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Name : Irfan bin Imran ( 14 )

Class : 4E3

Date : 6/7/2014

Terms
Definition
Corrected Definition
THEME 1 - Chapter 1 MEASUREMENT
Physical quantity
A physical quantity is a quantity that can be
measured. It consists of a numerical
magnitude and a unit.
Oscillation of a
simple pendulum

Each complete to and fro motion of the


pendulum is one oscillation.

Period of a simple
pendulum

The period of a simple pendulum is the time


taken for one complete oscillation.

Frequency of a
simple pendulum

The frequency of a pendulum is the number


of complete oscillations made by the
pendulum per second.
THEME 1 - Chapter 2 KINEMATICS
Distance
Distance is the total length traveled
irrespective of the direction.
Displacement

Displacement is the length from a reference


point to another point in a certain direction.

Scalar

Scalar quantities are physical quantities that


have magnitude only.

Vector

Vector quantities are physical quantities that


have both magnitude and direction.

Speed

Speed is the distance moved per unit time/


Rate change of distance.

Velocity

Velocity is the rate change of displacement.

Acceleration

Acceleration is the rate change of velocity.

Free fall

An object is in free fall if the only force


acting on it is due to its weight.
Terminal velocity
An object falling through air achieves
terminal velocity when its weight is equal to
the air resistance against it.
THEME 1 - Chapter 3 FORCES
Newtons first law Newtons first law of motion states that an
of motion
object will continue in its state of rest or
uniform/ constant motion in a straight line/
linear manner, unless acted upon by an
external force.
Newtons second
Newtons second law of motion states that
law of motion
for an object with a constant mass, the net
external force acting on the object, is equal
to the product of its mass and acceleration in
the direction of the external force.
Newtons third law Newtons third law of motion states that for
of motion
ever action, there is an equal and opposite
reaction.
Friction
Friction is the contact force that oppose or
tends to oppose motion between surfaces
that are in contact.

Tension

Tension is a pulling force exerted by a string


when it is taut.

THEME 1 - Chapter 4 MASS, WEIGHT AND DENSITY


Mass
Mass is the amount of substance in an
object.
Weight

The weight of an object, is the gravitational


force acting on the object.

Gravitational field

A gravitational field is the region in which


a mass experience a force due to
gravitational attraction.
Gravitational field strength ( g ) is defined
as the gravitational force acting per unit
mass.

Gravitational field
strength

Gravitational force Gravitational force is the force that exist


between two masses.
Inertia
Density

The inertia of an object is the reluctance of


an object to change in its state of rest or
motion, due to its mass.
The density of an object, is defined as its
mass per unit volume

THEME 1 - Chapter 5 TURNING EFFECT OF FORCES


Moments
The moment of a force ( or torque ) is the
product of the force F and the perpendicular
distance d from the pivot to the line of action
of the force.
Principle of
The principle of moments states that an
moments
object is in equilibrium if the sum of
clockwise moments and the sum of anticlock wise moments about a fixed point, is
equal
Center of gravity
The centre of gravity of any object is
defined as the point through which its whole
weight appears to act on.
Stability

The stability of an object is the measure of


its ability to return to its original position
after it is slightly displaced.
THEME 1 - Chapter 6 ENERGY, WORK AND POWER
Energy
Energy is the ability to do work.
Kinetic energy

Kinetic energy is the energy an object


possess due to its motion

Gravitational
potential energy

Gravitational potential energy is the


energy an object possess due to its position
in a gravitational field/ due its height from
the ground.

Potential energy

Potential energy is the stored energy in a


system

Principle of
conservation of
energy

The principle of conservation of energy


states that energy cannot be created nor
destroyed, but can only be converted from
one form to another and the total energy is
an isolated system is a constant.

Elastic potential
energy

Elastic potential energy is the energy stored


in a body due to its elastic deformation.

Chemical potential
energy

Chemical potential energy is the energy


stored in a substance due to the position of
the atoms or electrons in the substance.

Work done

Work done by a constant force on an object


is the product of the force and the distance
moved by the object in the direction of the
force.

Power

Power is defined as the rate of work done or


the rate of energy conversion.

THEME 1 - Chapter 7 PRESSURE


Pressure
Pressure is defined as the force acting per
unit area.
Pascals law/
Principle of
transmission of
fluid-pressure

Pascal law or principle of transmission of


fluid-pressure is a principle in fluid
mechanics that states that pressure exerted
anywhere in an confined/ enclosed and incompressible fluid, is transmitted equally in
all directions throughout the fluid

Atmospheric
pressure

Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted


on the Earths surface due to the weight of
air column above it.

