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INDIAN RAILWAYS INSTITUTE OF

SIGNAL ENGINEERING & TELECOMMUNICATIONS


SECUNDERABAD - 500 017

T-1
INTRODUCTION TO
S&T ORGANISATION

Issued in August 2008

T-1
INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION
CONTENTS
S.No

Chapter

Page No

Organization of Signal and Telecommunication Department

Books of Reference

Inspection

11

Role of Telecom in Disaster Management

16

Prepared by

Vivek Chakraverty, LT2

Scrutinized by

P.V. Sreekanth, Professor - Tele

Approved by

V.K.Goyal, Sr. Professor - Tele

DTP and Drawings

K.Srinivas, JE II(D)

Date of Issue

August 2008

Edition No

01

No. of Pages

40

No.of Sheets

21

IRISET
This is the Intellectual property for exclusive use of Indian Railways. No part of this publication
may be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or reproduced in any way, including but not limited
to photo copy, photograph, magnetic, optical or other record without the prior agreement and
written permission of IRISET, Secunderabad, India

http://www.iriset.ac.in

CHAPTER 1
ORGANISATION OF THE SIGNAL AND TELECOMMUNICATION
DEPARTMENT
1.1 ORGANISATION IN THE HEADQUARTER OFFICE
The efficient upkeep of Signal and Telecommunication assets of the Railways is the
responsibility of the Open Line Organisation of the Signal and Telecommunication Department.
The major construction activities of the Railways may be under the administrative control of a
Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer (Construction) reporting directly to the General
Manager of an Open Line or under the independent administrative control of a Chief
Administrative Officer (Construction) or General Manager (Construction) reporting directly to the
Railway Board.
1.1.1

STRUCTURE OF OPEN LINE ORGANISATION

a) The Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer- The Chief Signal & Telecommunication
Engineer

(CSTE)

is

the

administrative

and

professional

head

of

the

Signal

&

Telecommunication Department and is directly responsible to the General Manager for its
efficient and economical working.
b) The Chief Communication Engineer- The Chief Communication Engineer (CCE) assists
the Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer in the administrative and professional work for
all communication matters.
c) The Chief Signal Engineer-The Chief Signal Engineer (CSE) assists the Chief Signal &
Telecommunication Engineer in the administrative and professional work for all signalling
matters.
d) The Chief Planning Engineer (Signal & Telecommunication)-The Chief Planning
Engineer (S&T) assists the Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer in planning and
execution of works.
e) The Deputy Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer-The Deputy Chief Signal &
Telecommunication Engineer assists the Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer, Chief
Signal Engineer and Chief Communication Engineer in the administrative and professional
work.

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INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

ORGANISATION OF THE S&T DEPARTMENT

f) Senior Scale Officers- Senior Scale Officers designated as Senior Signal &
Telecommunication Engineers (SSTE) are employed in the Headquarters Office of each
Railway and work directly under the administrative control of the Chief Signal &
Telecommunication Engineer or the Engineer-in-Chief (S&T) or the Deputy Chief Signal &
Telecommunication Engineer.
g) Assistant Signal & Telecommunication Engineers-They shall be responsible to the Senior
Scale Officer/Officers or to the Deputy Chief Signals & Telecommunication Engineer.

1.1.2 STRUCTURE OF CONSTRUCTION ORGANISATION

(a) The Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer (Construction) shall provide necessary
direction and control for the efficient and economic execution of all works under his charge.

(b) The Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer (Construction) is assisted at the
Headquarters by a team of Officers who may consist of Deputy Chief Signal and
Telecommunication Engineers and Senior Signal and Telecommunication Engineers and
Assistant Signal and Telecommunication Engineers.

(c) The Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer (Construction) shall maintain liaison with
the Open Line Organisation and shall follow the general policies and procedure laid down for
the execution of works. In case where a different policy or procedure becomes necessary to be
followed, he shall do so after due consultation with the Open Line Organisation to adopt an
accepted policy or procedure.

(d) The Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer (Construction) shall exercise necessary
budgetary control within the allotment of funds at his disposal and shall co-ordinate with the
Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer for compilation of budget at every budgetary
stage.

(e) The Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer (Construction) shall co-ordinate with the
Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer with regard to placement of personnel for the
various assignments under his charge keeping in view the overall career development of such
personnel.

