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Analysisanddesignofprestressedconcreteboxgirderbridge

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Analysisanddesignofprestressedconcreteboxgirderbridge
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By
Miss.P.R.Bhivgade
Abstract:Bridgeconstructiontodayhasachievedaworldwidelevelofimportance.BridgesarethekeyelementsinanyroadnetworkUseofboxgirderisgaining
popularityinbridgeengineeringfraternitybecauseofitsbetterstability,serviceability,economy,aestheticappearanceandstructuralefficiency.Thestructural
behaviorofboxgirderiscomplicated,whichisdifficulttoanalyzeinitsactualconditionsbyconventionalmethods.Inpresentstudyatwolanesimplysupported
BoxGirderBridgemadeupofprestressedconcretewhichisanalysisformovingloadsasperIndianRoadCongress(IRC:6)recommendations,PrestressedCode
(IS:1343)andalsoasperIRC:18specifications.TheanalyzedofboxgirderusingSAP200014BridgeWizardandprestressedwithparabolictendonsinwhich
utilizefullsection.Thevariousspan/depthratioconsideredtogettheproportioningdepthatwhichstressescriteriaanddeflectioncriteriagetsatisfied.
Keywords:ConcreteBoxGirderBridge,PrestressForce,Eccentricity,PrestressLosses,Reinforcement,Flexurestrength,shearstrength,SAPModel.
I.INTRODUCTION
Prestressconcreteisideallysuitedfortheconstructionofmediumandlongspanbridges.EversincethedevelopmentofprestressedconcretebyFreyssinetinthe
early1930s,thematerialhasfoundextensiveapplicationintheconstructionoflongspanbridges,graduallyreplacingsteelwhichneedscostlymaintenancedueto
theinherentdisadvantageofcorrosionunderaggressiveenvironmentconditions.Oneofthemostcommonlyusedformsofsuperstructureinconcretebridgesis
precastgirderswithcastinsituslab.Thistypeofsuperstructureisgenerallyusedforspansbetween20to40m.TorIgirderbridgesarethemostcommon
exampleunderthiscategoryandareverypopularbecauseoftheirsimplegeometry,lowfabricationcost,easyerectionorcastingandsmallerdeadloads.Inthis
paperstudytheIndiaRoadLoadingconsideredfordesignofbridges,alsofactorwhichareimportanttodecidethepreliminarysizesofconcreteboxgirders.Also
consideredtheIRC:182000forPrestressedConcreteRoadBridgesandCodeofPracticeforPrestressedConcreteIndianStandard.AnalyzetheConcreteBox
GirderRoadBridgesforvariousspans,variousdepthandchecktheproportioningdepth.
II.FORMULATION
A.LoadingonBoxGirderBridge
Thevarioustypeofloads,forcesandstressestobeconsideredintheanalysisanddesignofthevariouscomponentsofthebridgearegiveninIRC6:2000(Section
II.Butthecommonforcesareconsideredtodesignthemodelareasfollows:
DeadLoad(DL):Thedeadloadcarriedbythegirderorthememberconsistsofitsownweightandtheportionsoftheweightofthesuperstructureandanyfixed
loadssupportedbythemember.Thedeadloadcanbeestimatedfairlyaccuratelyduringdesignandcanbecontrolledduringconstructionandservice.
SuperimposedDeadLoad(SIDL):Theweightofsuperimposeddeadloadincludesfootpaths,earthfills,wearingcourse,stayinplaceforms,ballast,water
proofing,signs,architecturalornamentation,pipes,conduits,cablesandanyotherimmovableappurtenancesinstalledonthestructure.
LiveLoad(LL):Liveloadsarethosecausedbyvehicleswhichpassoverthebridgeandaretransientinnature.Theseloadscannotbeestimatedprecisely,andthe
designerhasverylittlecontroloverthemoncethebridgeisopenedtotraffic.However,hypotheticalloadingswhicharereasonablyrealisticneedtobeevolvedand
specifiedtoserveasdesigncriteria.Therearefourtypesofstandardloadingsforwhichroadbridgesaredesigned.
i.IRCClass70Rloading
ii.IRCClassAAloading
iii.IRCClassAloading
iv.IRCClassBloading
ThemodelisdesignbyconsideringIRCClassAloading,whichisnormallyadoptedonallroadsonwhichpermanentbridgesandculvertsareconstructed.Total
loadis554,theFig.1showthecompletedetailsofClassA.

