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, 2003


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1899 (
), 1864, .
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Corpus Juris Civilis


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1835 111 .
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Corpus Juris Civilis, ,
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1940-41 23 1946, ,

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. , (aequitas),
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de facto, de iure, casus belli, status quo, persona
non grata.
: dura lex sed lex,
pacta sunt servanda, nullum crimen nulla poena sine lege, summus ius summa iniuria.
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Jean Gaudemet,
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________________________

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1.
.
Institutiones ,
161 ..,
,
. ,

.
.
:
, , ,
. (ius quod ad
personas pertinet)

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. (ius quod ad res pertinet)

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res incorporales) ,
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: ,
,
.

. (res) :
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.

8
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.
( 947 .1).
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, ) , ,
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. (res immobiles), , .
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. (praedia urbana) ,
. (praedia rustica)
.
3. ,
:
. .
.
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. (res sanctae). A
,
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9
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. (res religiosae). A
,


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( res publicae ),
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10
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. (genus) , (res fungibiles),


, ,
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. (universitas rerum)

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universitas rerum universitas iuris,
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14
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(31 ..) ,
, ,
dominium ex iure Quiritium.
:
. (Quirites),
.
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civile.
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15
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ius civile,
res mancipi
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16
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922
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22
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, ,
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1003 1032
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1024 .
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23
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mancipatio in iure cessio,
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,
mancipatio in iure cessio
) ius gentium

(traditio).
.
1. ius civile:
ius civile,
:

24
3:
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i.

mancipatio,
res mancipi,
.

ii.

H in iure cessio,

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K ,

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Oligatio auctoritatis:
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res nec mancipi.
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mancipi, ()

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25
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. .
(iusta causa titulus
),
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26
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(
,
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1078-1080.
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1076

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27
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28
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superficies solo cedit.


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29
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( 1069-1071).

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30
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1061

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31
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, ,
, 1063 .

5. (Usucapio)

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.
.

ius civile, .

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.
,
.

auctoritas .
:

32
3:
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o res religiosae: .

,
.
o (limes)
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o Res mancipi
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o ,
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o ius civile
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(iusta causa) (bona fides).
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. :
res mancipi
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:
,
,
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.
(res sacrae), (res
religiosae) .

33
3:
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.
(fiscus).
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.
( 1054 ),
, (1055 ),
, , , .
. :
(usta causa iustus titulus
usucapionis) ,
ius civile, :
) ,
) (.. ).
,
, : usucapio pro emptore
(), pro herede (), pro legato (), pro dote
(), pro donato (), pro derelicto ( ),
pro suo (
iusta causa).
, ,
(traditio):
i.

(usucapio pro emptore). res


mancipi ,
,
,
. .. res mancipi
, res mancipi (traditio),
ius civile
.

ii.

(usucapio pro donato).

iii.

(usucapio pro dote), .

34
3:
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iv.

(usucapio pro soluto).

v.

(usucapio pro legato),


.

() ,
,
, :
i.

(usucapio pro derelicto),


,
.

ii.

(usucapio pro herede).


,
.

vi.

pro suo
() .

, 1041 ( ),
, ,
, .

. (titulus putativus):
,
, ,
. ..: ,
. , ,
.

, .
,
( 1043). ,
,
.

35
3:
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IV. (fides-bona fides) :


,
, ius civile,
, .
,
.
, : mala fides
superveniens non nocet.
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, ,
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,
, (1042).
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VI.
,

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.
.
,
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36
3:
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,
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, (1048 ),
,
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1051
,
.
. (longi temporis praescriptio)
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, 20 ,
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.

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peregrini, . ,


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rescriptum M. / 40
, ,
, .

37
3:
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, , , (
1045) 20 , .
.
. Usucapio
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. (longi
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), 20 ( ).
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30 , , ,
40 .
,
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, .
,
( 1041 ).
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(adiudicatio), ) , )
) .

38
4:
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4:
,
( ) (partes
indivisae), , ..
, , ..
. ,
.
1. .

consortium societas ercto non cito,
paterfamilias.
,
,
, .

.
.. ,
, mancipatio.

,
actio familiae eciscundae.
,
.
.
2. .

ius civile.
, ,
res mancipi traditio,
.

39
4:
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(.. ).

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4 ,

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4:
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,
.
.
,
.
.
(servus communis) ius civile. ,

(ius adcrescendi).
3.
consortium ercto non cito , ,
, ,
, actio familiae erciscundae.
, ,
(actio
communi dividundo) .
formula
,
(iudicia
duplica),
.
(), :
) ,
() (partes)
(adiudicatio)
,
) ,

, ,
)
.
, 793 ,
,

41
4:
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. 786
.

42
5:
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5: (Possessio)
(possessio),
, ,
.

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1. .

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,
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ager publicus, o

,
.
, , 2 . ..,
, (interdicta).

43
5:
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H (clientes)
(precario),
ager publicus.
2.
, :
(corpus), ,
,
.
(animus), ,
.
, ,
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,
, (
possessio naturalis- ).
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,
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, :
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,
.
. Possessio naturalis:
,
,
, .
, ,
( ), , ,
, .

44
5:
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. Possessio ad interdicta : interdicta


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45
5:
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, ,
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4.

,
. :
. (possesio civilis), .
,
. animus.
. (possessio naturalis),
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.
5.
corpus animus,
:
( ) .
1) , corpus:

. ,
.
corpus.
:
,
:
. :
) (longa manu traditio).

46
5:
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: ,
.. .
, .

K: ,
, .. ,

,
( ).

. :
) (brevi manu traditio).
-

,
, . , ..,
.

) (constitutum possessorium).
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O ,
(.. ),
. constitutum possessorium

.