In the case of certain major joint projects for Survey or construction, the Signal and
Telecommunication unit may be constituted as a self-contained unit under the administrative
control of the head of the Project. In such cases, the Head of the Signal and Telecommunication
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INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

ORGANISATION OF THE S&T DEPARTMENT

Branch shall be responsible for co-ordination with the Chief Signal and Telecommunication
Engineer.
1.2 STRUCTURE OF EXTRA DIVISIONAL ORGANISATION

The following are the extra Divisional Organisations of the Signal and Telecommunication
department on the Railways:

a) Signal and Telecommunication Workshops;


b) Signal and Telecommunication Training school;
c) Microwave Organisation;
d) Field Units of Construction Organisation;
e) Any other unit designated by Railway.

Each of these Organisations is under the control of an Officer of appropriate grade who is
responsible for its efficient functioning to the Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer /
Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer (Construction) directly or through an officer of
the Headquarters office in the appropriate grade. A team of officers in various grades as
required may assist the controlling Officer.
1.3 STRUCTURE OF ORGANISATION ON A DIVISION

A Signal and Telecommunication Engineer of appropriate grade is in charge of the Signalling


and Telecommunication Branch on each Division. He is responsible to the Divisional Railway
Manager for the maintenance as well as the correct functioning of the installations under his
charge.

He is under the technical control of the Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer to whom
he is responsible for all technical matters. He may be assisted by a team of officers of the same
grade or in lower grades. In case more than one officer, in the highest grade is available on the
Division, one of them may be nominated as the co-ordinating officer. The Chief Signal and
Telecommunication Engineer will lay down the duties of the various officers of the Signal and
Telecommunication branch on the Division.

The term "Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer" includes Senior Divisional Signal
and Telecommunication Engineer (Junior Administrative Grade) and Divisional Signal and
Telecommunication Engineer (Senior Scale) holding charge of a division.

IRISET

INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

ORGANISATION OF THE S&T DEPARTMENT

A Signal & Telecommunication Engineer in Junior Administrative Scale, Senior Scale or Junior
Scale, is incharge of all the signal and telecommunication equipment on the division and works
under the administrative control of the Divisional Railway Manager. If there is more than one JA
Grade officer, one shall be exclusively incharge of telecom assets and other for signalling
assets.

The Signal & Telecommunication Engineer incharge of a division is also responsible to the
Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer for the efficient maintenance and control
installation of all the signal and telecommunication equipment on the division.

The strength of the Gazetted officer shall be determined by DISTUs (Divisional Integrated
Signal and Telecom Units) and ZISTUs (Zonal Integrated Signal and Telecom (Units) in the
HQ.
1.3.1 TELECOMMUNICATION

(a) The telecommunication work on each division shall be divided into Sr. Section
Engineer/Section Engineer/Junior Engineer.

(b) On a division, each SSE/SE/JE shall be responsible to the Divisional Signal &
Telecommunication Engineer/Sr. Divisional Signal & Telecom Engineer through the Assistant
Signal & Telecommunication Engineer, for efficient maintenance and correct installation of all
the telecommunication equipments under his charge.
1.3.2 STAFF UNDER SSE/SE

(a) Each SSE/SE shall be assisted by one or more JE, where necessary, and Technicians shall
be provided under him for maintenance. The strength of JE and Technicians shall be fixed in
accordance with the density of work and other local conditions.

(b) Each JE must be provided with a gang for attending to works that may be considered
normally beyond the scope of the Technicians.

(c) Each JE may be provided with office clerks depending on the quantum of office work.
An office khalasi may be provided, where necessary.

(d) Where railways underground telecommunication cables including Optical Fiber exist (as in
electrified areas), a cable break-down transport such as a pick up van shall be provided. An
IRISET

INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

ORGANISATION OF THE S&T DEPARTMENT

emergency gang with full complement of cable jointing materials, tools and testing equipments
should be available with the break-down vehicle.
1.3.3 DUTIES OF Sr. SECTION ENGINEER/SE/JE

The essential duties of SSE/SE/JE are:

(a) Inspection and efficient maintenance of telegraph and telephone equipment such as keys,
sounders, relays, junction boards, teleprinters, magneto, central battery and auto exchanges,
telephone repeaters and other telecommunication installations at large stations including
wireless installations. Indicators, Public address System, Interactive Voice Response System,
Optical Fiber System, Message Switching System, Computer Communication, Train Radio
Communication.

(b) Execution of all works involving alterations to the existing installations, and installations of
new equipment, its adjustment and connections.

(c) Carrying out periodical tests on line wires independently as well as jointly with the
officials of the Posts & Telegraphs department.