THEME 2 - Chapter 8 TEMPERATURE


Temperature
Temperature refers to how hot or cold an
object it/ the degree of hotness of an object.
Temperature ( in
terms of molecular
energy )

Temperature is the measure of the average


kinetic energy of the molecules in an object.

Heat

Heat refers to the amount of thermal energy


that is being transferred from a hotter to a
cooler region.

Thermometric
property

A thermometric property is a physical


property that changes according to
temperature.

Ice point

The ice point is used as the lower fixed


point. It is the temperature of pure melting
ice at one atmosphere, and is assigned the
value 0C.

Steam point

The steam point is used as the upper fixed


point. It is the temperature of steam from
pure water boiling at one atmosphere, and is
assigned a value of 100C.

The precision of a
thermometer

The precision of a thermometer refers to


the smallest possible temperature difference
measured by the thermometer.

THEME 2- Chapter 9 KINETIC MODEL OF MATTER


Kinetic model of
The kinetic model of matter states that all
matter
matter is made of tiny particles that in
constant random motion.
Brownian motion

Brownian motion is the random an a


irregular motion of small particles in a fluid (
liquid or gas ).

THEME 2- Chapter 10 TRANSFER OF THERMAL ENERGY


Thermal energy
Thermal energy always flows from a region
of higher temperature to a region of lower
temperature. Net flow of thermal energy
occurs only when there is a difference in
temperature.
Thermal
Two objects that are in contact, is in thermal
equilibrium
equilibrium when they have the same
temperature and there is not net heat transfer
between the bodies.
Conduction

Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy


through a medium without any flow of the
medium.

Convection

Convection is the transfer of thermal energy


by means of convection currents in a fluid
( liquid or gas )/ bulk movement in a fluid,
due to a difference in density.

Radiation

Radiation is the transfer of thermal energy


in the form of electromagnetic waves such as
infrared radiation without the aid of a
medium.

THEME 2- Chapter 11 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER


Internal energy
The internal energy of an object comprises
of its total inter-molecular potential energy
and total molecular potential energy.
Internal kinetic
energy

Internal kinetic energy is due to the motion


of the particle.

Internal potential
energy

Internal potential energy is due to the


stretching and compression of the
interatomic or intermolecular bonds as
particles move.

Heat capacity

Heat capacity ( C ) is the amount of thermal


energy required to raise the temperature of a
substance by 1K or (1C).

Specific heat
capacity

Specific heat capacity ( c ) is defined as the


amount of thermal energy required to raise
the temperature of a unit mass ( eg : 1 Kg )
of a substance by 1K or (1C).

Latent heat

Latent heat is the energy released or


absorbed by a substance during a change of
state, without a change in its temperature.

Latent heat of
fusion

Latent heat of fusion, L, it the amount of


thermal energy required to change a
substance from the solid to the liquid state,
or vice versa, without a change in
temperature.
Specific latent heat of fusion, , of a
substance is the amount of thermal energy
required to change a unit mass ( e.g. 1Kg ) of
substance from the solid state to the liquid
state or vice versa, without a change in
temperature.
Latent heat of vapourisation, Lv , is the
amount of thermal energy required to change
a substance from liquid state to the gaseous
state or vice versa without a change in
temperature.
Specific latent heat of vaporization, v, of a
substance is the amount of thermal energy
required to change unit mass ( e.g. 1Kg ) of
the substance from liquid state to gaseous
state or vice versa, without a change in
temperature.

Specific latent heat


of fusion

Latent heat of
vaporization

Specific latent heat


of vaporization

THEME 3- Chapter 12 LIGHT


First law of
The first law of reflection states that the
reflection
incident ray, reflected ray and the normal at
the point of incidence all lie in the same
angle.
Second law of
The second of reflection states that the
reflection
angle of incidence i is equal to the angle of
reflection r ( i.e. i = r ).
Reflection

Reflection is the rebounding of light of a


surface.

Incident ray

Incident ray is the light ray that hits the


reflecting surface.

Point of incidence

The point of incidence is the point at which


the incident ray hits the reflecting surface.

Normal

Normal is the perpendicular to the reflecting


surface at the point of incidence.

