigue I load combination plus one-half

the sum of effective prestress and permanent loads as shown in Article 5.5.3.1. The

factored Fatigue I load combination definitions are found in Table 3.4.1-1 and the factors

have been applied to the equations shown below.

It should be noted that both the service and fatigue stresses are conservatively

calculated based on a cracked section.

eccentricity due to the prestressing force is also calculated based on a cracked section.

This was done to account for the redistributuion of this stress once the section cracks.

Service stress limits for concrete after losses:

The service stress limits for concrete after losses are the same as those shown on

page 3.4-8 of this guide.

Calculate service stresses:

Service stresses are calculated from the following equations:

@ Transfer point from pier:

fb

+

+

A S bc

S bc

S bc

(a)

fb

+

+

A S bc

S bc

S bc

(b)

Where:

FS =

A =

Sbc =

Nov 2009

composite cracked section modulus for the bottom fiber of the beam (in.3)

Page 3.4-25

Design Guides

The fatigue stress limits for concrete after losses are the same as those shown on

page 3.4-10 of this guide.

determine whether the section is cracked or uncracked need not be checked since

the section is conservatively assumed to be cracked.

Calculate Fatigue Stresses

Fatigue stress is calculated from the following equation:

@ Transfer point from pier:

fb

F

+ MDW1 )(12) (MDC2 + MDW 2 )(12)

F e (M

MFL +IM (12)

+

0.5 S + S DC1

+ 1. 5

S bc

S bc

S bc

A S bc

Where:

fb

fc =

FS =

A =

and nonstructural attachments (kip-ft.)

MDC2= unfactored composite dead load moment of structural components and

nonstructural attachments (kip-ft.)

MDW1= unfactored non-composite dead load moment of wearing surfaces and

utilities (kip-ft.)

MDW2= unfactored composite dead load moment of wearing surfaces and utilities

(kip-ft.)

MFL+IM= unfactored fatigue live load moment plus dynamic load allowance (kip-ft.)

Sbc =

Page 3.4-26

composite cracked section modulus for the bottom fiber of the beam (in.3)

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Camber, which is the result of the difference between the upward deflection caused by the

prestressing forces and the downward deflection due to the weight of the beam and slab,

must be considered when determining the seat elevations. The top of the beam shall be set

to provide a minimum positive fillet height of 0.5 inch above any point on the beam.

Camber will vary with the age of the member, primarily because of two factors; loss of

prestress which will tend to decrease the deflection, and creep which will tend to increase

the deflection. Because of this, correction factors are used in the equations for calculating

camber.

Factors of 1.80 and 1.85 are used on the upward deflection caused by the

prestressing force and downward deflection due to member weight, respectively. These

factors are based on the PCI Design Handbook for the time at erection and have been

incorporated into the equations shown below.

Initial Resultant Camber

Camber

Dcp - Dcb

In which:

Dcp =

Ft (12 L ) e

(1.80)

8 E ci I

Dcp =

Ft (12 L )

[0.0983 e center + 0.0267 e end ](1.80)

E ci I

Dcb =

5 w b (12 L )

(1.85)

384 (12) E ci I

Where:

Nov 2009

Dcp =

Dcb =

Ft =

Eci =

Page 3.4-27

Design Guides

wb =

The dead loads to be considered for adjusting the grade line are those which will

appreciably increase the downward deflection of the beams after they have been

erected. This load is the weight of the slab. The weight of future wearing surface is not

included.

Normally, the deflection caused by the weight of the curbs, parapets and handrails is

insignificant and can be disregarded. In cases where they might appear significant, the

above dead loads should be included when adjusting the grade line for dead load

deflections.

Camber

In which:

5 w s (12L )

384 (12 ) E c I

4

Dcs =

Where:

Dcp =

Dcb =

Dcs =

ws =

Ec =

@0.25 point

0.7125Dcs

@0.50 point

Dcs

@0.75 point

0.7125Dcs

Page 3.4-28

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Shear Design

(5.8)

The standard transverse (shear) reinforcement patterns developed by the Department (Bridge

Manual Section 3.4.5.2) to be used away from the ends of beams are applicable to most typical

bridges designed and constructed in Illinois. However, when the beam length or spacing falls

outside of the limits given in Table 3.4.5.2-1 of the Bridge Manual, transverse reinforcement is

required to be designed. As discussed in Section 3.4.5.1 of the Bridge Manual, there are

several options available in the LRFD Code for the design of transverse reinforcement (shear

stirrups) in prestressed beams.

At the end regions of beams, special standard splitting steel details are required. These are

discussed in Section 3.4.8 of the Bridge Manual and details are provided on Departmental base

sheets.

A simplified and conservative approach to the general procedure of the sectional model (LRFD

Article 5.8.3.4.2) may be used when transverse reinforcement away from beam ends is required

to be designed. Rigorous application of the design procedure outlined in LRFD Article 5.8.3.4.2

is not prohibited by the Department, but is not necessary.

commentary (in italics) for LRFD transverse reinforcement design developed by the BBS is

presented below. Detailed calculations are also given in the presented examples of this design

guide. Several conservative simplifications are allowed and described over the course of the

design guide. These simplifications reduce computational intensity. The attached examples,

however, show full calculations without these simplifications.

Final spacing of transverse reinforcement shall be checked at the critical sections for shear as

well as at the tenth points along the beam or span. Final spacing for reinforcement shall satisfy

the following requirements:

Nominal Shear Resistance

(5.8.3.3)

(5.8.2.7)

(5.8.2.5)

(5.8.4)

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-29

Design Guides

Article 5.8.3.5.

(5.8.3.2)

The location of the critical section is taken as dv from the face of the support, where dv is the

effective shear depth as calculated below. If harped strands are present, dv will change along

the length of the beam, making the dv calculations iterative. For this reason, the location of the

critical section for shear may be taken as 0.72h from the face of the support in lieu of more

complicated computations. The face of the support is defined as the inside face of the concrete

diaphragm for fixed abutments and piers, and the inside edge of the bearing for expansion

abutments and piers.

(5.8.3.3)

Vr =

Vn

(Eq. 5.8.2.1-2)

Where:

0.9

Vn =

The nominal shear resistance, Vn, shall de determined as the lesser of:

Vn =

Vc + Vs + Vp

(Eq. 5.8.3.3-1)

Vn =

0.25f'cbvdv + Vp

(Eq. 5.8.3.3-2)

Where:

Vc =

=

Vs =

Page 3.4-30

0.0316 f c' b v d v

(Eq. 5.8.3.3-3)

Nov 2009

Design Guides

A v f y d v cot

(Eq. C5.8.3.3-1)

Vp =

Bridge Design Manual defines this as the force in the vertical direction due to

prestressing, not the force in the direction of the angle of inclination, .

Solving Equations 5.8.3.3-1, 5.8.3.3-3, C5.8.3.3-1, and 5.8.2.1-2 for s and setting Vr equal to

Vu gives a maximum spacing of:

A v f y d v cot

Vu

Vp Vc

As Equation 5.8.3.3-2 typically does not control the design, design for Equation 5.8.3.3-1

first, then check Equation 5.8.3.3-2 when a final design is reached.

(5.8.2.9)

dv = d e

a

2

(C5.8.2.9)

Where:

de =

moment regions) or depth from bottom of beam to centroid of longitudinal deck

reinforcement (negative moment regions), at the section under consideration (in.)

depth of equivalent stress block (in.), taken as a = c1. See moment design

section for computation of c.

The effective shear depth is taken as the distance between the centroid of the equivalent

compression block and the centroid of the tension reinforcement at the section under

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-31

Design Guides

consideration. The procedure for determining this may become tedious, especially when

harped strands are used and the centroid of the tension reinforcement changes along

the length of the beam. To avoid computational intensity, dv may be taken as 0.72h,

where h is the depth of the composite section. This will yield more conservative results

than performing full calculations.

Vp, the vertical component of the prestressing force, may be taken as:

Vp =

A harped

fpx sin

ps

Where:

A harped

=

ps

and including harping points, A harped

is taken as zero.

ps

fpx

consideration (ksi). fpx varies linearly from zero to fpe from the end of the beam to

the end of the transfer length of the strands. It varies linearly again from fpe to fps

from the end of the transfer length of the strands to the point where the strands

are fully developed. At points where the strands are fully developed, fpx = fps.

Variable definitions and equations for calculating fpx, fpe, fps, development lengths,

and transfer lengths are given below. For a graphical depiction of fpx, see Fig.

C5.11.4.2-1.

(5.11.4)

The transfer length may be taken as 60 strand diameters from the end of the beam

(5.11.4.1).

The development length, ld (in.), may be found using the following equation for positive

moment regions.

Page 3.4-32

Nov 2009

Design Guides

ld

fps fpe db

3

(Eq. 5.11.4.2-1)

Where:

=

members with a depth greater than 24 inches.

fpe =

Effective stress in prestressing steel after losses (ksi). See moment design for

calculation of losses.

db =

fps =

c

fpu 1 k

dp

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

Where:

fpu =

fpy

21.04

fpu

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-2)

Where fpy is the yield strength of the prestressing steel, taken as 0.9fpu (Table

5.4.4.1-1). k = 0.28 for low relaxation strands.

c

Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis (in.). See moment

design for computation of c.

dp =

(in.).

For sections between the end of the beam and the end of the transfer length:

fpx =

fpe l px

60db

(Eq. 5.11.4.2-2)

For sections between the end of the transfer length and the end of the development length,

the following equation may be used to calculate fpx. Note that ld and 60db are taken from the

end of the beam in this equation. If CL bearing is being used as a reference point instead of

the end of the beam, the equation should be modified accordingly.

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-33

Design Guides

fpe +

fpx =

l px 60db

l d 60d b

(fps fpe )

(Eq. 5.11.4.2-3)

Where:

fps =

fpe =

Effective stress in prestressing steel after losses (ksi). See moment design for

calculation of losses.

lpx =

db =

Calculation of Vp may be time-consuming for sections near the ends of beams. In lieu of

calculations, Vp may be conservatively taken as zero for the entire length of the beam.

However, for beams with many harped strands, Vp may become significant, and taking it

as zero may be overly conservative.

The shear resistance due to concrete, Vc, is taken as:

Vc =

0.0316 f c' b v d v

(Eq. 5.8.3.3-3)

Where:

f'c =

dv =

bv =

Factor indicating ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension and shear

4. 8

for all sections containing at least the minimum transverse reinforcement

1 + 750 s

specified in Article 5.8.2.5 (Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-1). Assume that the requirements of Article

5.8.2.5 are satisfied, then check later in design.

Where:

Page 3.4-34

Nov 2009

Design Guides

s =

Mu

+ 0.5Nu + Vu Vp A ps fpo

dv

0

(E s A s + E p A ps )

(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

Where:

Mu = Absolute factored Strength I moment (k-in.), not to be taken as less than

Vu Vp d v

dv =

Nu =

Vu =

Vp =

Aps =

5.8.3.4.2-1 allows the flexural tension side of the member to be found using

0.5h, where h is the total depth of the composite section.

fpo =

0.7fpu for all sections taken away from beam ends a distance greater than the

transfer length of the strands. For sections closer to the beam end, fpo shall

vary linearly from zero at the beam end to 0.7fpu at the end of the transfer

length.

Es =

As =

positive moment regions, As = 0 in.2. For negative moment regions, As is

taken as the area of the longitudinal reinforcement in the deck.

Ep =

calculations may be employed.

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-35

Design Guides

As defined earlier, solving Equations 5.8.3.3-1, 5.8.3.3-3, C5.8.3.3-1, and 5.8.2.1-2 for s gives:

A v f y d v cot

Vu

Vp Vc

Where:

Av =

fy

Area of two legs of transverse reinforcement (in.2). Assume #4 bars are used.

Yield strength of transverse reinforcement (ksi)

dv =

Vu =

0.9

Vp =

Vc =

(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-3)

(5.8.2.7)

If v u < 0.125fc' , then:

smax=

0.8d v 24 .0 in.