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INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

ORGANISATION OF THE S&T DEPARTMENT

Zonal Level Organisation


Zonal Level Organisation

GM
GM

CSTE

CAO/CN

CSTE

CSE
CSE
DyCSTE/S

Principal/STTS
Principal/STTS

CCE

CSTE/PLG

CAO/CN

CWM

CSTE/PROJ

CCE
CSTE/PLG
DyCSTE/T
DyCSTE/PLG CSTE/PROJ
DyCSTE/PROJ

CSTE/CN

CWM
WM

CSTE/CN
DyCSTE/CN

DyCSTE/S
SSTE/ASTE

DyCSTE/T
SSTE/ASTE DyCSTE/PLG
SSTE/ASTE DyCSTE/PROJ
SSTE/ASTE

WMPE

DyCSTE/CN
DSTE/ASTE

SSTE/ASTE
SSE/S/HQ

SSTE/ASTE
SSE/T/HQ SSTE/ASTE

PE

DSTE/ASTE

SSE/S/HQ

SSTE/ASTE

SSE/T/HQ

Divisional Level Organisation


Divisional Level Organisation
DRM
DRM
ADRM
ADRM
SrDSTE/DSTE
SrDSTE/DSTE
ASTE

TEL SUPDT
TEL SUPDT

SSE/S

ASTE
SSE/T

SSE/S
SE/S

SSE/T
SE/T

SE/S
JE/S

JE/T
SE/T

JE/S

JE/T

Ch OS
Ch OS

Ch DMAN
Ch DMAN

Fig1. Hierarchy in Zonal and Divisional Level of Railways

IRISET

INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

CHAPTER 2
BOOKS OF REFERENCE
2.1 BOOKS OF REFERENCE

Books of reference should be supplied to Officers, Supervisors and Maintainers for their
personal use, as well as for use in their offices. A statement showing the various books and
their distribution is at Annexure A. For the officers, this list should be read in conjunction with
Para 8.17 of Indian Railways Signal Engineering Manual, Part 1 (1988 edition)
2.2 RESPONSIBILITY

All officials to whom books of reference have been supplied shall be responsible for:

a. Their safe custody and good order,


b. Pasting all addenda and corrigenda slips promptly and seeing that these are up to
date to the last slip as notified from time to time, and
c. Returning all books issued to them for personal use prior to retirement or resignation
or transfer from the railway service.
2.3 INSPECTION

Each Senior Divisional Signal & Telecommunication Engineer/ Divisional Signal &
Telecommunication Engineer shall make periodical checks to see that Inspectors maintain their
books of reference up to date and in good order. Each Inspector shall, likewise, see that the
staffs under him maintain their books of reference up-to date and in good order.
2.4 ACCOUNTAL

All books of reference should be accounted for in the same way as tools and plant items.
2.5 REPORTS OF TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARD COMMITTEE,

TECHNICAL

PAPERS AND JOURNALS

Each Senior Divisional Signal & Telecommunication Engineer / Divisional signal &
Telecommunication Engineer should arrange to have the under-mentioned technical literature in
his office library:
IRISET

INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

BOOKS OF REFERENCE

a. Reports of Telecommunication Standards Committee Meetings.


b. Proceedings & Technical papers issued by Institution of Telecom Engineers, India,
Institute of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineers, Institution of Railway Signal &
Telecommunication Engineers.
c. All IRS Specifications pertaining to Telecommunication, relevant BSS, ISS & DOT(TEC)
specifications.
d. Quarterly Technical Bulletin and other technical papers on telecommunication matters
published by the Railway Board.
e. Technical books and journals of interest on telecommunications.
f.

Copies of technical instructions and reports issued by RDSO on different items of work
relating to underground telecom cable installations, such as Technical Instructions on
balancing of VF cable, jointing of cables, installation of loading coils, installation of
VF repeater station equipment, cable laying practice for optical fiber cables, testing of
digital microwave equipments etc.,

2.6 RESPONSIBILITY OF Sr.DSTE/DSTE

The Senior Divisional Signal & Telecommunication Engineer / Divisional Signal &
Telecommunication Engineer should encourage his supervisors and other staff to study these
reports, proceedings, papers and journals, so as to enhance their knowledge and to keep
themselves informed about the up-to-date developments, methods and techniques in
telecommunications. He should arrange to circulate particulars of all new publications that are
received from time to time for the information of supervisors once every three months.
2.7 REPORTS OF SIGNAL STANDARDS COMMITTEE, TECHNICAL PAPERS AND
JOURNALS
Each Divisional Signal and Telecommunication Engineer should arrange to have the under
mentioned technical literature in the divisional library:

(i) Reports of the signal standards committee.