Reflected ray

Reflected ray is the light ray that bounces


off the reflecting surface.

Angle of incidence

Angle of incidence is the angle between the


incident ray and the normal at the point of
incidence.

Angle of reflection

Angle of reflection is the angle between the


reflected ray and the normal at the point of
incidence.

Laterally inverted
image

Laterally inverted image is an image


whose left-hand side is the right-hand side of
the object and vice-versa.

Virtual image

Virtual image is an image that cannot be


captured on a screen, where light rays do not
meet at the image position.

Real image

Real image is an image that can be captured


on a screen, where light rays meet at the
image position.

Refraction

Refraction is the bending of light as it


travels from a medium to another of different
optical density due to the change in the
speed light.

First law of
refraction

The first law of refraction states that the


incident ray, the normal and the refraction
ray all lie in the same plane.

Second law of
refraction ( Snells
law )

The second law of refraction states that, for


two given media, the ratio of the sine of
angle of incidence i to the sine of the angle
of refraction r is a constant, i.e.

Refractive index

sin i
constant

sinof
r a medium is defined
The refractive index
as the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to
the speed of light in the medium.

Critical angle

The critical angle, c, is defined as the angle


of incidence in an optically denser medium
for which the angle of refraction in the
optically less dense medium 90.

Total internal
reflection

Total internal reflection is the complete


reflection of a light ray inside an optically
denser medium at its boundary with an
optically less dense medium.

Focal length

Focal length is the distance between the


optical centre C and the focal point F.

THEME 3- Chapter 13 WAVES


Periodic motion
Periodic motion is motion repeated at
regular intervals.
Transverse waves

-Transverse waves are waves that travel


perpendicular to the direction of the
vibration ( from textbook ).
-Particles in transverse waves vibrate in a
direction perpendicular to the direction of
wave motion ( from notes ).

Longitudinal waves -Longitudinal waves are waves that travel


parallel to the direction of the vibration.
( from textbook ).
-Particles in longitudinal waves vibrate in a
direction parallel to the wave motion. ( from
notes ).
The amplitude of a
wave

The amplitude A of a wave is the maximum


displacement of a point from its equilibrium
position.

Crest

A crest is the highest point of a transverse


wave.

Trough

A trough is the lowest point of a transverse


wave.

Wavelength

The wavelength, , of a wave is the shortest


distance between any two points in phase.

Period

The period T of a wave is the time taken to


produce one complete wave.

Frequency

The frequency of a wave is the number of


complete waves produced per second.

Wave speed

Wave speed v is the distance travelled by a


wave per second.

Wavefront

A wavefront is an imaginary line on a wave


that joints all adjacent points that are in
phase.

THEME 3- Chapter 14 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES


Ionising radiation
Ionising radiation is radiation that has
enough energy to remove electrons from
atoms or molecules, thus creating ions.
THEME 3- Chapter 15 SOUND
Sound
Sound is a form of energy that is transferred
from one point to another as longitudinal
wave.

A wavefront is an imaginary line which joins


all particles in a wave which are vibrating at
the same phase with each other.

Compression
Rarefactions

Compressions are regions where air


pressure is higher than the surrounding air
pressure.
Rarefactions are regions where air pressure
is lower than the surrounding air pressure.

Echo

An echo is the repetition of a sound due to


the reflection of sound from a surface.

Ultrasound

Ultrasound is sound with frequencies above


the upper limit of human range of audibility
which is above 20 kHz.

Infrasound

Infrasound is sound with frequencies below


the lower limit of human audibility which is
below 20kHz.

Range of audibility

The range of frequencies in which a person


can hear is known as the range of audibility
( 20 Hz to 20kHz ).
Pitch is related to the frequency of a sound
wave- the higher the frequency, the higher
the pitch.

Pitch

Loudness

Loudness is related to the amplitude of a


sound wave- the larger the amplitude, the
louder the sound.
THEME 4- Chapter 16 STATIC ELECTRICITY

Induction

Induction is the process of charging a


conductor and the charging body.

Electric force

An electric force is the attractive force or


repulsive force that electric charges exert on
one another.

Electric field

An electric field is a region in which an


electric charge experiences an electric force.

THEME 4- Chapter 17 CURRENT ELECTRICITY


Electric circuit
An electric circuit is a complete or closed
path through which electric charges can flow
from one terminal of an electrical source to
another, passing through one or more
electrical component.
Convectional
current
Electric current

Convectional current is in the opposite


direction to electron flow.

