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Period 3

II. Objective

We are going to collect force and acceleration data for a cart as it is moved

back and forth. Compare force vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs.

Analyze a graph of force vs. acceleration. And determine the relationship

between force, mass, and acceleration. In order to better understand

Newtons second law.

III. Pre lab

a) When you push on an object, how does the magnitude of the force affect its

motion? If you push harder, is the change in motion smaller or larger? Do you

think this is a direct or inverse relationship?

When an object is pushed, the greater the magnitude of the force is, the

greater the acceleration will be. This is a direct relationship

b) Assume that you have a bowling ball and a baseball, each suspended from a

different rope. If you hit each of these balls with a full swing of a baseball bat,

which ball will change its motion by the greater amount?

The baseball will change its motion by the greater amount because mass and

acceleration are inversely proportional, the greater the mass the less

acceleration there will be.

c) In the absence of friction and other forces, if you exert a force, F, on a mass,

m, the mass will accelerate. If you exert the same force on a mass of 2m,

would you expect the resulting acceleration to be twice as large or half as

large? Is this a direct or inverse relationship?

The acceleration would be half as large, this is an inverse relationship.

IV. Materials

Computer

Vernier Computer Interface

Logger Pro

Vernier Low-g Accelerometer

Low-Friction dynamics cart

0.500 kg Mass

V. Procedures

a) Connect a Dual-Range Force Sensor to Channel 1 on the Vernier computer

interface. Connect the Low-g Accelerometer to Channel 2 on the interface.

b) Open the file 09 Newtons Second Law from the Physics with Vernier

folder.

c) Attach the Force Sensor to a dynamics cart so you can apply a horizontal

force to the hook, directed along the sensitive axis of your particular Force

Sensor. Next, attach the Accelerometer so the arrow is horizontal and

parallel to the direction that the cart will roll. Orient the arrow so that if

you pull on the Force Sensor the cart will move in the direction of the

arrow. Find the mass of the cart with the Force Sensor and Accelerometer

attached. Record the mass in the data table.

d) Place the cart on a level surface. Make sure the cart is not moving and

click zero. Check to make sure both sensors are highlighted and click

ok.

Trial I

e) You are now ready to collect force and acceleration data. Grasp the Force

Sensor hook. Click collect and take several seconds to move the cart

back and forth on the table. Vary the motion so that both small and large

forces are applied. Make sure that your hand is only touching the hook on

the Force Sensor and not the Force Sensor or cart body.

f) Note the shape of the force vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs.

Click the Examine button, and move the mouse across the force vs. time

graph. When the force is maximum, is the acceleration maximum or

minimum? To turn off Examine mode, click on the Examine button.

g) The graph of force vs. acceleration should appear to be a straight line. To

fit a straight line to the data, click on the graph, then click the Linear Fit

button. Record the equation for the regression line in the data table.

h) Print copies of each graph. Trial 2 9. Attach the 0.500 kg mass to the cart.

Record the mass of the cart, sensors, and additional mass in the data

table.

i) Repeat Steps 58.

VI. Data

Trial 1

b) Regression line for force vs. acceleration data: Y=0.5056x + 0.3448

Trial 2

b) Regression line for force vs. acceleration data: y=4.757x + 1.396

VII. Results

a) Compare the graphs of force vs. time and acceleration vs. time for a

particular trial. How are they different? How are they the same?

In trial 1 the acceleration was greater than the force; in trial 2 the force was

greater than the acceleration. Both the force vs time and acceleration vs time

graphs had the same trend for both trials.

b) Are the net force on an object and the acceleration of the object directly

proportional? Explain, using experimental data to support your answer.

Yes it is, when the force increases so does the acceleration which is why the

acceleration vs time graphs and force vs time graphs have the trend.

c) What are the units of the slope of the force vs. acceleration graph? Simplify

the units of the slope to fundamental units (m, kg, s).

The units are N/m/s2, Newtons per meter per second squared.

d) For each trial compare the slope of the regression line to the mass being

accelerated. What does the slope represent?

In trial 1 the slope of the regression line is smaller meaning it takes less force

to accelerate the object, in trial 2 the slope is larger meaning it takes more

force to accelerate the object. The slope is the relationship between

acceleration and force.

e) Write a general equation that relates all three variables: force, mass, and

acceleration.

F=ma

VII. Conclusion

The physics concepts applied were Newtons second law, force, mass, and

acceleration. The objective of the lab was met as we were able to collect force and

acceleration data for a cart as it is moved back and forth, compare force vs. time

and acceleration vs. time graphs analyze a graph of force vs. acceleration, and

determine the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration. This helped us to

learn that mass and acceleration are inversely proportional while force and

acceleration are directly proportional. While performing this lab there were no

problems and we were able to collect the data smoothly.

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