(ii) Proceedings and technical papers issued by the institution of Railway Signal and
Telecommunication Engineers, New Delhi.
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INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

BOOKS OF REFERENCE

(iii) I. R. S. specifications, British standard specifications, Indian standards specification,


specifications of the Association of American rail roads signal section relating to
Signalling and Telecommunication equipment as required.

(iv) Quarterly technical bulletin and other technical papers on Signalling and Telecommunication
matters published by the Research, Designs and Standards Organization / Lucknow.

(v)

Notes

published

by

Indian

Railways

Institute

of

Signals

Engineering

and

Telecommunications, Secunderabad.

(vi) Technical books and journals of interest on Signalling and Telecommunication.


2.8 SCALE OF BOOKS OF REFERENCE

Books of reference should be supplied to officers, inspectors and maintainers for their personal
use, as well as for use in their offices. A statement showing the various books and their
distribution is shown in next page.

IRISET

INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

BOOKS OF REFERENCE

STATEMENT SHOWING THE VARIOUS BOOKS OF REFERENCE AND


THEIR DISTRIBUTION AMONG STAFF (ref: Telecom Manual)

ITEM
NO.

PUBLICATIONS

SCALE FOR

11.

Catalogue of stores

12.

Accident Manual

13
14
15
16

IRS Drawings (Telecom)


IRS specifications (of telecom items)
Railway Standard Drawings
Indian Telegraph Act
Indian Government Railway Code for
Engineering Department
CCIR Documents of the plenary assembly
CCITT documents of the plenary assembly
Indian Electricity Act
Electric Supply Rules

17
18
19
20
21

IRISET

10

MAINTAINER

10.

SSE/SE(Tele)

9.

ASTE

Payment of wages act with notifications as


issued.
The hours of employment
regulations with notifications as issued.
Working Time table & Appendix

Sr.DSTE/DSTE

8.

CCE

Telegraph Code

CSTE

7.

SSE/SE(Tele)

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Telecommunication Engineering
Manual
General and Subsidiary Rules
Stores Manual
Pass Manual
Safety First Manual
Schedule of dimensions

ASTE

1.

Sr.DSTE/DSTE

Personal possession of

CSTE

Office of

10

11

12

1
1
1
1

1
1
1

1
-

1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
-

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
-

1
1
1

1
1
1

INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

CHAPTER 3
INSPECTION
3.1 ANNUAL INSPECTION PROGRAMME

The divisional and extra divisional officers should compile the inspection programme of their
respective jurisdiction and send it to the Head Quarter for approval.
3.2 ADHERENCE TO ANNUAL INSPECTION SCHEDULE

The annual inspection schedule should be strictly adhered to. Any deviation should be reported
to the higher authority explaining the circumstances which necessitated the deviation.
3.3 INSPECTION REPORT

Each inspection conducted by the Officers shall be followed by an inspection report. The report
should indicate the state of working of the installation, efficiency of the services rendered, any
specific problems along with suggestions for the improvement of services.
3.4 SUBMISSION OF INSPECTION REPORT

The inspection report of the Officers should be submitted to the next higher authority. The
inspection report should be submitted within one month's time.

3.5 MONITORING THE INSPECTION WORK

A watch should be kept on adherence to annual inspection schedule by the concerned


divisional and head quarter Officers. For this purpose an inspection register should be
maintained indicating the installation inspected, actual date of inspection, date of submission of
report.
3.6 COMPLIANCE REPORT

Strict action should be taken to ensure prompt compliance of the points noted in the inspection
reports. Such a compliance report should be submitted, as a matter of course within one month
of inspection and ordinarily all action should be completed within three months time.

IRISET

11

INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

INSPECTION

3.7 REVIEW OF EARLIER INSPECTIONS

During surprise/scheduled inspections, the progress of compliance of earlier inspection reports


should be checked by the inspecting officer. The inspecting officer may carry with him earlier
inspection report on similar installation to serve as a guideline.
3.8 LOCATING WEAK POINTS

The inspection should be meaningful and the inspecting officers should cover all points affecting
the efficiency of the services and should particularly inspect to locate weak points before they
can rise to any failure or complaint.
3.9 QUALITY OF INSPECTION

The report of the inspections carried out by the Officers will be reviewed by the next higher
authorities. If it is felt by the reviewing officer that the report is inadequate or inspection has not
been carried out properly covering all the important aspects, the reviewing officers will send his
comments immediately to the inspecting officers concerned. In extreme cases he may even ask
the inspecting officer to carry out the supplementary inspection to cover the remaining points.