An electric current I, is the rate of flow of


electric charge Q.
Electromotive force The electromotive force ( e.m.f. ) of an
electrical source is the work done by the
source in driving a unit charge around a
complete circuit.

Potential difference The potential difference ( p.d.) across a


component in an electric circuit is the work
done to drive a unit charge through the
component.
Resistance

The resistance R of a component is the ratio


of the potential difference V across it to the
current I flowing through it.

Resistor

A resistor is a conductor in a circuit that is


used to control the size of the current
flowing in a circuit.

Ohms law

Ohms law states that the current passing


through a metallic conductor is directly
proportional to the potential difference
across it, provided that the external physical
conditions such as temperature remains
constant.

Resistivity

Resistivity is a property of the material that


is independent of the dimensions of the
material. Its SI unit is the m.

THEME 4- Chapter 18 D.C. CIRCUITS

Potential divider

A potential divider is a line of resistor


connected in series. It is used to provide a
fraction of the voltage of a source to another
part of the circuit.

Variable potential
difference

Variable potential dividers are potential


dividers that are used to vary the output
voltage from a source.

Input transducers

Input transducers are devices which


convert non-electrical energy into electrical
energy and vice versa.

Output
transducers

Output transducers are devices that convert


electrical energy into non- electrical energy. (
e.g : Loudspeaker, light-emitting diode( LED
) ).

THEME 4- Chapter 19 PRACTICAL ELECTRICITY


Renewable energy Renewable energy is defined as energy
from sources that can be replenished
naturally.
Non-renewable
Non- renewable energy is defined as energy
energy
from natural resources that cannot be
replenished at a sustainable rate.

Short circuit

When the terminals of an electrical source


are connected with wires without any
electrical component in a circuit, a very large
current will flow through the circuit as the
wires are of very low resistance

Function of fuse

When the current greater than the fuse rating


enters the fuse, the fuse will melt. This
immediately disconnects appliances from the
main power supply, creating an open circuit.
The current did not get the chance to enter
the appliance hence the appliance is
protected from being damaged by
overloading.

Live wire

The live wire allows current to pass from the


main power supply to appliances.

Earth wire

The earth wire provides an alternative path


for current to pass through from the metal
casing to the earth in case the metal casing
becomes live.
The neutral wire allows current to pass
from the appliance to main power supply.

Neutral wire

THEME 4- Chapter 20 MAGNETISM


Magnetic materials Magnetic materials are materials that can
be attracted to a magnet.
Non-magnetic
materials

Non-magnetic materials are materials that


cannot be attracted to a magnet.

Magnetic induction Magnetic induction is the process whereby


an object made of a magnetic material
becomes a magnet when it is near or in
contact with a magnet.
Magnetic domain
Magnetisation
Magnetic field

A magnetic domain consists of a group of


atomic magnets pointing in the same
direction.
Magnetisation is the process of aligning the
magnetic domain in a magnetic domain.

A magnetic field is the region surrounding a


magnet in which a body of magnetic material
experiences a magnetic force.
THEME 4- Chapter 21 ELECTROMAGNETISM
Motor effect
When a current-carrying conductor is placed
in a magnetic field, the conductor
experiences a force. This effect on the
conductor is called the motor effect.

THEME 4- Chapter 22 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION


Electromagnetic
Electromagnetic induction is the process
induction
through which an induced electromotive
force is produced in a conductor due to a
changing in the magnetic field.
Faradays law of
electromagnetic
induction

Faradays law of electromagnetic


induction states that the magnitude of the
induced electromagnetic flux in a circuit is
directly proportional to the changing in
magnetic flux linkage in the circuit.

Lenzs law

Lenzs law sates that the direction of the


induced electromotive force and hence the
induced current in a closed circuit, is always
such that its magnetic effect opposes the
motion or change producing it.

Magnetic flux

Magnetic flux is a measure of the quantity


of magnetism, being the total number of
magnetic field lines of force, passing through
a specified area in a magnetic field.

Transformer

A transformer is a device that can change a


high alternating voltage ( at a low current )
to a low alternating voltage ( at high
current ), or vice versa.

Eddy currents

Eddy currents are induced currents that


flow in little circles in the iron core. Such
currents will result in increased heat loss,
thus reducing the efficiency of the
transformer.