(Eq. 5.8.2.7-1)

If v u 0.125fc' , then:

smax=

0.4d v 12 .0 in.

(Eq. 5.8.2.7-2)

Where:

Page 3.4-36

Nov 2009

Design Guides

fc =

vu =

Vu Vp

b v dv

(Eq. 5.8.2.9-1)

Where:

Vu =

Vp =

0.9

bv =

dv =

(5.8.2.5)

A v fy

0.0316 f ' c b v

Where:

Av =

Area of two legs of transverse reinforcement (in.2). Assume #4 bars are used.

fy

f'c =

bv =

While the specifications of Article 5.8.2.4 show that there are areas in a beam that do not

require stirrups, since the standard stirrups are also used to make the beam and slab

composite with one another, it is IDOT policy that at least the minimum amount of

transverse reinforcement given by Article 5.8.2.5 be used in all areas of the beam.

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-37

Design Guides

(5.8.4)

also used to meet interface shear reinforcement requirements by extending the transverse

reinforcement across the interface between the top of the beam and the bottom of the slab.

When the required interface shear reinforcement in beam/slab design exceeds the area

required to satisfy strength requirements, additional reinforcement shall be provided to satisfy

interface shear requirements.

The factored interface shear resistance, Vri, shall be taken as:

Vri =

Vni

(Eq. 5.8.4.1-1)

Where:

0.9

Vni =

Vni =

(Eq. 5.8.4.1-3)

Vni K1fcAcv

(Eq. 5.8.4.1-4)

Vni K2Acv

(Eq. 5.8.4.1-5)

Where:

c

Cohesion factor specified in Article 5.8.4.3 (ksi), taken as 0.28 ksi for cast-inplace concrete slabs on clean concrete girder surfaces, free of laitance and

roughened to an amplitude of 0.25 in. IDOT PPC I and bulb T-beams meet this

criteria.

Page 3.4-38

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Acv =

bviLvi,

(Eq. 5.8.4.1-6)

Where:

bvi =

Lvi =

Friction factor specified in Article 5.8.4.3, taken as 1.0 for IDOT PPC I and bulb

T-beams.

Avf =

fy

Pc =

Permanent net compressive force normal to the shear plane, taken as zero (k)

K1 =

Article 5.8.4.3, taken as 0.3 for IDOT PPC I and bulb T-beams.

K2 =

Limiting interface shear resistance specified in Article 5.8.4.3 (ksi), taken as 1.8

ksi for IDOT PPC I and bulb T-beams.

12A vf

for Avf and solving Equations 5.8.4.1-1 and 5.8.4.1-3 for s and setting Vri

s

Substituting

12A vf f y

Vui

cA cv

(Eq. i)

Where:

Vui =

vuiAcv

(Eq. 5.8.4.2-2)

Where:

vui =

Vu

b vi d v

(Eq. 5.8.4.2-1)

Where Vu is the factored Strength I shear in the vertical direction, and bvi and dv are as

defined above.

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-39

Design Guides

When using this equation for s, the following modifications of Equations 5.8.4.1-4 and 5.8.4.1-5

are required to be checked:

Vui

K1fcAcv

Vui

K2Acv

If either of these two requirements is not satisfied, the lesser value of K1fcAcv or K2Acv should be

substituted for

Vui

when calculating the required spacing for interface shear.

Per Article 5.8.4.4, the minimum required area of interface shear reinforcement need not exceed

the lesser of:

Avf =

0.05 A cv

fy

(Eq. 5.8.4.4-1)

and

1.33 Vui

as determined using Eq. 5.8.4.1-3.

12A vf

for Avf and solving for s, giving the

s

12 A vf f y

(Eq. ii)

0.05 A cv

1.33 Vui

1.33 Vui

V

can be determined by substituting

for ui into

Page 3.4-40

12A vf f y

1.33 Vui

cA cv

(Eq. iii)

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Since Equations ii and iii are based on determination of minimum reinforcement, the greater

spacing given by these two equations will control the check.

Longitudinal Reinforcement

(5.8.3.5)

LRFD Article 5.8.3.5 shall also be checked. The requirements state that the tensile capacity of

the longitudinal reinforcement should be greater than the calculated tension based upon the

design shear and moment.

The LRFD code states that this check should be made near supports. Outlined below are

methods to employ near simple supports or abutments and near continuous supports or piers.

Abutments:

At sections near abutments, longitudinal reinforcement requirements should be checked at the

inside edge of bearing and at the critical section. For beams at fixed abutments, the edge of

bearing may be taken as the face of the support.

The requirement for longitudinal reinforcement is given by:

Vu

A s f y + A ps fps

0.5 Vs Vp cot

(Eq. 5.8.3.5-2)

Where:

As

member (in.2), taken as zero for abutments.

fy

Aps

above.

fps

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-41

Design Guides

Vu

conservatively be taken as Vu at the support.

v

Vs

0.9

larger than

Vu

v

Vp

above

sections, it is conservative and simpler to perform this check only once, using Vu at the

CL bearing location and Vp at the critical section. This will also avoid recalculation of dv

for beams with harped strands.

Piers:

At sections near piers, the longitudinal reinforcement check need not be performed if the flexural

reinforcement in the slab is extended a distance of dvcot beyond the critical section and the

requirements of 5.11.1.2.3 are satisfied. As the requirements of 5.11.1.2.3 are satisfied during

the negative moment design, and it is IDOT policy for additional flexural reinforcement at piers

to extend at least a distance of 0.2 times the span length into the span, checking the following

equation is sufficient in lieu of performing full calculations:

d v (1 + cot ) + x face

L

<

0.2

(C5.8.3.5, modified)

Where dv and are as calculated above, L is the span length (in.), and xface is the distance from

the centerline of the pier to the face of the support (in.).

If this is not satisfied, the requirement for longitudinal steel shall be checked at the face of the

pier and at the critical section, and is given by:

Page 3.4-42

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Mu

A s f y + A ps fps

dv f

+ 0 .5

Nu Vu

+

Vp 0.5 Vs cot

c v

(Eq. 5.8.3.5-1)

Where:

As

member (in.2), taken as the area of longitudinal slab reinforcement for

negative moment areas.

fy

Aps

above.

fps

Mu

Mu may conservatively be taken at the centerline of pier.

dv

Resistance factor for flexure as specified in Article 5.5.4.2 for nonprestressed reinforcement.

For t 0.005, the full value of = 0.9 is used.

(Fig. C5.5.4.2.1-1)

c

(Eq. 5.5.4.2.1-2)

(Fig. C5.5.4.2.1-1)

Where:

t

strain equals 0.003 in./in. (in./in.)

dt =

extreme tension steel element (in.).

moment design for computation of c.

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-43

Design Guides

regions are not used in strength calculations, using the Partial Prestressing

Ratio to increase f is not allowed.

Vu

v

Vs

larger than

Vu

v

Vp

above.

Vn =

0.25f'cbvdv + Vp

(Eq. 5.8.3.3-2)

Where:

f'c =

bv =

dv =

Vp =

Page 3.4-44

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Example 1

90 ft., single span, 54 inch PPC I-beam, 7 beam lines, 6.25 ft. beam spacing, 8 in. deck, Fshape barrier, 50 pounds per square foot future wearing surface, no skew, 3 design lanes

and HL-93 loading on integral abutments. It should be noted that the non-composite span

lengths were conservatively set equal to the composite span lengths for simplicity.

General Data

Design Code

Span length

90 ft.

Beam section

Beam spacing

6.25 ft.

Number of beams

Deck thickness

8 in.

Estimated camber

2 in.

Average fillet

Parapet

0.45 k/ft.

FWS

50 psf

Relative Humidity

70

Strands

Skew

0 degrees

Loading

HL-93

IM

NL =

Select strand pattern 28DS from planning charts in BM Section 2.3.6.1.3.

Aps =

Nov 2009

28 0.153 in.2 =

4.284 in.2

Page 3.4-45

Design Guides

Materials

Precast Concrete Beam

fc

6.0 ksi

fc

3.5 ksi

fci

5.0 ksi

fy

60.0 ksi

fpbt

201.96 ksi

fpu

270.0 ksi

Fi/strand

30.9 kips

Section Properties

Modulus of Elasticity

Ec

33,000K 1w c

1.5

f 'c

(Eq. 5.4.2.4-1)

Eci

33,000K 1w c

1.5

f ' ci

(Eq. 5.4.2.4-1)

Ec (deck) =

3.5 ksi =

3587 ksi

Eci (beam) =

5.0 ksi =

4287 ksi

Ec (beam) =

6.0 ksi =

4696 ksi

Ep (strand) =

28500 ksi

1.5

1.5

1.5

(5.4.4.2)

A =

599 in.2

213715 in.4

Sb =

8559 in.3 Cb =

24.97 in

St =

29.03 in.

Page 3.4-46

7362 in.

Ct =

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Composite

Modular Ratio:

n

E c (deck )

=

E c (beam)

3587 ksi

=

4696 ksi

0.76

(4.6.2.6)

Dist. C. to C. of beams

75 in.

Slab

Beam

Ay

456.0 in.2

58.00 in.

26448 in.3

599.0 in.2

24.97 in.

14957 in.3

1055.0 in.2

yb =

yt =

Slab

Beam

Nov 2009

41405 in.3

39.25 in.

14.75 in.

1055 in.2

41405 in.3

Io

Ad2

2432 in.4

456.0 in.2

18.75 in.

160313 in.4

162745 in.4

213715 in.4

599.0 in.2

14.28 in.

122147 in.4

335862 in.4

I =

498607 in.4

Sb =

498607 in. 4

39.25 in.

12703 in.3

St =

498607 in. 4

14.75 in.

33804 in.3

Page 3.4-47

Design Guides

Distribution Factors

C =

1.10

Moment

g1 =

=

gm =

=

S

0.06 + C

14.0

0. 4

S

L

0. 3

S

L

0. 2

0.4

6.25 ft.

0.06 + 1.10

14.0

6.25 ft.

0.075 + 1.10

9. 5

6.25 ft.

90 ft.

0.3

0.418

S

0.075 + C

9.5

0. 6

0 .6

6.25 ft.

90 ft.

0.2

g1 (fatigue)

g1

=

m

0.418

=

1.2

0.348

g1 =

=

gm =

=

0.36 +

S

25.0

0.36 +

6.25 ft.

25.0

0.610

S S

0 .2 +

12 35

2 .0

= 0.2 +

12 35

2. 0

Skew correction

Page 3.4-48

1 + 0.2 tan( )

1 + 0.2 tan(0 )

1.000

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Deflection

g (deflection) =

N

m L

Nb

3

0.85

7

.364

Dead Loads

Non-Composite

DC1:

Beam

Slab

Fillet

0.624 k/ft.

0.625 k/ft.

0.031 k/ft.

DW1:

No non-composite dead loads in this category.

Composite

DC2:

Parapets

7 beams

0.129 k/ft.

0.313 k/ft.

DW2:

FWS

2

All moments generated by computer software.

Non-Composite

DC1:

@0.5L

Nov 2009

MDC1

1296 k-ft.

Page 3.4-49

Design Guides

DW1:

No non-composite DW1 loads.

Composite

DC2:

@0.5L

MDC2

131 k-ft.

MDW2

317 k-ft.

DW2:

@0.5L

LL+IM:

@0.5L

MLL+IM =

1402 k-ft.

@0.5L

MFL+IM =

434 k-ft

Beam length =

91.0 ft.

57.0 kips

From the charts: 2 - 3 strand lifting loops required each end at 3.25 ft. and 6.25 ft.

Strand Eccentricities

The length of beam is used instead of the length of span when calculating the eccentricity

along draped strands.

Eccentricity at center:

Row

Number (N)

N(m)

10

2 in.

20 in.

10

4 in.

40 in.

6 in.

48 in.

Total

28

108 in.

e

Page 3.4-50

C b 3.86 in.

108 in.

28

=

3.86 in.

21.11 in.

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Eccentricity at end:

Row

Number (N)

N(m)

2 in.

16 in.

4 in.

32 in.

6 in.