3.10 INSPECTION REGISTER

Every installation shall maintain inspection registers duly bind and page numbered. This will be
kept as important permanent document. All the report of inspections/formal visits will be filed in
the inspection book if possible by way of coloured charts. Remarks of any surprise/casual visit
will be recorded by the visiting officer on the space in the inspection register. The compliance
report of the points noted in the register shall be sent to the inspecting officers for record.
3.11 SCHEDULE OF INSPECTION

The annual schedule of inspection which shall be conducted by officers and the schedule of
inspection to be conducted by supervisors are given below (ref: Telecom Manual, Chapters VII,
IX, X, XI, XII, XIV, XIX, XX, XXI, XXVI). In addition, any such instructions by CSTEs of Zonal
Railways regarding inspection schedule should be carried out.

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INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

INSPECTION

ANNUAL INSPECTION SCHEDULE OF OFFICERS

ITEM

SR. DSTE (Tele)/DSTE

DSTE/ASTE

(Tele)/Incharge
Microwave/UHF network
Telephone and trunk
Exchanges
Control office & test rooms
PA systems at Rly Stations/
Train Indication Boards &
clocks
OFC/Quad/RE cable
system
A) Cable route
B) Cable hut/repeater
C) Emergency sockets
Repair & maintenance
Centres
Accident Relief Train
Optical fiber system
A) Optic fiber stns
B) Cable route
Train Radio System
Foot plate inspection of O/H
alignment
Video Surveillance System
Telecom equipments of
data network for UTS, PRS,
FOIS, Railnet etc.

IRISET

25% stns/year
All exch. Exceeding
400 lines once in a
Year
All control offices
Quarterly

All stations at least


once in a year
All exchanges
once in a year
All control offices
once in a month

All major stations in a year

All stations once in a year

One inspection in each


control section yearly

A) Inspection of complete
cable route once in a year
B) All half yearly
C) All block sections
in a year

Once in a year

Once in a year

Once in a year
A) 10% of stations in a year
B) One inspection in each
control section
10% of installations in a
year

Once in a quarter
A) All stations in a year
B) Inspection of complete
cable route once in a year

One section quarterly

All sections in a year

All major stations in a year

All stations half yearly

All major stations in a year

All stations half yearly

13

All installations in a year

INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

INSPECTION

INSPECTION SCHEDULE OF SUPERVISORS (Ref: Telecom Manual)


EQUIPMENT

OVERHEAD LINES

EXCHANGES

ITEM

Sr. Section
Engineer

JE/SE

All the main and branch alignment in his


section

At least once
a month.

Quarterly

Detailed and effective inspection and testing

Once in a
month

Quarterly

Once in a
month

Quarterly

Fortnightly

Monthly

Monthly

Quarterly

MW/UHF/VHF
Electronics, Power supply equipment
General upkeep of co-located Equipment,
DG set, Fire alarm system, Checking of
SDH
proper functioning of external alarms, Airconditioning
Earth
Outdoor equipment protection
MAINTENANCE- TALKAmplifier
response, Cable insulation and
BACK SYSTEMS
earthing of screens
General conditions of wiring and
SOUND DISTRIBUTION components, Frequency response and the
noise level of the amplifier
SYSTEM
Earthing arrangement
IVRS

Quarterly
Half yearly
Rainy season
Half yearly

Yearly

Half yearly

Yearly

Quarterly

Half yearly

Quarterly

Half yearly

MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE FOR OFC

NMS

OLTE

Analysis and recording of statistics of optical


Weekly
and digital equipment, Monitoring of Alarms
Periodical check and verification of
Quarterly
configuration and control functions
Measurement of all parameters,earthing and
Quarterly
cleaning

Quarterly
Yearly

Half yearly

MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE FOR REPEATER AND AMPLIFIER EQUALISER SYSTEM


REPEATER/
AMPLIFIEREQUALISER
EQUIPMENT

BATTERIES

IRISET

Checking Power Supply Voltage at the input Monthly


point, various cards in proper position, and
(Every
functioning of all circuits
installation)