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OtherinformationregardingLiveloadcombinationasperIRC:62000ClauseNo.207.1NoteNo.4
B.ThicknessofWeb
Thethicknessofthewebshallnotbelessthand/36plustwicetheclearcovertothereinforcementplusdiameteroftheductholewheredistheoveralldepthof
theboxgirdermeasuredfromthetopofthedeckslabtothebottomofthesoffitor200mmplusthediameterofductholes,whicheverisgreater.
C.ThicknessofBottomFlange
Thethicknessofthebottomflangeofboxgirdershallbenotlessthan1/20thoftheclearwebspacingatthejunctionwithbottomflangeor200mmwhicheveris
more.
D.ThicknessofTopFlange
Theminimumthicknessofthedeckslabincludingthatatcantilevertipsbe200mm.Fortopandbottomflangehavingprestressingcables,thethicknessofsuch
flangeshallnotbelessthan150mmplusdiameterofducthole.
E.LossesinPrestress
Whileassessingthestressesinconcreteandsteelduringtensioningoperationsandlaterinservice,dueregardshallbepaidtoalllossesandvariationsinstress
resultingfromcreepofconcrete,shrinkageofconcrete,relaxationofsteel,theshortening(elasticdeformation)ofconcreteattransfer,andfrictionandslipof
anchorage.
Incomputingthelossesinprestresswhenuntensionedreinforcementispresent,theeffectofthetensilestressesdevelopedbytheuntensionedreinforcementdueto
shrinkageandcreepshallbeconsidered.
F.CalculationofUltimateStrength
Ultimatemomentresistanceofsections,underthesetwoalternativeconditionsoffailureshallbecalculatedbythefollowingformulaeandthesmallerofthetwo
valuesshallbetakenastheultimatemomentofresistancefordesign:
i.Failurebyyieldofsteel(underreinforcedsection)
Mult=0.9dbAsFp
Where,
As=theareaofhightensilesteel
Fp=theultimatetensilestrengthforsteelwithoutdefiniteyieldpointoryieldstressorstressat4percentelongationwhicheverishigherforsteelwithadefinite
yieldpoint.
db=thedepthofthebeamfromthemaximumcompressionedgetothecentreofgravityofthesteeltendons.
ii.Failurebycrushingconcrete
Mult=0.176bdb2fck
Where,
b=thewidthofrectangularsectionorwebofbeam
fck=characteristicsstrengthofconcrete
G.CalculationofSectionuncrackedinflexure

b=widthinthecaseofrectangularmemberandwidthoftheribinthecaseofT,IandLbeams
d=overalldepthofthemember
fcp=compressivestressatcentroidalaxisduetoprestresstakenaspositive.
III.ANALYSISANDDESIGNOFPOSTTENSIONEDDECKTYPEBOXGIRDERBRIDGE
AposttensioneddecktypeBoxGirder
Bridgesofclearspan30mandwidthofroadwayis7.5m.AssumeLiveLoadasperIRC:62000vehicleispassingoverdeckgiveninchapter4andtableno.4.2.
TheBridgeanalysisfordifferentL/dratiostartingfrom15to20anddifferentL/dratioconsideredareasfollows:
Case1L/d=19,d=1.6
Case2L/d=18,d=1.7
Case3L/d=17,d=1.8
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Case4L/d=16,d=1.9
Case5L/d=15,d=2.0
Preliminarydata
Clearspan=30m
Widthofroadway=7.5m
Overhangfromfaceofgirder=1.2m
Deckthickness=0.2m
Bottomslabthickness=0.2m
Girderthickness=0.3m
Thetendonprofileisconsideredasparabolicinnature.
AsperIRC:182000
fck=50Mpa,fci=0.8fck=40Mpa,
fct=0.5fci=20Mpa,fcw=0.33fck=16.5Mpaft=1/10fct=2.0Mpa,ftw=0
AsperIS:13431980
Ec=5700fck1/2=40.30kN/m2
fp=1862Mpa,n=0.85,E=2105Mpa