36 in.

3T

47 in.

94 in.

2T

49 in.

98 in.

1T

51 in.

102 in.

Total

28

378 in.

e

C b 13 .50 in. =

378 in.

28

13.50 in.

11.47 in.

Eccentricity at center of lifting loops (use average of 3.25 ft. and 6.25 ft. = 4.75 ft.):

Row

Number (N)

N(m)

2 in.

16 in.

4 in.

32 in.

6 in.

36 in.

3T

41.1 in.

82.2 in.

2T

43.1 in.

86.2 in.

1T

45.1 in.

90.2 in.

Total

28

342.6 in.

342.6 in.

=

28

Nov 2009

C b 12 .24 in. =

12.24 in.

12.73 in.

Page 3.4-51

Design Guides

Prestress Losses

Total Loss of Prestress

fpT

fpES + fpLT

(Eq. 5.9.5.1-1)

fpES

Ep

(Eq. 5.9.5.2.3a-1)

f cgp

E ci

Fi =

Aps(fpbt) =

865 kips

Ft =

0.9(Fi) =

0.9(865 kips )

779 kips

632 k-ft.

Mb (beam)

fcgp =

=

=

Ft Ft e 2 Mb (12 )e

+

A

I

I

779 kips

599 in.2

213715 in. 4

213715 in. 4

2.18 ksi

Calculate fpES:

fpES

28500 ksi

4287 ksi

(2.18 ksi)

14.49 ksi

Check Assumption:

(fpbt fpES )

fpbt

201.96 ksi

0.93

>

0.90

Recalculate

Assume Ft equals 93 percent of Fi for second iteration:

Ft =

Page 3.4-52

0.93(865 kips )

805 kips

Nov 2009

Design Guides

fcgp =

=

805 kips

599 in.2

213715 in. 4

213715 in. 4

2.27 ksi

Calculate fpES:

fpES

28500 ksi

(2.27 ksi)

4287 ksi

15.09 ksi

Check Assumption:

(fpbt fpES )

fpbt

201.96 ksi

0.93

Ok

fpLT

10.0

fpbt A ps

A

h st + 12.0 h st + f pR

(Eq. 5.9.5.3-1)

In which:

h =

st =

1.7 0.01H

5

1 + f ci'

1.7 0.01(70 ) =

5

=

(1 + 5 ksi)

1.0

(Eq. 5.9.5.3-2)

0.833

(Eq. 5.9.5.3-3)

fpLT = 10.0

fpT

%Loss =

Nov 2009

599 in.2

fpES + fpLT

39.52 ksi

201.96 ksi

19.6 %

= 24.43 ksi

39.52 ksi

Page 3.4-53

Design Guides

Temporary stresses

(5.9.4.1)

Compression:

0.60fci'

0.60(5.0 ksi )

3.00 ksi

0.537 ksi

Tension:

0.24 f ci'

(5.9.4.2)

0.60 w fc'

3.60 ksi

(a)

0.45fc'

0.45(6.0 ksi )

2.70 ksi

(b)

0.19 f c'

0.465 ksi

(5.5.3.1)

0.40fc'

0.40(6.0 ksi )

2.40 ksi

Uncracked

Page 3.4-54

0.095 fc'

=

Cracked

0.233 ksi

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Calculate Dead Load Moments for Determining Temporary Stresses

@ Lifting Loops:

Mbts =

w b (L c ) 2

2

2

7 k-ft.

Mbts

3 w b L2b w b L b L c

25

2

3(0.624 k / ft.)(91.0 ft.)

25

2

2

485 k-ft.

Ft =

2

801 kips

Temporary Stresses

@ Lifting Loops:

ft

=

=

fb

Nov 2009

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

A St

St

801 kips

599 in.

7362 in.3

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

+

+

A Sb

Sb

7362 in.3

0.537 ksi

Ok

Page 3.4-55

Design Guides

=

=

801 kips

599 in.

8559 in.3

8559 in.3

3.000 ksi

Ok

ft

=

=

fb

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

+

A St

St

801 kips

599 in.

7362 in.3

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

+

A Sb

Sb

=

=

801 kips

599 in.

7362 in.3

0.537 ksi

Ok

8559 in.3

8559 in.3

3.000 ksi

Ok

Check Service Stresses after Losses

Prestress Force after Losses:

Fs =

2

696 kips

Service Stresses:

@ Center:

ft

=

=

+

+

A

St

St

S 't

696 kips

599 in.

+

Page 3.4-56

7362 in.

(a)

7362 in.3

33804 in.3

3.600 ksi

Ok

Nov 2009

Design Guides

ft

=

=

+

+

A

St

St

S 't

696 kips

599 in.

+

fb

7362 in.

(b)

7362 in.3

33804 in.3

M

(12 )

+

(0.8 ) LL +IM'

'

A Sb

Sb

Sb

Sb

696 kips

599 in.

2.700 ksi

8559 in.

12703 in.

Ok

8559 in.3

(0.8 )

12703 in.3

0.465 ksi

Ok

Determine if section is cracked for fatigue investigions:

@ Center:

fb

=

=

(12)

M

+

(1.5 ) FL +IM'

'

A Sb

Sb

Sb

Sb

696 kips

599 in.

8559 in.

12703 in.

8559 in.3

(1.5 )

12703 in.3

Fatigue Stresses:

@ Center:

ft

Nov 2009

F

+ MDW 1 )(12 ) (MDC 2 + MDW 2 )(12 )

F e (M

MFL +IM (12 )

+

0.5 S S + DC1

+ 1 .5

'

St

St

St

S 't

A

Page 3.4-57

Design Guides

=

696 kips

(696 kips)(21.11 in.) + 0.5 (1296 k ft. + 0)(12 in. / ft.)

0.5

0.5

2

7362 in.3

7362 in.3

599 in.

+ 0. 5

(131 k ft. + 317 k ft.)(12 in. / ft.) + 1.5 (434 k ft.)(12 in. / ft.)

33804 in.3

33804 in.3

2.400 ksi

Ok

Strength I Moment:

Mu =

4713 k-ft.

Mr =

Mn

c

A ps fpu

0.85 f c' 1b

+ kA ps

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4)

fpu

dp

In which:

fc =

1 =

3.5 ksi

0.85

0.28

dp =

Page 3.4-58

(5.7.2.2)

75 in.

58.14 in.

Nov 2009

Design Guides

270 ksi

0.85(3.5 ksi)(0.85 )(75 in.) + 0.28(4.284 in. )

58.14 in.

2

5.92 in.

1c

0.85(5.92 in.)

Mn =

a 1

A ps fps dp

2 12

(Eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1)

In which:

Check fpe

fpe =

Mn =

=

(5.7.3.1.1)

fpu fpT

230.48 ksi

fps =

c

fpu 1 k

dp

0.5(270 ksi)

135 ksi

5.92 in.

58.14 in.

262 ksi

Ok

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

5.03 in.

1

2 12 in. / ft.

5203 k-ft.

Calculate :

Nov 2009

c

(Eq. 5.5.4.2.1-1)

Page 3.4-59

Design Guides

In which:

dt =

bottom row of strands

Mr =

=

60 in.

60 in.

0.75 0.583 + 0.25

1 1.0

5.92 in.

1.0

1.0(5203 k-ft.)

5203 k-ft.

4713 k-ft.

Ok

Mr

1.2Mcr

(5.7.3.3.2)

In which:

fr

0.37 f c'

0.91 ksi

fcpe =

=

=

Mcr =

(5.4.2.6)

Fs Fs e

+

A Sb

696 kips

599 in.

8559 in.3

2.88 ksi

12

S b'

S b' fr

MDC1

1

S

12

b

(12703 in. )(0.91 ksi + 2.88 ksi) 1296 k ft. 12703 in.

3

Page 3.4-60

(Eq. 5.7.3.3.2-1)

8559 in.3

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Mr

(12 in. / ft.)

2089 k-ft.

2089 k-ft.

963 k-ft.

1.2(2089 k-ft.)

5203 k-ft.

2507 k-ft.

Ok

Initial Resultant Camber

Camber

Dcp - Dcb

In which:

Ft (12 L )

[0.0983 e center + 0.0267 e end ](1.80)

E ci I

2

Dcp =

(4287 ksi)(213715 in.4 )

4.37 in.

up

5 w b (12 L )

(1.85)

384 (12) E ci I

4

Dcb =

1.86 in.

Camber

) (1.85)

down

2.51 in.

up

Camber

In which:

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-61

Design Guides

5 w s (12L )

384 (12 ) E c I

4

Dcs =

0.96 in.

Camber

down

1.55 in.

up

@0.25 point

0.7125Dcs =

@0.50 point

Dcs

@0.75 point

0.7125Dcs =

0.7125(0.96 in.)

0.7125(0.96 in.)

0.68 in.

0.96 in.

0.68 in.

Shear Design

(5.8)

As showing full calculations in this design guide for every location along the beam is lengthy and

unnecessary, full shear calculations will be shown for the critical section, and only tabulated

results will be shown for the rest of the sections along the beam.

(5.8.3.2)

Taking the location of the critical section for shear at 0.72h from the face of the support gives a

location of:

xCrit =

1 ft.

+ 1.25 ft.

0.72(54 in. beam + 8 in. slab)

12 in.

The calculated values of the maximum and minimum Strength I shears and moments, factored,

distributed, and including impact, at this location have been found to be:

Page 3.4-62

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Mu+ =

1012.1 k-ft.

Mu- =

310.9 k-ft.

Vu+

217.4 k-ft.

Vu-

56 k-ft.

(5.8.3.3)

The maximum permitted spacing based upon nominal shear resistance is taken as:

A v f y d v cot

Vu

Vp Vc

(5.8.2.9)

dv = d e

a

2

(C5.8.2.9)

Where:

de =

h (Cb eCrit)

Where:

h

Cb =

eCrit=

x Crit + x brg

eEnd +

0.4L b

(e Center e End )

Where:

Nov 2009

eEnd

xCrit

4.97 ft.

xbrg

Page 3.4-63

Design Guides

Lb

=

0.5 ft.

91 ft.

eCenter =

eCrit

de =

=

(21.113 in. 11.470 in.)

11.470 in. +

0.4(91 ft.)

12.919 in.

49.95 in.

In moment calculations, a was found to be 5.03 in. at x = 0.5L. Since the position of

the harped strands does not affect the depth of the stress block in positive moment

regions, this number is also valid at the critical section.

dv

5.03 in.

49.95 in. -

47.44 in.

0.9de =

=

0.72h =

=

(C5.8.2.9)

0.9(49.95 in.)

44.95 in.

0.72(62 in.)

44.64 in.

Since dv is greater than both 0.9de and 0.72h, it is the controlling value.

dv

47.44 in.

Vp =

A harped

fpx sin

ps

Page 3.4-64

(5.11.4)

Nov 2009

Design Guides

The transfer length, ltrans, with the respect to CL bearing is found as:

ltrans

60db xbrg

(5.11.4.1)

The development length, ld, may be found using the following equation:

ld

fps fpe db

3

(Eq. 5.11.4.2-1)

Where:

=

1.6

fpe =

100 % losses

(fpbt )

100

100 19.6

(201.96 ksi)

100

162.38 ksi

db =

0.5 in.

fps =

c

fpu 1 k

dp

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

Where:

fpu =

270 ksi

de =

=

fps =

=

Nov 2009

(Table 5.4.4.1-1)

h (Cb eEnd)

62 in. (24.97 in. 11.47 in.)

48.5 in.

48.5 in.

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

260.8 ksi

Page 3.4-65

Design Guides

ld

3

(Eq. 5.11.4.2-1)

122.04 in.

12 in.

The critical section is at x = 4.97 ft.

= 59.64 in. from CL bearing = lpx

ft.

22 in. < 59.64 in. < 122.04 in. Therefore,

f pe +

fpx =

l px l trans

l d l trans

(f

ps

f pe )

(Eq. 5.11.4.2-3)

Where:

fps =

260.8 ksi

fpe =

162.38 ksi

lpx =

59.64 in.

ltrans=

24 in.

db =

0.5 in.