2) , animus :
,
.
( ),
. ,
, ,
. animus
,
.
, . , ,
, .
(procurator),
, .
, ,
.

47
5:
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6.
corpus animus,
.
:
() (
, animus ,
,
), .
( animus)
.

,
. O
, ,
, ,
.
7.

, animus,
. :
,
.
,
,
.
(.. )
,
animo,
.
animo ( )
corpore ( ).
,
corpore .
.

48
5:
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, .
, .

, , .
, ( 974-988)
, .
corpus animus (
974).
( 976)
( 977).
978,
,
,
.
( 981),
.
,
, ,
,
( 993).
______________________

49
6:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6:
1. (rei vindicatio)
(rei vindicatio) ,
( ) ,

, .
. Legis actio sacramento in rem
,
, legis actio sacramento in rem, o
(legis actiones).
,
. ,
(vindicatio) (contravindicatio)
.
,
. ,
,

.
.
,
,
.
. Rei vindicatio
legis actio sacramento in rem .

,
ius civile .
, ,
, per formulam.
,
( res mancipi
),
. A
, ius

50
6:
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civile.
.
(rei vindicatio) : )
rei vindicatio per sponsionem ) rei vindicatio per formulam petitoriam.
,
,
.
.
, , ,

.
i.

Rei vindicatio per sponsionem

,
, .
(sponsio),
25
, .
(actio in personam),
.
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.
,
, ,
. ,
, .
,
.
ii.

Rei vindicatio per formulam petitoriam

, ,
.
, . ,
,
,
. .

51
6:
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2. .
. ius civile .
.

(. )
.
,
, .
,
. , ,
probatio diabolica, ( ),

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.

,
.
. ( ).

,
.

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, (.. ,
, ).
) .

,

.

:

52
6:
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, .

.
,
:
i. ,
)

, , )
,
(actio ad exhibendum).
ii. :
,
, interdictum quem fundum,
.
iii.

, (manu militari).
,
.

3.
(restituti)
.
,
(cum omni causa) ,
:
.
:
i.


(-litis contestatio) ,

53
6:
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ii.

,

,

iii.

( ,
,
).

,
,
, ,
.

. (impensae)
:
i.

A (necessariae),

,
(utiles),

ii.

(voluptuariae),
.



.

,

.

.
,
, .
,

54
6:
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,
.

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(, , ),
, ,
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( 1101-1107).

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:
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.
,

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.
..,
(
1100),
.
( 1098).
, ,
(
1099).

55
6:
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4. (actio publiciana)
H Publicius,
.
,
. :
(traditio) ()
res mancipi
.


.
actio publiciana
,
.
.

. per
formulam petitoriam.
, (probatio diabolica)
.
.. ,
( 1112).

5. A (actio negatoria)
,
, (actio negatoria).

ius civile
, .
ius
civile , , .,
( )
.

56
6:
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O A.K.
, ,
( 1108).
7:

, (interdicta).

.
:
. (interdicta retinendae possessionis)
. (interdicta recuperandae possessionis)

. :
1. interdictum uti possidetis ( )
, .
,

, , , (vi, clam,
precario).
(duplex):
,
.
,
.
,
,
, .
2. T interdictum utrubi ( )

. ,
.

57
7:
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, , ,

,
, .
,
, .
interdictum
.
o interdictum uti possidetis utrubi, , uti
possidetis,
.

:
,
.

. (interdicta recuperandae possessionis)


2. (interdictum unde vi),
:
. (interdictum de vi cottidiana).
,
,
( , , ).
,
.

.
. (interdictum de vi armata).
To ,
,


.
,

58
7:
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(, ). ,

.
,
.
3. interdictum de precario
(precario)
, , ,
.
4. nterdictum de clandestine possessione
(clam)
, ,
, .
, ,
interdicta.
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984).
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., , , 1973.
., , , , 1989.
Dernburg E., , ., ,
, , 1912.
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1911.
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2004.
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., , -, 2000.

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..................................................................... 1
1. ...................................................... 7
2: ........................................................................................ 13
1. .......................................... 13
2. ............................................................... 16
3. .................................................................................. 17
. ................................................. 18
. . ........................................................ 19
. . ............................... 20
3: ................................................................ 23
. .............................................................. 23
1. ius civile: ............................................................................................. 23
2. ius gentium:......................................................................................... 24
. () ........................................ 25
1. (occupatio)....................................................................................... 25
2. ..................................................................................................... 27
3. (accessio) ........................................................................... 27
4. ........................................................................................................... 30
5. (Usucapio) ................................................................................... 31
6. . ......................................................................................................... 37
4: ....................................................................................... 38
1. . ............................................. 38
2. . ................................................... 38
3. ...................................................................................... 40
5: (Possessio) ................................................................................. 42
1. ............... 42
2. .......................................................................... 43
3. :.......................................... 43
. Possesio civilis: .................................................................... 43
. Possessio naturalis: ....................................................................... 43
. Possessio ad interdicta : interdicta........ 44
4. ...................................................................... 45
5. ............................................................................. 45
6. ............................................................... 47
7. .................................................................................................. 47
6: .................................................................. 49
1. (Rei vindicatio) ............................................................. 49
. Legis actio sacramento in rem................................................................... 49
. Rei vindicatio............................................................................................. 49
2. . ......... 51
3. ..................................................................... 52

. .............................................................................. 52
. (impensae) .................................................................................. 53
. ..................................................... 54
4. (actio publiciana) .............................................................. 55
5. A (actio negatoria) ...................................................................... 55
7: ........................................................................... 56
. :.............................................. 56
. (interdicta recuperandae possessionis)57