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ValidationofResuts
Thebendingmoment,shearforceanddeflectionresultobtainedbySAP2000.Thebendingmomentandshearforcearecalculatedbyconsideringdifferentloading
conditionsuchasdeadload,liveloadandsuperimposedload.Sameasdeflectioncalculated.ThisresultsaretheCase:1.
Table.1Deflection
LoadCase

DL+
SIDL

Live Prestressing
Load Force

Deflection(at
30.8mm 25.2
midspan)

14.36mm

mm
Table.2BendingMoment(t.m)
Span
0.0L
(m)

0.1L

0.2L

0.3L

0.4L

0.5L

DL

0.00 353.56 628.56 824.98 942.84 982.12

LL

0.00 218.76 381.63 494.10 564.85 587.82

SIDL

0.00

53.46

95.04 124.74 142.56 148.50

Total

0.00 625.78 1105.23 1443.82 1650.26 1718.45


Table.3ShearForce(t)

Span
0.0L
(m)

0.1L

0.2L 0.3L 0.4L

0.5L

DL

130.9 104.7 78.57 52.4 26.3

0.0

LL

32.92 23.29 14.27 7.42 2.62

0.0

SIDL 19.80 15.84 11.88 7.92 3.90

0.0

Total 183.6 143.9 104.7 67.7 32.8

0.0

Table.4CalculationofPrestressForce

Table.5CalculationofEccentricity
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Eccentricity Prestressing
(mm)
Force(kN)
440

21617.96

548

19380.69

650

17655.06

731

16489.15

Theeccentricity
whichgive
minimum
prestressingforce
(e)=731mm

Table.6CalculationofPrestressLosses
(AsperIS:13431980)
Span
(m)

^S ^C ^E ^A ^F ^R Total

0.0L

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

90

0.1L

2.6 2.3 78

9.7

90 182.6 0.9

2.6 2.4 39

22

90 155.8 0.91

0.2L
0.3L

8E
05

90

0.95

2.6 2.4 26 36.7 90 157.7 0.91

0.4L

2.7 2.5 20 54.3 90 169.0 0.9

0.5L

9.1 8.3 16 171 90 294.0 0.85

Where,
^S=Shrinkage
^C=Creep
^E=Shorteningofconcrete
^A=Slipinanchorage
^F=Friction
^R=Relaxation
n=Efficiency
AfterLosses,effectivePrestressingForce
(P)=P(1Losses)=14011.51kN
Table.7CalculationofStressesattopandbottomfibre
AtTransfer
Span
(m)

AtServiceLoad

Top
Fibre

Bottom
fibre

Top
fibre

Bottom
Fibre

0.0L

4.16

4.16

4.16

4.16

0.1L

2.98

5.48

6.35

0.00

0.2L

1.91

6.67

8.37

0.00

0.3L

2.112

6.44

7.46

0.00

0.4L

2.24

6.29

6.88

0.00

0.5L

3.00

6.24

6.42

0.00

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CompressiveStressat
Transfer=6.66<0.5fcj=20mpa
Service=8.367<0.33fck=16.5mpa
Tensilestressat
InitialStage=2.979<3mpa
(AsperIS:13431980)
WorkingStage=Notensilestress
Table.8CalculationofUltimateFlexureStrength
Failureby Failureby
UltimateMoment
Span
yieldingof crushing
Mu=(1.5DL+2.5
(m)
steel
ofconcrete
LL)(kN.m)
(kN.m)
(kN.m)
0.0L