162.38 ksi +

fpx =

=

(Eq. 5.11.4.2-3)

198.16 ksi

A harped

=

ps

(260.8 ksi 162.38 ksi)

122.04 in. 24 in.

(6 harped strands )

0.153 in.2

strand

0.918 in.2

dharping

arctan

0.4L

Where:

dharping =

Page 3.4-66

45 in.

Nov 2009

Design Guides

L

Vp =

=

12 in.

91 ft.

= 1092 in.

ft.

45 in.

arctan

0.4(1092 in.)

5.88 o

18.64 k

Vc =

0.0316 f c' b v d v

(Eq. 5.8.3.3-3)

Where:

f'c =

6 ksi

dv =

47.44 in.

bv =

6 in.

4. 8

(assume Art. 5.8.2.5 satisfied, then check)

1 + 750 s

(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-1)

Where:

s =

Mu

+ 0.5Nu + Vu Vp A ps fpo

dv

(E s A s + E p A ps )

(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

Where:

12 in.

Mu = (1012.1 k-ft.)

= 12145.2 k-in.

ft.

Check that Mu Vu Vp d v :

Nov 2009

dv =

47.44 in.

Nu =

0k

Page 3.4-67

Design Guides

Vu =

217.4 k

Vp =

18.64 k

Vu Vp d v

=

=

9424.95 k-in.

Mu Vu Vp d v , use Mu .

Aps =

Determine how many strands are on flexural tension side of member:

By inspection, all of the non-harped strands are on the bottom half i.e. flexural

tension side of the composite section.

Crit

To find the height of a row of strands at the critical section for shear, dRow

:

Crit

dRow

dEnd

Row - (xCrit + xbrg) tan

d1Crit

T

d Crit

2T

d Crit

3T

The depth to the flexural tension side of the member is found as follows:

0.5(54 in. beam + 8 in. slab) = 31 in. from bottom of beam

All of the harped strands are above this point.

Aps =

Page 3.4-68

Nov 2009

Design Guides

=

0.153 in.2

strand

3.366 in.2

fpo =

0.7fpu

0.7(270 ksi)

189 ksi

Es =

29000 ksi

As =

0 in.2

Ep =

28500 ksi

12145.2 k in.

47.44 in.

2

2

(29000 ksi) 0 in. + (28500 ksi) 3.366 in.

s =

(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

s =

-0.00189 in./in.

s =

Vc =

0 in./in.

4.8

= 4.8

1 + 750(0 in. / in.)

Nov 2009

(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-1)

(Eq. 5.8.3.3-3)

Page 3.4-69

Design Guides

A v f y d v cot

Vu

Vp Vc

Where:

0.20 in.2

leg

Av =

fy

0.40 in.2

60 ksi

(2 legs of # 4 stirrups)

dv =

47.44 in.

29 + 3500s

29 + 3500(0 in./in.)

29 o

Vu =

217.4 k

0.9

Vp =

18.64 k

Vc =

105.75 k

(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-3)

2

217.4 k

18.64 k 105.75 k

0. 9

17.5 in.

vu =

Vu Vp

b v dv

(5.8.2.7)

(Eq. 5.8.2.9-1)

Where:

Vu =

217.4 k

Vp =

18.64 k

0.9

Page 3.4-70

Nov 2009

Design Guides

bv =

6 in.

dv =

47.44 in.

vu =

=

0.78 ksi

0.125fc

0.125(6 ksi)

0.75 ksi

smax

0.4d v 12 .0 in.

0.4(47.5 in.)

(Eq. 5.8.2.7-2)

The maximum spacing of transverse reinforcement for strength at the critical section for shear is

12 in.

(5.8.2.5)

A v fy

0.0316 f ' c b v

Where:

Av =

0.40 in.2

fy

60 ksi

f'c =

6 ksi

bv =

6 in.

2

Nov 2009

51.7 in.

Page 3.4-71

Design Guides

(5.8.4)

12A vf f y

Vui

cA cv

Where:

Avf =

1.0

0.40 in.2

fy

60 ksi

0.9

0.28 ksi

bvi =

Lvi =

12 in.

Acv =

bviLvi

(Eq. 5.8.4.1-6)

240 in.2

Vui =

(5.8.4.3)

vuiAcv

(Eq. 5.8.4.2-2)

Where:

vui =

Vu

b vi d v

(Eq. 5.8.4.2-1)

Where:

Vu =

217.4 k

bvi =

dv =

47.44 in.

vui =

=

Page 3.4-72

217.4 k

(20 in.)(47.44 in.)

(Eq. 5.8.4.2-1)

0.23 ksi

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Vui =

=

55.2 k

Check that

Vui

K1fcAcv

Where:

Vui =

55.2 k

0.9

K1 =

0.3

f'c =

6 ksi

Acv =

240 in.2

Vui

=

(5.8.4.3)

(Eq. 5.8.4.1-6)

55.2 k

= 61.3 k

0. 9

Check that

Vui

K2Acv

Where:

For

s

Vui =

55.2 k

0.9

K2 =

1.8 ksi

(5.8.4.3)

Acv =

240 in.2

(Eq. 5.8.4.1-6)

Vui

=

55.2 k

= 61.3 k

0. 9

K2Acv

Vui

, use 61.3 k.

-49.06 in.

Nov 2009

(Eq. i)

Page 3.4-73

Design Guides

Since s < 0, no reinforcement is required for interface shear. Check the spacing required to

satisfy

s

1.33 Vui

:

20.1 in.

(Eq. iii)

=

=

12 A vf f y

(Eq. ii)

0.05 A cv

24 in.

The required spacing for interface shear reinforcement at the critical point for shear is 24 in.

The required reinforcement spacing for strength is 17.5 in.

The maximum permitted reinforcement spacing is 12 in.

The minimum reinforcement area is based on a spacing of 24 in.

The required reinforcement spacing for interface shear transfer is 24 in.

The controlling spacing at the critical section for shear is 12 in.

Longitudinal Reinforcement

(5.8.3.5)

Critical Section:

Vu

A s f y + A ps fps

0.5 Vs Vp cot

Page 3.4-74

(Eq. 5.8.3.5-2)

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Where:

As

0 in.2

fy

60 ksi

Aps

3.366 in.2

fps

260.8 ksi

217.4 k

0.9

Vs

Vu

A v f y d v cot

s

Vu

v

Where:

Av =

0.40 in.2

fy

60 ksi

dv =

47.44 in.

29 o

12 in.

A v f y d v cot

s

Vu

2

12 in.

217.4 k

0. 9

Vs

171.17 k

Vp

18.64 k

29 o

A s fy + A ps fps

= 241.6 k

2

Vu

0.5 Vs Vp cot =

Nov 2009

OK

Page 3.4-75

Design Guides

Face of Abutment:

From computer software, Vu has been calculated to be 233.2 k at the abutment face.

Vu

A s f y + A ps fps

0.5 Vs Vp cot

(Eq. 5.8.3.5-2)

Where:

As

0 in.2

fy

60 ksi

Aps

3.366 in.2

fps

260.8 ksi

233.2 k

0.9

Vs

Vu

A v f y d v cot

s

Vu

v

Where:

Av =

0.40 in.2

fy

60 ksi

de =

h (Cb eTrans)

Cb =

eTrans =

(e Center e End )

x

eEnd + Trans

0.4L beam

24 in.

(21.113 in. 11.470 in.)

11.470 in. +

0.4(1092 in.)

12 in.

de =

=

Page 3.4-76

49.03 in.

Nov 2009

Design Guides

dv =

de 0.5a

46.52 in., which controls over 0.9de = 44.13 in. and 0.72h = 44.64 in.

29 o

12 in.

A v f y d v cot

s

Vu

2

12 in.

233.2 k

0. 9

= 259.1 k

Vs

167.8 k

Vp

A harped

fpx sin

ps

fpx

Vp

f pe l px

(Eq. 5.11.4.2-2)

60d b

60(0.5 in.)

113.67 ksi

10.7 k

29 o

A s fy + A ps fps

2

Vu

0.5 Vs Vp cot =

296.8 k

Nov 2009

OK

Page 3.4-77

Design Guides

Vn shall be the lesser of Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp and

Vn =

0.25f'cbvdv + Vp

(Eq. 5.8.3.3-2)

Where:

f'c =

6 ksi

bv =

6 in.

dv =

47.44 in.

Vp =

18.64 k

Vn =

445.6 k

445.6 k > 295.56 k

Equation 5.8.3.3-2 does not control. The controlling spacing for strength at the critical section

for shear is based on Vc + Vs + Vp.

Point

along

span

Critical

Pt.

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Critical

Pt.

Page 3.4-78

x (ft.)

s (in.)

s (in.)

s (in.)

s (in.)

s (in.)

5.8.3.3-4

5.8.2.5-1

5.8.2.7

Eq.s i-iii

Governing

4.97

9.00

18.00

27.00

36.00

45.00

54.00

63.00

72.00

81.00

17.5

22.9

13.9

30.4

34.4

140.4

34.4

30.4

13.9

22.9

51.7

51.7

51.7

51.7

51.7

51.7

51.7

51.7

51.7

51.7

12.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

20.2

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

12.0

22.9

13.9

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

13.9

22.9

85.03

17.5

51.7

12.0

20.2

12.0

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Example 2

140 ft., 100 ft., 2 span, 72 inch PPC Bulb T-beam, 9 beam lines, 4.5 ft. beam spacing, 8 in.

deck, F-shape barrier, 50 pounds per square foot future wearing surface, no skew, 3 design

lanes and HL-93 loading on integral abutments and a fixed pile bent pier. It should be noted

that the non-composite span lengths were conservatively set equal to the composite span

lengths for simplicity.

General Data

Design Code

Span 1 length

140 ft.

Span 2 length

100 ft.

Beam section

Beam spacing

4.5 ft.

Number of beams

Deck thickness

8 in.

Estimated camber

1 in.

Average fillet

Parapet

0.45 k/ft.

FWS

50 psf

Relative Humidity

70 %

Strands

Skew

0 degrees

Loading

HL-93

IM

NL =

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-79

Design Guides

Span 1:

Select strand pattern 38DMH from planning charts in BM Section 2.3.6.1.3.

Aps =

38 0.153 in.2 =

5.814 in.2

Span 2:

Select strand pattern 22SU from planning charts in BM Section 2.3.6.1.3. It should be

noted that since span 1 requires high strength concrete use high strength concrete in

span 2.

Aps =

22 0.153 in.2 =

3.366 in.2

Materials

Precast Concrete Beam

fc

7.0 ksi

fc

3.5 ksi

fci

6.0 ksi

fy

60.0 ksi

fpbt

201.96 ksi

fpu

270.0 ksi

Fi/strand

30.9 kips

Section Properties

Modulus of Elasticity

Ec

33,000K 1w c

1.5

f 'c

(Eq. 5.4.2.4-1)

Eci

33,000K 1w c

1.5

f ' ci

(Eq. 5.4.2.4-1)

Ec (deck) =

3.5 ksi

3587 ksi

Eci (beam) =

6.0 ksi

4696 ksi

Page 3.4-80

1.5

1.5

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Ec (beam) =

Ep (strand) =

28500 ksi

(5.4.4.2)

Es (reinf.) =

29000 ksi

(5.4.3.2)

1.5

7.0 ksi

5072 ksi

A =

767.0 in.2

545894 in.4

Sb =

14915 in.3

Cb =

36.60 in.

St =

Ct =

35.40 in.

15421 in.

Composite

Modular Ratio:

n

E c (deck )

=

E c (beam)

3587 ksi

=

5072 ksi

0.71

Dist. C. to C. of beams

(4.6.2.6)

=

54 in.

Slab

Beam

Ay

306.7 in.2

76.00 in.

23309 in.3

767.0 in.2

36.60 in.

28072 in.3

1073.7 in.2

yb =

yt =

Slab

Beam

51381 in.3

47.85 in.

24.15 in.