0.00

0.1L

11574.43

0.2L

20394.85

0.3L

26598.28

0.4L

30402.45

0.5L

31654.88

340578.53 5970560

Table.9CalculationofUltimateShearstrength
Span Ultimate Shear Balance Spacing
(m) Moment capacity Shear
(mm)
Vu=
Vcw
(kN)
(1.5DL (kN)
+2.5LL)
(kN.m)
0.0L

3084.27 363.85 2720.43

55

0.1L

2391.35 419.97 1971.38

75

0.2L

1713.50 432.54 1280.96

100

0.3L

1089.90 470.56

619.34

200

0.4L

517.85

492.95

24.90

300

0.5L

0.00

0.00

0.00

DesignofReinforcementinBoxGirderBridge
P=14011.51kN,d=1350mm,bw=200mm
Assume150mmwideand150mmdeepdistributionplate,locatedconcentricallyatcentre.
ypo/y0=75/150=0.5,
AsperIRC:182000,FromtablevalueofFbst/Pk=0.17andFbst=452.753kN
Using12mmdiameterlinks,areaofsteellinksare,
Ast=1254mm/2
Providing24barsof12mmdia,750mmalsobarof12mmdia@110mmc/chorizontallytoformmesh.
SideFaceReinforcement
Asperclause18.6.3.3ofIS:13431980
Ast=0.05x1350x300/100=202.5mm/2
Provide612mmdiaoneachfaceofweb

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DesignofDeckSlab
UsingM30gradeconcreteandFe415
TotalmomentduetoDL+SIDL+LL=1427.0kN.m
Depthrequired=150.4<250mm
MainReinforcement
Ast=3192.6824mm/2
Providing16mmbarsdia100mmc/c
DesignofTransverseReinforcement
M=0.3ML+0.2(MDL+MSIDL)
M=324kN.m
Ast=724.74mm/2
Providing12mmdiabars@160mmc/c

IV.COMPARSIONOFRESULTFORVARIOUSSPAN/DEPTHRATIO
Thecomparisonofprestressforce,deflectionandstressesvaluesareobtainedforvariousspan/depthratio(tableno.10&11)forboxgirderbridge.Thevaluesare
calculatedasperIS:13431980.
Table.10ComparisonofDeflectionforvariousspan/depthratio.
Deflection
Prestress
Eccentricity
Span/Depth Force
(mm)
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(kN)

DL DL+LL
Prestress

Force Prestress
Force

1.6

16.48

731

11.2

36.4

1.7

15.66

777

11.4

33.6

1.8

14.83

829

30

1.9

14.02

886

6.6

26.6

2.0

13.20

950

5.6

25.3

Note:Alldimensionintonnesandmm.
Permissible(DLPrestressForce)=12mm
Permissible(DLLLPrestressForce)=85.7mm
Table.11Comparisonofstressforvariousspan/depthratio

Eccen
Span/
Depth

Stressatmidspan
(N/mm2)

Prestress
Tricity
Force
(tonne)

(mm)

AtTransfer

At
Working

Top Bottom

Top

1.6

16.48

731

3.0

4.1

6.74

1.7

15.66

777

2.8

3.8

6.33

1.8

14.83

829

2.6

3.6

5.91

1.9

14.02

886

2.4

3.4

5.48

2.0

13.20

950

2.2

3.2

5.08

Note:Stressatmidspanatworkingbottom=0
V.CONCLUSION
Thispapergivesbasicprinciplesforportioningofconcreteboxgirdertohelpdesignertostartwithproject.Boxgirdershowsbetterresistancetothetorsionof
superstructure.ThevarioustrailofL/dratioarecarriedoutforBoxGirderBridges,deflectionandstresscriteriasatisfiedthewellwithinpermissiblelimits.Asthe
depthincreases,theprestressingforcedecreasesandtheno.ofcablesdecrease.Becauseofprestressingthemorestrengthofconcreteisutilizedandalsowell
governsserviceability.
VI.REFERENCES
1.IRC:182000DESIGNCRITERIAFORPRESTRESSEDCONCRETEROADBRIDGES(POSTTENSIONEDCONCRETE)THEINDIANROADS
CONGRESS.
2.IRC:62000STANDARDSPECIFICATIONSANDCODEOFPRACTICEFORROADBRIDGESTHEROADCONGRESS.
3.IS:13431980CODEOFPRACTICEFORPRESTRESSEDCONCRETEINDIANSTANDARD.
4.AndrePicardandBrunoMassicotte,MemberSERVICEABILITYDESIGNOFPRESTRESSEDCONCRETEBRIDGESJOURNALOFBRIDGE
ENGINEERING/FEBRUARY1999
5.FerhatAkgulandDanM.FrangopolLifetimePerformanceAnalysisofExistingPrestressedConcreteBridgeSuperstructuresJOURNALOFSTRUCTURAL
ENGINEERINGASCE/DECEMBER2004
6.JamesH.Loper,1EugeneL.Marquis,2MembersandEdwardJ.RhombergFellow.PRECASTPRESTRESSEDLONGSPANBRIDGESJOURNALOF
STRUCTURALENGINEERINGASCE
7.JohnR.Fowler,P.Eng,BobStofko,P.Eng.PrecastOptionsforBridgeSuperstructureDesignEconomicalandSocialLinkagesSessionofthe2007Annual
ConferenceoftheTransportationAssociationofCanadaSaskatoon,Saskatchewan.
8.KrishnaRajuDESIGNOFBRIDGESOXFORD&IBHPUBLISHINGCO.PVT.LTD.
9.Prof.Dr.Ing.G.RombachConceptsforprestressedconcretebridgesSegmentalboxgirderbridgeswithexternalprestressingTechnicalUniversity,Hamburg
Harburg,Germany.
10.TusharV.Ugale,BhaveshA.PatelandH.V.Mojidra(2006).
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Weatengineeringcivil.comarethankfultoEr.PriyankaBhivgadeforsubmittingherresearchonAnalysisanddesignofprestressedconcreteboxgirderbridge
tous.Wearehopefulthatthiswillbeofgreatusetoallcivilengineerswhoarewillingtounderstandthedesignofprestressedconcreteboxgirder.

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Comments
HameedAjmalSheikhMay7,2013at12:47am
ItisveryusefulinformationfordesignengineersespeciallyBridgeDesignengineer.IshallbethankfulifyoucouldsendmetheExcelsheetsforthisdesign
asIintendtouseitinnearfuture.Thanksandregards
Engr.HameedASheikh
ReplyLinkQuote
YosephAsratJuly9,2013at5:19am
Igotmoreinformationfromthedocumentsaboutbridgedesign.IfusendmemoreotherinformationaboutbridgedesignorotherrelateddocumentsI
developmyknowledgeforthefuture.Thanksforyourcooperation.
Eng.YosephAsrat.
ReplyLinkQuote
SharmaRLSeptember6,2013at11:10am
http://www.engineeringcivil.com/analysisanddesignofprestressedconcreteboxgirderbridge.html

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Ifinditveryinterestingandknowledgeable.
Kindlysendmoreinformation,Excelsheetsandotherrelevantdetails
Thanks
SharmaRL
ReplyLinkQuote
SHOAIBAHMEDDecember10,2014at8:48pm
ItisveryusefulinformationfordesignengineersespeciallyBridgeDesignengineer.IshallbethankfulifyoucouldsendmetheExcelsheetsforthisdesign
asIintendtouseitinnearfuture.Thanksandregards
Engr.SHOAIBAHMED
ReplyLinkQuote
Md.NurulAminFebruary24,2015at11:56am
ItisveryusefulinformationfordesignengineersespeciallyBridgeDesignengineer.ItwillbemorehelpfulifthetheExcelsheetsforthisdesignis
attached.Withthanksandregards
Engr.Md.NurulAmin
ReplyLinkQuote
BhandariJitendraPMarch21,2016at7:01am
FoundveryGoodinformation.ButisitpossibleforUnderandOverpassBoxCulvertForPScBoxgirder.
ReplyLinkQuote
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