1073.7 in.2

51381 in.3

Io

Ad2

1636 in.4

306.7 in.2

28.15 in.

243036 in.4

244672 in.4

545894 in.4

767.0 in.2

11.25 in.

97073 in.4

642967 in.4

I =

Nov 2009

887639 in.4

Page 3.4-81

Design Guides

Sb =

887639 in. 4

47.85 in.

18550 in.3

St =

887639 in. 4

24.15

36755 in.3

Distribution Factors

C =

1.15

Span 1:

Moment

g1 =

=

gm =

=

S

0.06 + C

14.0

0. 4

S

L

0. 3

S

L

0. 2

0.4

4.5 ft.

0.06 + 1.15

14.0

4.5 ft.

0.075 + 1.15

9.5

4.5 ft.

140 ft.

0.3

0.320

S

0.075 + C

9.5

0. 6

0.6

4.5 ft.

140 ft.

0.2

g1 (fatigue)

g1

=

m

0.320

=

1.2

0.267

S

25.0

g1 =

0.36 +

gm =

S S

0 .2 +

12 35

Skew correction

Page 3.4-82

0.36 +

2 .0

4.5 ft.

=

25.0

0.540

0.2 +

12 35

1 + 0.2 tan( )

1 + 0.2 tan(0 )

1.000

2 .0

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Deflection

g (deflection) =

N

m L

Nb

3

0.85

9

.283

Span 2:

Moment

g1 =

=

gm =

=

4.5 ft.

0.06 + 1.15

14.0

0.4

4.5 ft.

100 ft.

0.3

0.348

4.5 ft.

0.075 + 1.15

9.5

0.6

4.5 ft.

100 ft.

0.2

g1 (fatigue)

0.348

=

1.2

0.290

Same as Span 1

Deflection

Same as Span 1

Pier:

Use average span length of the two adjacent spans to the pier.

L (average)

Nov 2009

2

120 ft.

Page 3.4-83

Design Guides

Moment

0.4

g1 =

4.5 ft.

0.06 + 1.15

14.0

gm =

4.5 ft.

0.075 + 1.15

9.5

4.5 ft.

120 ft.

0.6

0.3

4.5 ft.

120 ft.

0.333

0.2

g1 (fatigue)

0.333

=

1.2

0.278

Same as Span 1 and Span 2

Dead Loads

Non-Composite

DC1:

Beam

Slab

Fillet

0.799 k/ft.

0.450 k/ft.

0.044 k/ft.

DW1:

No non-composite dead loads in this category.

Composite

DC2:

Parapets

9 beams

0.100 k/ft.

0.225 k/ft.

DW2:

FWS

Page 3.4-84

2

Nov 2009

Design Guides

For this example the maximum moments were calculated at 0.4 and 0.5 of span 1 and 0.5

and 0.6 of span 2 since it is uncertain which point will control. All moments are generated

by computer software.

Span 1:

Non-Composite

DC1:

@0.4L

MDC1

3041 k-ft.

@0.5L

MDC1

3168 k-ft.

DW1:

No non-composite DW1 loads.

Composite

DC2:

@0.4L

MDC2

157 k-ft.

@0.5L

MDC2

148 k-ft.

@0.4L

MDW2

354 k-ft.

@0.5L

MDW2

332 k-ft.

DW2:

LL+IM:

@0.4L

MLL+IM =

1548 k-ft.

@0.5L

MLL+IM =

1505 k-ft.

@0.4L

MFL+IM =

478 k-ft.

@0.5L

MFL+IM =

462 k-ft.

Pier:

Non-Composite

No non-composite loads.

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-85

Design Guides

Composite

DC2:

MDC2

-195 k-ft.

-439 k-ft.

MLL+IM

-1420 k-ft.

MFL+IM

-339 k-ft.

DW2:

MDW2

LL+IM:

Span 2:

Non-Composite

DC1:

@0.5L

MDC1

1616 k-ft.

@0.6L

MDC1

1552 k-ft.

DW1:

No non-composite DW1 loads.

Composite

DC2:

@0.5L

MDC2

28 k-ft.

@0.6L

MDC2

42 k-ft.

@0.5L

MDW2

62 k-ft.

@0.6L

MDW2

95 k-ft.

DW2:

LL+IM:

Page 3.4-86

@0.5L

MLL+IM =

1085 k-ft.

@0.6L

MLL+IM =

1095 k-ft.

@0.5L

MFL+IM =

348 k-ft.

@0.6L

MFL+IM =

359 k-ft.

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Span 1:

Beam length =

140.2 ft.

112 kips

From the charts: 2 - 5 strand lifting loops required each end at 4.5 ft. and 8.5 ft.

Span 2:

Beam length =

100.2 ft.

80 kips

From the charts: 2 - 3 strand lifting loops required each end at 4.5 ft. and 8.5 ft.

Strand Eccentricities

The length of beam was used instead of the length of span when calculating the eccentricity

along draped strands.

Span 1:

Eccentricity at center:

Row

Number (N)

N(m)

12

2 in.

24 in.

12

4 in.

48 in.

6 in.

24 in.

8 in.

16 in.

10 in.

20 in.

12 in.

24 in.

14 in.

28 in.

16 in.

32 in.

Total

38

216 in.

e

Nov 2009

C b 5.68 in.

216 in.

38

5.68 in.

30.92 in.

Page 3.4-87

Design Guides

Eccentricity at end:

Row

Number (N)

N(m)

10

2 in.

20 in.

10

4 in.

40 in.

6 in.

12 in.

8T

55 in.

110 in.

7T

57 in.

114 in.

6T

59 in.

118 in.

5T

61 in.

122 in.

4T

63 in.

126 in.

3T

65 in.

130 in.

2T

67 in.

134 in.

1T

69 in.

138 in.

Total

38

1064 in.

e

Page 3.4-88

C b 28 .00 in. =

1064 in.

38

28.00 in.

8.6 in.

Nov 2009

Design Guides

=

Transfer length

60(0.5 in.)

=

(12 in. / ft.)

Row

Number (N)

N(m)

10

2 in.

20 in.

10

4 in.

40 in.

6 in.

12 in.

8T

52.6 in.

105.2 in.

7T

54.6 in.

109.2 in.

6T

56.6 in.

113.2 in.

5T

58.6 in.

117.2 in.

4T

60.6 in.

121.2 in.

3T

62.6 in.

125.2 in.

2T

64.6 in.

129.2 in.

1T

66.6 in.

133.2 in.

Total

38

1025.6 in.

1025.6 in.

=

38

Nov 2009

Transfer length

C b 26 .99 in. =

26.99 in.

9.61 in.

Page 3.4-89

Design Guides

Eccentricity at center of lifting loops (use average of 4.5 ft. and 8.5 ft. = 6.5 ft.):

Row

Number (N)

N(m)

10

2 in.

20 in.

10

4 in.

40 in.

6 in.

12 in.

8T

48.9 in.

97.8 in.

7T

50.9 in.

101.8 in.

6T

52.9 in.

105.8 in.

5T

54.9 in.

109.8 in.

4T

56.9 in.

113.8 in.

3T

58.9 in.

117.8 in.

2T

60.9 in.

121.8 in.

1T

62.9 in.

125.8 in.

Total

38

966.4 in.

966.4 in.

=

38

C b 25 .43 in. =

25.43 in.

11.17 in.

Span 2:

Eccentricity at all locations:

Row

Number (N)

N(m)

2 in.

12 in.

4 in.

16 in.

6 in.

24 in.

8 in.

16 in.

10 in.

20 in.

12 in.

24 in.

14 in.

28 in.

Total

22

140 in.

e

Page 3.4-90

C b 6.36 in.

140 in.

22

6.36 in.

30.24 in.

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Prestress Losses

Total Loss of Prestress

Span 1:

fpT

fpES + fpLT

(Eq. 5.9.5.1-1)

fpES

Ep

(Eq. 5.9.5.2.3a-1)

f cgp

E ci

Fi =

Aps(fpbt) =

Ft =

0.9(Fi) =

0.9(1174 kips )

Mb (beam)

fcgp =

=

=

8

1174 kips

1057 kips

=

1958 k-ft.

Ft Ft e 2 Mb (12)e

+

A

I

I

1057 kips

767 in.2

545894 in. 4

545894 in. 4

1.90 ksi

Calculate fpES:

fpES

28500 ksi

(1.90 ksi)

4696 ksi

11.53 ksi

Check Assumption:

(fpbt fpES )

fpbt

Nov 2009

201.96 ksi

0.94

>

0.90

Page 3.4-91

Design Guides

Recalculate

Assume Ft equals 94 percent of Fi for second iteration:

Ft =

fcgp =

=

0.94(1174 kips )

1104 kips

767 in.2

1104 kips

2

(

(1958 k ft.)(12 in. / ft.)(30.92 in.)

1104 kips )(30.92 in.)

+

545894 in. 4

545894 in. 4

2.04 ksi

Calculate fpES:

fpES

28500 ksi

(2.04 ksi)

4696 ksi

12.38 ksi

Check Assumption:

(fpbt fpES )

fpbt

201.96 ksi

0.94

Ok

fpLT

10.0

fpbt A ps

A

h st + 12.0 h st + f pR

(Eq. 5.9.5.3-1)

In which:

h =

st =

1.7 0.01H

5

1 + f ci'

1.7 0.01(70 ) =

5

=

(1 + 6 ksi)

1.0

(Eq. 5.9.5.3-2)

0.714

(Eq. 5.9.5.3-3)

fpLT

fpT

%Loss =

Page 3.4-92

(201.96 ksi )(5.814 in.2 ) (1.0 )(0.714 ) + 12.0(1.0 )(0.714 ) + 2.4 ksi

10.0

21.90 ksi

767 in. 2

fpES + fpLT

34.28 ksi

201.96 ksi

17.0 %

34.28 ksi

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Span 2:

fpT

fpES + fpLT

(Eq. 5.9.5.1-1)

fpES

Ep

(Eq. 5.9.5.2.3a-1)

f cgp

E ci

Fi =

Aps(fpbt) =

Ft =

0.9(Fi) =

0.9(680 kips )

Mb (beam)

fcgp =

=

=

680 kips

612 kips

=

999 k-ft.

Ft Ft e 2 Mb (12 )e

+

A

I

I

612 kips

767 in.2

545894 in. 4

545894 in. 4

1.16 ksi

Calculate fpES:

fpES

28500 ksi

(1.16 ksi)

4696 ksi

7.04 ksi

Check Assumption:

(fpbt fpES )

fpbt

201.96 ksi

0.97

>

0.90

Recalculate

Assume Ft equals 96 percent of Fi for second iteration:

Ft =

fcgp =

=

Nov 2009

0.96(680 kips )

653 kips

767 in.2

653 kips

545894 in. 4

545894 in. 4

1.28 ksi

Page 3.4-93

Design Guides

Calculate fpES:

fpES

28500 ksi

(1.28 ksi)

4696 ksi

7.77 ksi

Check Assumption:

(fpbt fpES )

fpbt

201.96 ksi

0.96

Ok

fpLT

10.0

fpbt A ps

A

h st + 12.0 h st + f pR

(Eq. 5.9.5.3-1)

In which:

h =

st =

1.7 0.01H

5

1 + f ci'

1.7 0.01(70 ) =

5

=

(1 + 6 ksi)

1.0

(Eq. 5.9.5.3-2)

0.714

(Eq. 5.9.5.3-3)

fpLT

fpT

%Loss =

Page 3.4-94

10.0

17.30 ksi

767 in.2

fpES + fpLT

25.07 ksi

201.96 ksi

12.4 %

25.07 ksi

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Temporary stresses

(5.9.4.1)

Compression:

0.60fci'

0.60(6.0 ksi ) =

3.60 ksi

0.588 ksi

Tension:

0.24 f ci'

(5.9.4.2)

0.60 w fc'

4.20 ksi

(a)

0.45fc'

0.45(7.0 ksi )

3.15 ksi

(b)

0.19 f c'

0.503 ksi

(5.5.3.1)

0.40fc'

0.40(7.0 ksi )

2.80 ksi

Uncracked

Nov 2009

0.095 fc'

=

Cracked

0.251 ksi

Page 3.4-95

Design Guides

Span 1:

Calculate Dead Load Moments for Determining Temporary Stresses

@ Lifting Loops:

Mbts =

w b (L c ) 2

2

17 k-ft.

Mbts

3 w b L2b w b L b L c

25

2

3(0.799 k / ft.)(140.2 ft.)

25

2

1521 k-ft.

Ft =

1102 kips

Temporary Stresses

@ Lifting Loops:

ft

=

=

fb

Page 3.4-96

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

A St

St

1102 kips

767 in.

15421 in.3

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

+

+

A Sb

Sb

in compression

15421 in.3

Ok

Nov 2009

Design Guides

=

=

1102 kips

767 in.

14915 in.3

3.600 ksi

14915 in.3

Ok

ft

=

=

fb

1102 kips

767 in.

15421 in.3

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

+

A Sb

Sb

=

=

Nov 2009

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

+

A St

St

1102 kips

767 in.

in compression

15421 in.3

Ok

14915 in.3

14915 in.3

Ok

3.600 ksi

Page 3.4-97

Design Guides

Span 2:

Calculate Dead Load Moments for Determining Temporary Stresses

@ Lifting Loops:

Mbts =

w b (L c ) 2

2

2

17 k-ft.

@ Center:

w b (L b )

w L L

b b c

8

2

2

Mbts

=

=

743 k-ft.

Ft =

654 kips

Temporary Stresses

@ Lifting Loops:

ft

=

=

fb

Page 3.4-98

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

A St

St

654 kips

767 in.

15421 in.3

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

+

+

A Sb

Sb

15421 in.3

0.588 ksi

Ok

Nov 2009

Design Guides

654 kips

767 in.

14915 in.3

14915 in.3

3.600 ksi

Ok

@ Center:

ft

=

=

fb

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

+

A St

St

654 kips

767 in.

15421 in.3

Ft Ft e Mbts (12)

+

A Sb

Sb

=

=

654 kips

767 in.

15421 in.3

in compression

Ok

14915 in.3

14915 in.3

3.600 ksi

Ok

Check Service Stresses after Losses

Span 1:

Prestress Force after Losses:

Fs =

2

975 kips

Service Stresses:

@ 0.4 span 1:

ft

=

=

+

+

A

St

St

S 't

975 kips

767 in.

+

Nov 2009

15421 in.

(a)

15421 in.3

36755 in.3

4.200 ksi

Ok

Page 3.4-99

Design Guides

ft

=

=

+

+

A

St

St

S 't

975 kips

767 in.

+

fb

15421 in.

15421 in.3

36755 in.3

(12)

M

+

(0.8 ) LL +IM'

'

A Sb

Sb

Sb

Sb

975 kips

767 in.

(b)

3.150 ksi

14915 in.

18550 in.

0.503 ksi

Ok

14915 in.3

0. 8

18550 in.3

Ok

@ 0.5 span 1:

ft

=

=

+

+

A

St

St

S 't

975 kips

767 in.

+

ft

15421 in.

15421 in.3

36755 in.3

+

+

A

St

St

S 't

975 kips

767 in.

+

Page 3.4-100

(a)

4.200 ksi

15421 in.

Ok

(b)

15421 in.3

36755 in.3

3.150 ksi

Ok

Nov 2009

Design Guides

fb

=

=

(12)

M

+

(0.8 ) LL +IM'

'

A Sb

Sb

Sb

Sb

975 kips

767 in.

Nov 2009

14915 in.

18550 in.

0.503 ksi

14915 in.3

0. 8

18550 in.3

Ok

Page 3.4-101

Design Guides

Span 2:

Prestress Force after Losses:

Fs =

2

595 kips

Service Stresses:

@ 0.5 span 2:

ft

=

=

+

+

A

St

St

S 't

595 kips

767 in.

+

ft

15421 in.

15421 in.3

36755 in.3

+

+

A

St

St

S 't

595 kips

767 in.

+

4.200 ksi

15421 in.

Ok

15421 in.3

36755 in.3

M

(12 )

+

(0.8 ) LL +IM'

'

A Sb

Sb

Sb

Sb

595 kips

767 in.

(b)

Page 3.4-102

fb

(a)

3.150 ksi

14915 in.

18550 in.

Ok

0. 8

in compression

14915 in.3

18550 in.3

Ok

Nov 2009

Design Guides

@ 0.6 span 2:

ft

=

=

+

+

A

St

St

S 't

595 kips

767 in.

+

ft

15421 in.

15421 in.3

36755 in.3

+

+

A

St

St

S 't

595 kips

767 in.

+

fb

(a)

4.200 ksi

15421 in.

Ok

(b)

15421 in.3

36755 in.3

M

(12 )

+

(0.8 ) LL +IM'

'

A Sb

Sb

Sb

Sb

595 kips

767 in.

3.150 ksi

14915 in.

18550 in.

Ok

0. 8

in compression

14915 in.3

18550 in.3

Ok

Span 1:

Determine if section is cracked for fatigue investigions:

@ 0.4 span 1:

fb

Nov 2009

(12)

M

+

(1.5 ) FL +IM'

'

A Sb

Sb

Sb

Sb

Page 3.4-103

Design Guides

=

975 kips

767 in.

2

14915 in.

18550 in.

14915 in.3

1.5

18550 in.3

@ 0.5 span 1:

fb

=

=

M

(12 )

+

(1.5 ) FL +IM'

'

A Sb

Sb

Sb

Sb

975 kips

767 in.

14915 in.

18550 in.

14915 in.3

1.5

18550 in.3

Fatigue Stresses:

@ 0.4 span 1:

ft

F

F e (M

+ MDW 1 )(12 ) (MDC 2 + MDW 2 )(12 )

MFL +IM (12 )

0.5 S S + DC1

+

+ 1 .5

'

St

St

St

S 't

975 kips

(975 kips )(30.92 in.) + 0.5 (3041 k ft. + 0)(12 in. / ft.)

0. 5

0.5

2

15421 in.3

15421 in.3

767 in.

+ 0. 5

36755 in.

+ 1.5

2.800 ksi

36755 in.3

Ok

@ 0.5 span 1:

ft

F

F e (M

+ MDW 1 )(12 ) (MDC 2 + MDW 2 )(12 )

MFL +IM (12 )

0.5 S S + DC1

+

+ 1 .5

'

St

St

St

S 't

975 kips

(975 kips )(30.92 in.) + 0.5 (3168 k ft. + 0)(12 in. / ft.)

0. 5

0.5

2

15421 in.3

15421 in.3

767 in.

+ 0. 5

Page 3.4-104

36755 in.

2.800 ksi

+ 1.5

36755 in.3

Ok

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Span 2:

Determine if section is cracked for fatigue investigions:

@ 0.5 span 2:

fb

=

=

(12)

M

+

(1.5 ) FL +IM'

'

A Sb

Sb

Sb

Sb

595 kips

767 in.

14915 in.

18550 in.

14915 in.3

1.5

18550 in.3

@ 0.6 span 2:

fb

=

=

M

(12 )

+

(1.5 ) FL +IM'

'

A Sb

Sb

Sb

Sb

595 kips

767 in.

14915 in.

18550 in.

14915 in.3

1.5

18550 in.3

Fatigue Stresses:

@ 0.5 span 2:

ft

F

F e (M

+ MDW 1 )(12 ) (MDC 2 + MDW 2 )(12 )

MFL +IM (12 )

0.5 S S + DC1

+

+ 1 .5

'

St

St

St

S 't

595 kips

(595 kips )(30.24 in.) + 0.5 (1616 k ft. + 0)(12 in. / ft.)

0. 5

0.5

2

15421 in.3

15421 in.3

767 in.

+ 0. 5

36755 in.

2.800 ksi

+ 1.5

36755 in.3

Ok

@ 0.6 span 2:

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-105

Design Guides

ft

F

F e (M

+ MDW 1 )(12 ) (MDC 2 + MDW 2 )(12 )

MFL +IM (12 )

0.5 S S + DC1

+

+ 1 .5

'

St

St

St

S 't

595 kips

(595 kips )(30.24 in.) + 0.5 (1552 k ft. + 0)(12 in. / ft.)

0. 5

0.5

2

15421 in.3

15421 in.3

767 in.

+ 0. 5

36755 in.

+ 1.5

2.800 ksi

36755 in.3

Ok

Span 1:

Strength I Moment:

@ 0.4 Span 1

Mu =

7238 k-ft.

@ 0.5 Span 1

Mu =

Mr =

Mn

c

A ps fpu

0.85 f c' 1b

+ kA ps

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4)

fpu

dp

In which:

fc =

1 =

Page 3.4-106

3.5 ksi

(5.7.2.2)

Nov 2009

Design Guides

0.85

0.28

dp =

54 in.

74.32 in.

270 ksi

0.85(3.5 ksi)(0.85 )(54 in.) + 0.28(5.814 in. )

74.32 in.

2

11.02 in.

1c

0.85(11.02 in.)

9.37 in.

8 in.

c

fpu

0.85f c' 1b w + kA ps

dp

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-3)

270 ksi

0.85(3.5 ksi)(0.85 )(42 in.) + 0.28(5.814 in. )

74.32 in.

2

11.45 in.

1c

0.85(11.45 in.)

9.73 in.

Mn =

a

a hf

'

A ps fps dp + 0.85f c (b b w )h f

2

2 2

1

12

(Eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1)

In which:

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-107

Design Guides

Check fpe

fpe =

fpu fpT

235.72 ksi

fps =

c

fpu 1 k

dp

Mn =

(5.7.3.1.1)

0.5(270 ksi)

135 ksi

Ok

11.45 in.

74.32 in.

258 ksi

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

9.73 in.

1

2 12 in. / ft.

1

9.73 in. 8 in.

2 12 in. / ft.

2

8703 k-ft.

Calculate :

c

(Eq. 5.5.4.2.1-1)

In which:

dt =

bottom row of strands

Mr =

Page 3.4-108

78 in.

78 in.

1 1.0

0.75 0.583 + 0.25

9.73 in.

1.0

1.0(8703 k-ft.)

Nov 2009

Design Guides

=

8703 k-ft.

7277 k-ft.

Ok

Mr

1.2Mcr

(5.7.3.3.2)

In which:

fr

0.37 f c'

0.98 ksi

fcpe =

=

=

MDC1

Mcr =

(5.4.2.6)

Fs Fs e

+

A Sb

975 kips

767 in.

14915 in.3

3.29 ksi

=

3041 k-ft.

12

S'

S' f

MDC1 b 1 b r

S

12

b

(18550 in. )(0.98 ksi + 3.29 ksi) 3041 k ft. 18550 in.

3

Mr

Nov 2009

(Eq. 5.7.3.3.2-1)

14915 in.3 1

3

5860 k-ft.

5860 k-ft.

1.2(5860)

8703 k-ft.

7032 k-ft.

1515 k-ft.

Ok

Page 3.4-109

Design Guides

Span 2:

Strength I Moment:

@ 0.5 Span 2

Mu =

4047 k-ft.

@ 0.6 Span 2

Mu =

Mr =

Mn

c

A ps fpu

0.85 f c' 1b

+ kA ps

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4)

fpu

dp

In which:

fc =

1 =

3.5 ksi

0.85

0.28

dp =

Page 3.4-110

(5.7.2.2)

54 in.

73.64 in.

Nov 2009

Design Guides

270 ksi

0.85(3.5 ksi)(0.85 )(54 in.) + 0.28(3.366 in. )

73.64 in.

2

6.49 in.

1c

0.85(6.49 in.)

5.52 in.

8 in.

Mn =

a 1

A ps fps dp

2 12

(Eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1)

In which:

Check fpe

fpe =

fpu fpT

244.93 ksi

fps =

c

fpu 1 k

dp

Mn =

=

(5.7.3.1.1)

0.5(270 ksi)

135 ksi

Ok

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

6.49 in.

73.64 in.

263 ksi

(3.366 in. )(263 ksi) 73.64 in. 5.522 in. 12 in1. / ft.

2

5229 k-ft.

Calculate :

c

(Eq. 5.5.4.2.1-1)

In which:

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-111

Design Guides

dt =

bottom row of strands

Mr =

=

78 in.

78 in.

1 1.0

0.75 0.583 + 0.25

6.49 in.

1.0

1.0(5229 k-ft.)

5229 k-ft.

4051 k-ft.

Ok

Mr

1.2Mcr

(5.7.3.3.2)

In which:

fr

0.37 f c'

0.98 ksi

fcpe =

=

=

MDC1

Mcr =

Page 3.4-112

(5.4.2.6)

Fs Fs e

+

A Sb

595 kips

767 in.

14915 in.3

1.98 ksi

=

1552 k-ft.

12

S'

S' f

MDC1 b 1 b r

S

12

b

(Eq. 5.7.3.3.2-1)

Nov 2009

Design Guides

(18550 in. )(0.98 ksi + 1.98 ksi) 1552 k ft. 18550 in.

14915 in.3 1

3

4197 k-ft.

4197 k-ft.

Mr

5229 k-ft.

1515 k-ft.

1.2(4197 k-ft.)

5036 k-ft.

Ok

Strength I Moment

Mu =

-3387 k-ft.

Rn =

Mu (12)

b(d s )

In which:

ds

Rn =

Nov 2009

Beam Depth +

deck thickness

2

72 in. +

8 in.

2

76 in.

2

0.9(26 in.)(76 in.)

0.301 ksi

0.85 f c'

2R n

1 1

f y

0.85 f c'

0.85(7.0 ksi)

2(0.301 ksi)

1 1

60 ksi

0.85(7.0 ksi)

0.00515

Page 3.4-113

Design Guides

As =

bd

10.18 in.2

As =

A s (total )

=

3

10.18 in. 2

3

3.39 in.2

Top (full length)

#6 @ 12

(0.44 in.2)(4.5)

1.98 in.2

Top (cut-off)

2 - #7 @12

2(0.60 in.2)(4.5)

5.40 in.2

6 - #5

6(0.31 in.2)

1.86 in.2

Page 3.4-114

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Bottom (cut-off)

4(0.31 in.2)

4 - #5

3.84 in.2

10.48 in.2

1.24 in.2

Totals:

As (full length)

As (total)

10.18 in.2 ok

A s (full length)

A s (total)

3.84 in.2

10.48 in.2

0.366

0.333

0.333

0.333

Ok

As

ds

Asds

1.98 in.2

76.75 in.

151.97 in.3

Top (cut-off)

5.40 in.2

76.69 in.

414.13 in.3

1.86 in.2

73.94 in.

137.53 in.3

Bottom (cut-off)

1.24 in.2

73.94 in.

91.69 in.3

10.48 in.2

ds =

10.48 in. 2

795.32 in.3

75.89 in.

Mr =

Mn

c

A s fs

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4)

0.85 f c' 1b

In which:

fc =

Nov 2009

7.0 ksi

Page 3.4-115

Design Guides

1 =

fs

(5.7.2.2)

0.70

fy

c

0.6

ds

if

(5.7.2.1)

Check

c

0.6

ds

1c

0.70(5.81 in.)

4.07 in.

5.81 in.

5.81 in.

0.6

75.89 in.

7.5

0.08 0.6

Ok

Mn =

a 1

A s f s d s

2 12

(Eq. 5.7.3.2.2-1)

(10.48 in. )(60 ksi) 75.89 in. 4.072 in. 12 in1. / ft.

3870 k-ft.

Calculate :

d

0.75 0.65 + 0.15 t 1 0.9

(Eq. 5.5.4.2.1-2)

In which:

dt =

top row of longitudinal reinforcement bars

Page 3.4-116

76.75 in.

76.75 in.

1 0.9

0.75 0.65 + 0.15

5.81 in.

0.9

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Mr =

=

0.9(3870 k-ft.)

3483 k-ft.

3387 k-ft.

Ok

Mr

1.2Mcr

(5.7.3.3.2)

In which:

fr

0.37 f c'

0.98 ksi

Mcr =

(5.4.2.6)

S 'ts (fr )

12

(Eq. 5.7.3.3.2-1)

In which:

Sts =

I'

(y t + slab t )

887639 in. 4

=

(24.15 in. + 8 in.)

27609 in.3

3

Mcr =

=

Mr

12 in. / ft.

2255 k-ft.

3483 k-ft.

Nov 2009

1.2(2255 k-ft.)

2706 k-ft.

Ok

Page 3.4-117

Design Guides

fss =

d x

fc n s

f c (6 )

19.63 in.

17 .20 f c

Determine x:

h

h

x hf

A s n(d s x ) = (x h f )

b w + (x h f ) f b + f bx

2

2

2

Insert known variables and put into quadratic form (units not shown for clarity):

x 7 .5

7 .5

7 .5

10.48(6 )(75.89 x ) = (x 7.5 )

6 + (x 7.5 )

26 +

26 x

2

2

2

4771.96 - 62.88x =

Page 3.4-118

Nov 2009

Design Guides

0

Solve for x:

x

19.63 in.

Determine Sbc:

Sbc =

d x

x h f x h f 2(x h f )

A s n s

(d s x ) +

b w

3

x 2

2h h

h

x h f h f

+

b x f + f b x f

3 2

3

x 2

=

(10.48 in. )(6 in.) 75.8919in..63 19in..63 in. (75.89 in. 19.63 in.)

2

2(19.63 in. 7.5 in.)

+

(6 in.)

19.63 in.

2

3

2(7.5 in.)

+

(26 in.)19.63 in.

19.63 in.

3

2

7.5 in.

7.5 in.

+

(26 in.)19.63 in.

3

2

12872 in.3

s

700 e

2d c

s f ss

(Eq. 5.7.3.4-1)

In which:

dc =

3.25 in.

72 in. + 8 in.

80 in.

1+

1+

1.06

e =

Nov 2009

dc

0.7(h d c )

s =

3.25 in.

Page 3.4-119

Design Guides

fc

=

=

=

fss =

4 in.

S bc

12872 in.3

1.915 ksi

17 .20 f c

17.20(1.915 ksi )

32.94 ksi

700(0.75 )

2(3.25 in.)

1.06(32.94 ksi)

8.5 in.

Ok

(f)

(F)TH

(Eq. 5.5.3.1-1)

In which:

MFL+IM (fatigue truck range) =

Calculate (F)TH:

(F)TH =

In which:

fc

(Eq. 5.5.3.2-1)

(195 k ft. + 439 k ft.)(12 in. / ft.) + 1.5 (0)(12 in. / ft.)

0.591 ksi

fmin =

(F)TH =

Page 3.4-120

24 0.33 fmin

S bc

S bc

12872 in.3

fss =

12872 in.3

17 .20 f c

17.20(0.591 ksi )

10.17 ksi

24 0.33(10.17 ksi )

20.64 ksi

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Calculate (f):

fc

=

=

=

f =

1.5

(M

S bc

12872 in.3

0.316 ksi

fss =

17 .20 f c

17.20(0.316 ksi )

5.44 ksi

(f)

)(12)

1.5(5.44 ksi)

8.16 ksi

(f)

(F)TH

8.16 ksi

20.64 ksi

Ok

The distance from centerline of pier to transfer point equals the distance from the

centerline of pier to the end of the beam plus the transfer length.

Distance from centerline of pier to transfer point for spans 1 and 2:

6 in.

+ 2.5 ft. =

12 in. / ft.

3 ft.

@ 0.979 span 1:

Moments (from computer software):

Nov 2009

MDC1

266 k-ft.

MDW1

0 k-ft.

MDC2

-170 k-ft.

MDW2

-383 k-ft.

MLL+IM =

-1081 k-ft.

MFL+IM =

-293 k-ft.

Page 3.4-121

Design Guides

Service Stresses:

fb

=

=

+

+

A S bc

S bc

S bc

975 kips

767 in.

+

fb

12872 in.

12872 in.3

12872 in.3

+

+

A S bc

S bc

S bc

975 kips

767 in.

+

(a)

4.200 ksi

12872 in.

Ok

(b)

12872 in.3

12872 in.3

3.150 ksi

Ok

Fatigue Stresses:

fb

F

+ MDW1 )(12) (MDC2 + MDW 2 )(12)

F e (M

MFL +IM (12)

+

0.5 S + S DC1

+ 1. 5

S bc

S bc

S bc

A S bc

975 kips

(975 kips)(9.61 in.) 0.5 (266 k ft. + 0)(12 in. / ft.)

+ 0. 5

0.5

2

12872 in.3

12872 in.3

767 in.

+ 0. 5

12872 in.

2.800 ksi

+ 1.5

12872 in.3

Ok

@ 0.03 span 2:

Moments (from computer software):

Page 3.4-122

MDC1

188 k-ft.

MDW1

0 k-ft.

MDC2

-175 k-ft.

MDW2

-393 k-ft.

Nov 2009

Design Guides

MLL+IM =

-1163 k-ft.

MFL+IM =

-328 k-ft.

Service Stresses:

fb

=

=

+

+

A S bc

S bc

S bc

595 kips

767 in.

+

fb

12872 in.

12872 in.3

12872 in.3

+

+

A S bc

S bc

S bc

595 kips

767 in.

+

(a)

4.200 ksi

12872 in.

Ok

(b)

12872 in.3

12872 in.3

3.150 ksi

Ok

Fatigue Stresses:

fb

F

F e (M

+ MDW1 )(12) (MDC2 + MDW 2 )(12)

MFL +IM (12)

0.5 S + S DC1

+

+ 1. 5

S bc

S bc

S bc

A S bc

595 kips

(595 kips )(30.24 in.) 0.5 (188 k ft. + 0)(12 in. / ft.)

+ 0. 5

0.5

2

12872 in.3

12872 in.3

767 in.

+ 0. 5

12872 in.

2.800 ksi

+ 1.5

12872 in.3

Ok

Calculate capacity of continuing reinforcement using the same procedure given above.

Next use this capacity to determine the cutoff location by comparing to the applied

moments in a moment envelope. Then check distribution and fatigue using the same

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-123

Design Guides

procedure given above.

Finally calculate the embedment length of the cutoff

reinforcement using the provisions of Art. 5.11.1.2.3. The cutoff points in each span will

have to be determined and checked since the spans are not symmetrical.

See example 1 for sample calculations.

Shear Design

(5.8)

As showing full calculations in this design guide for every location along the beam is lengthy and

unnecessary, full shear calculations will be shown for the critical section near the pier for span

1, and only tabulated results will be shown for the rest of the sections along the beam.

(5.8.3.2)

Taking the location of the critical section for shear at 0.72h from the face of the support at the

pier gives a location of:

xCrit =

1 ft.

+ 1.25 ft.

0.72(72 in. beam + 8 in. slab)

12 in.

The calculated values of the maximum and minimum Strength I shears and moments, factored,

distributed, and including impact, at this location have been found to be:

Mu+ =

405.9 k-ft.

Mu-

-1785.7 k-ft.

Vu+

-91.9 k-ft.

Vu- =

-276 k-ft.

Page 3.4-124

(5.8.3.3)

Nov 2009

Design Guides

The maximum permitted spacing based upon nominal shear resistance is taken as:

A v f y d v cot

Vu

Vp Vc

(5.8.2.9)

dv = d e

a

2

(C5.8.2.9)

Where:

de =

dv =

=

4.07 in.

75.89 in. -

(C5.8.2.9)

73.86 in.

dv need not be taken as less than the greater of 0.9de and 0.72h.

0.9de =

=

0.72h =

=

0.9(75.89 in.)

68.30 in.

0.72(80 in.)

57.6 in.

Since dv is greater than both 0.9de and 0.72h, it is the controlling value.

dv

73.86 in.

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-125

Design Guides

Vp =

A harped

fpx sin

ps

(5.11.4)

Transfer Length

(5.11.4.1)

60db - xbrg

22 in.

The development length, ld, may be found using the following equation:

ld

fps fpe db

3

(Eq. 5.11.4.2-1)

Where:

=

1.6

fpe =

100 % losses

(fpbt )

100

100 17

(201.96 ksi)

100

167.63 ksi

db =

0.5 in.

fps =

c

fpu 1 k

dp

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

Where:

fpu =

270 ksi

dp =

Page 3.4-126

(Table 5.4.4.1-1)

h Cb + eEnd

52 in.

Nov 2009

Design Guides

fps =

=

ld

52 in.

(Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-1)

253.66 ksi

3

(Eq. 5.11.4.2-1)

113.5 in.

12 in.

The critical section is at x = 6.05 ft.

= 72.6 in.

ft.

22 in. < 72.6 in. < 113.5 in. Therefore,

fpx =

f pe +

l px l trans

l d l trans

(f

ps

f pe )

(Eq. 5.11.4.2-3)

Where:

fps =

253.66 ksi

fpe =

167.63 ksi

lpx =

72.6 in.

ld

ltrans=

fpx =

=

22 in.

167.63 ksi +

(253.66 ksi 167.63 ksi)

113.5 in. 22 in.

(Eq. 5.11.4.2-3)

215.19 ksi

A harped

=

ps

113.5 in.

0.153 in.2

strand

2.448 in.2

dharping

arctan

0.4L

Where:

dharping =

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-127

Design Guides

Vp =

=

53 in.

12 in.

141.33 ft.

= 1696 in.

ft.

53 in.

arctan

0.4(1696 in.)

4.47 o

41.06 k

Page 3.4-128

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Vc =

0.0316 f c' b v d v

(Eq. 5.8.3.3-3)

Where:

f'c =

7 ksi

dv =

73.86 in.

bv =

6 in.

4. 8

(assume Art. 5.8.2.5 satisfied, then check)

1 + 750 s

(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-1)

Where:

s =

Mu

+ 0.5Nu + Vu Vp A ps fpo

dv

(E s A s + E p A ps )

(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

Where:

Nu

0k

Mu

12 in.

(1785.7 k-ft.)

= 21428.4 k-in.

ft.

Check that Mu Vu Vp d v :

dv =

73.86 k

Vu =

276.0 k

Vp =

41.06 k

Vu Vp d v

=

=

17351.5 k-in.

Mu Vu Vp d v , use Mu .

Aps =

Determine how many strands are on flexural tension side of member:

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-129

Design Guides

By inspection, all of the harped strands are on the top half i.e. flexural tension

side of the composite section.

Crit

:

To find the depth of a row of strands at the critical section for shear, dRow

Crit

dRow

dEnd

Row - (xCrit + xbrg) tan

d1Crit

T

d Crit

2T

d Crit

3T

d Crit

4T

d Crit

5T

d Crit

6T

d Crit

7T

d Crit

8T

The depth to the flexural tension side of the member is found as follows:

0.5(72 in. beam + 8 in. slab) = 40 in. from bottom of beam

All of the harped strands are above this point.

Aps =

=

0.153 in.2

strand

2.448 in.2

fpo =

Page 3.4-130

0.7fpu

Nov 2009

Design Guides

0.7(270 ksi)

189 ksi

Es =

29000 ksi

As =

Ep =

28500 ksi

21428.4 k in.

73.86 in.

s =

(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-4)

s =

Vc =

=

0.00017 in./in.

4.8

1 + 750(0.00017 in. / in.)

4.26

(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-1)

(Eq. 5.8.3.3-3)

157.83 k

A v f y d v cot

Vu

Vp Vc

Where:

Av =

fy

0.20 in.2

leg

0.40 in.2

60 ksi

Nov 2009

(2 legs of # 4 stirrups)

Page 3.4-131

Design Guides

dv =

73.86 in.

29 + 3500s

29 + 3500(0.00017 in./in.)

29.60 o

Vu =

276.0 k

0.9

Vp =

41.06 k

Vc =

157.83 k

(Eq. 5.8.3.4.2-3)

2

276.0 k

41.06 k 157.83 k

0. 9

29.0 in.

Vu Vp

vu =

b v dv

(5.8.2.7)

(Eq. 5.8.2.9-1)

Where:

Vu =

276.0 k

Vp =

41.06 k

0.9

bv =

276.0 k (0.9)(41.06 k )

vu =

=

6 in.

0.6 ksi

0.125fc

0.125(7 ksi)

0.875 ksi

Page 3.4-132

Nov 2009

Design Guides

smax

0.8(73.86 in.)

(Eq. 5.8.2.7-2)

The maximum spacing of shear reinforcement for strength at the critical section for shear is 24

in.

(5.8.2.5)

A v fy

0.0316 f ' c b v

Where:

Av =

0.40 in.2

fy

60 ksi

f'c =

7 ksi

bv =

6 in.

2

47.8 in.

(5.8.4)

12A vf f y

Vui

cA cv

Where:

1.0

Avf =

0.40 in.2

fy

60 ksi

0.9

0.28 ksi

Nov 2009

(5.8.4.3)

Page 3.4-133

Design Guides

bvi =

Lvi =

12 in.

Acv =

bviLvi

(Eq. 5.8.4.1-6)

504 in.2

Vui =

vuiAcv

Where:

vui =

Vu

b vi d v

(Eq. 5.8.4.2-1)

Where:

Vu =

276.0 k

bvi =

dv =

73.86 in.

vui =

=

Vui =

=

276.0 k

(42 in.)(73.86 in.)

(Eq. 5.8.4.2-1)

0.09 ksi

45.4 k

Check that

Vui

K1fcAcv

Where:

Vui =

45.4 k

0.9

K1 =

0.3

f'c =

7 ksi

Acv =

504 in.2

Page 3.4-134

(5.8.4.3)

(Eq. 5.8.4.1-6)

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Vui

=

45.4 k

= 50.4 k

0. 9

Vui

K2Acv

Check that

Where:

For

s

Vui =

45.4 k

0.9

K2 =

1.8 ksi

f'c =

7 ksi

Acv =

504 in.2

(5.8.4.3)

(Eq. 5.8.4.1-6)

Vui

=

45.4 k

= 50.4 k

0. 9

K2Acv

Vui

, use 50.4 k.

-3.17 in.

(Eq. i)

Since s < 0, no reinforcement is required for interface shear. Check the spacing required to

satisfy

s

1.33 Vui

:

-3.89 in.

(Eq. iii)

Again, no reinforcement is required. Check the minimum spacing required by Equation ii:

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-135

Design Guides

s

>

>

>

12A vf f y

(Eq. ii)

0.05 A cv

11.4 in.

Since the minimum amount of reinforcement required by Equations ii and iii is zero, no

reinforcement is required for interface shear transfer.

The required reinforcement spacing for strength is 29.0 in.

The maximum permitted reinforcement spacing is 24 in.

The minimum reinforcement area is based on a spacing of 47.8 in.

No reinforcement is required for interface shear transfer.

The controlling spacing at the critical section for shear is 24 in.

Longitudinal Reinforcement

d v (1 + cot ) + x face

L

<

(5.8.3.5)

0.2

Where:

dv =

73.86 in.

29.60 o

1680 in.

xface= 15 in.

d v (1 + cot ) + x face

73.86 in. 1 + cot 29.6 o + 15 in.

=

L

1680 in.

0.13

Therefore, the longitudinal reinforcement requirement needs not be checked. However, for

completeness, calculations are shown below.

Page 3.4-136

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Critical Section:

Assuming Nu = 0, Eq. 5.8.3.5-1 becomes:

A s f y + A ps fps

V

+ u Vp 0.5 Vs cot

dv f v

Mu

Where:

As

10.48 in.2

fy

60 ksi

Aps

2.448 in.2

fps

253.66 ksi

Mu

21428.4 k-in.

dv

73.86 in.

0.9

276 k

0.9

Vs

Vu

A v f y d v cot

s

Vu

v

Where:

Av =

0.40 in.2

fy

60 ksi

dv =

73.86 in.

29.6 o

11.4 in.

A v f y d v cot

s

Nov 2009

2

11.4 in.

Page 3.4-137

Design Guides

Vu

276 k

0. 9

= 306.67 k

Vs

273.72 k

Vp

41.06 k

29.6 o

A s fy + A ps fps

Mu

dv f

+ 0 .5

2

Nu Vu

+

Vp 0.5 Vs cot =

c v

21428.4 k in.

+ ( 306.67 k 41.06 k 0.5(273.72 k )) cot 29.6 o

(73.86 in.)(0.9)

548.6 k

OK

Face of Pier:

M u has been calculated to be 36770.4 k-in. at the pier face.

A s f y + A ps fps

V

+ u Vp 0.5 Vs cot

dv f v

Mu

Where:

As

10.48 in.2

fy

60 ksi

Aps

2.448 in.2

fps

253.66 ksi

Mu

36770.4 k-in.

Page 3.4-138

Nov 2009

Design Guides

dv

73.86 in.

0.9

290.8 k

0.9

Vs

Vu

A v f y d v cot

s

Vu

v

Where:

Av =

0.40 in.2

fy

60 ksi

dv =

73.86 in.

29.6 o

11.4 in.

A v f y d v cot

s

Vu

v

2

11.43 in.

290.8 k

0.9

= 323.11 k

Vs

273.72 k

Vp

A harped

fpx sin

ps

fpx

Vp

f pe l px

(Eq. 5.11.4.2-2)

60d b

60(0.5 in.)

83.82 ksi

15.99 k

29.6 o

A s fy + A ps fps

Nov 2009

2

Page 3.4-139

Design Guides

Mu

dv f

+ 0 .5

Nu Vu

+

Vp 0.5 Vs cot =

c v

+

15.99 k 0.5(273.72 k ) cot 29.6 o

(73.86 in.)(0.9) 0.9

852.9 k

OK

Vn shall be the lesser of Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp and

Vn =

0.25f'cbvdv + Vp

(Eq. 5.8.3.3-2)

Where:

f'c =

7 ksi

bv =

6 in.

dv =

73.86 in.

Vp =

41.06 k

Vn =

=

816.5 k

816.5 k > 485.6 k

Equation 5.8.3.3-2 does not control. The controlling spacing for strength at the critical section

for shear is based on Vc + Vs + Vp.

Page 3.4-140

Nov 2009

Design Guides

Pt.

along

span 1

Critical

Pt.

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Critical

Pt.

Pt.

along

span 2

x (ft.)

s (in.)

s (in.)

s (in.)

s (in.)

s (in.)

5.8.3.3-4

5.8.2.5-1

5.8.2.7

Eq.s i-iii

Governing

6.05

14.00

28.00

42.00

56.00

70.00

84.00

98.00

112.00

126.00

28.4

17.0

16.3

5367.0

24925.2

24829.2

73.6

27116.6

20.8

27.3

47.8

47.8

47.8

47.8

47.8

47.8

47.8

47.8

47.8

47.8

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

24.0

17.0

16.3

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

20.8

24.0

133.95

29.3

47.8

24.0

N/A

24.0

x (ft.)

s (in.)

s (in.)

s (in.)

s (in.)

s (in.)

5.8.3.3-4

5.8.2.5-1

5.8.2.7

Eq.s i-iii

Governing

Critical

Pt.

6.05

13.8

47.8

24.0

N/A

13.8

0.1

10.00

16.3

47.8

24.0

N/A

16.3

0.2

20.00

124.4

47.8

24.0

N/A

24.0

0.3

30.00

4443.7

47.8

24.0

N/A

24.0

0.4

40.00

138.4

47.8

24.0

N/A

24.0

0.5

50.00

25805.3

47.8

24.0

N/A

24.0

0.6

60.00

26086.6

47.8

24.0

N/A

24.0

0.7

70.00

4674.4

47.8

24.0

N/A

24.0

0.8

80.00

30687.8

47.8

24.0

N/A

24.0

0.9

Critical

Pt.

90.00

189.1

47.8

24.0

N/A

24.0

93.95

93.9

47.8

24.0

N/A

24.0

Nov 2009

Page 3.4-141

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