Quarterly (Every
installation)

Section wise end to end line up of all circuits

Quarterly (Every
installation)

Cleaning & tightening of all connections,


measurement of voltages & gravity

14

-------Monthly
(Every
installation)

Quarterly(Every
installation)

INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

INSPECTION

3.12 ITEMS TO BE IN POSSESSION OF SUPERVISOR DURING INSPECTION BY


OFFICERS

a) G&SR
b) Telecom Manual
c) Schedule of Standard Dimension
d) Current Working Time Table
e) Maintenance Manual For Special Equipment under his charge
f)

Plan of proposed & sanctioned work

g) Multimeter, Megger, Portable Telephone to suit Overhead Lines or Cables circuit


(depending upon the section being inspected, Emergency Telephone, Walkie-Talkie)
h) Other tools such as Measuring Tape, Foot Rule etc
i)

L14 Diagram or Cable Route Map

j)

AC Traction Manual (in AC Electrified territory)

k) Any other item specified by Sr.DSTE/CSTE.

IRISET

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INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

CHAPTER 4
ROLE OF TELECOM IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
4.1 WHAT IS DISASTER

(i) A Disaster is an unusual occurrence characterized by sudden calamity, causing great


material damage, loss and distress.

(ii) A complete definition of disaster may be an event, concentrated in time and space, which
threatens the society, or its subdivision, with major unwanted consequences. It is caused as a
result of collapse of precautions, which had hitherto been accepted as adequate.
4.2 Types of disasters causing an interruption to train services:

1) Human/Equipment failure

The disasters/accidents may be caused by human/equipment failure, which may affect normal
movement of train services with loss of human life or property or both. These include:

a) Collisions
b) Derailments
c) Level Crossing accidents at manned or unmanned level crossings.
d) Fire or explosion in trains
e) Miscellaneous
2) Natural calamity

Natural calamity can also cause serious repercussion with loss of life/property. This includes

a) Land Slides.
b) Storms/ Cyclones.
c) Earth Quake.
d) Floods.

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INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

ROLE OF TELECOM IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

3) Sabotage

Sabotage, i.e. causing deliberate loss of life and/or damage to property, includes:

a) Setting fire to train, Railway installations etc.


b) Bomb blast.
c) Placing obstructions on track to cause disruption to railway traffic.
d) Tampering with railway fittings causing accidents.

DISASTER IN RAILWAY PARLANCE

In Railways, disaster is defined as a major train accident leading to heavy causalities and
disruption to traffic for a long period.
TRAIN ACCIDENTS
Train accident is an accident that involves a train. Train accidents are further classified as:
a) Consequential train accidents.
b) Indicative train accidents.

CONSEQUENTIAL TRAIN ACCIDENTS


These include train accidents having serious repercussion in terms of either one or many or all
of the following:

(i) Loss of human life.


(ii) Human injury.
(iii) Loss of Railway property.
(iv) Interruption to Rail traffic.

Train accident under following classification will be termed as consequential train accidents:
a) Collision (Class A, subdivided into A1, A2, A3, A4)
Collisions are worst kind of accidents and are of three types viz.
i) Head on collision,
ii) Follow on collision,
iii) Side collision.
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INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

ROLE OF TELECOM IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

b) Fire or explosion in trains (Class B, subdivided into B1, B2, B3, B4)

This shall include all cases of physical fire or smoke emission resulting in death or injury or
damage to property amounting to Rs. 5000/- and above.

c) Level crossing accidents (Class C, subdivided into C1, C2, C3, C4)

Applies to accidents at Level Crossings, i.e. at the intersection of the roads with railway track at
the same level.

d) Derailment (Class D, subdivided into D1, D2, D3, D4)


Means off loading of wheel or wheels causing detention or damage to rolling stock/permanent
way.

e) Miscellaneous (Class E, subdivided into E1, E2)

All other train accidents that are not covered under the earlier categories are to be treated as
miscellaneous accidents.

INDICATIVE TRAIN ACCIDENTS


These include:

i) Averted Collisions (Class F, subdivided into F1, F2, F3, F4)


ii) Breach of Block Rules (Class G, subdivided into G1, G2, G3, G4)
iii) Train passing signal at danger (Class H, subdivided into H1, H2)

4.1 COMMUNICATION AT ACCIDENT SITE

Communication from the site of accident is to be established as soon as an accident takes


place. For this purpose, drivers of all trains shall be provided with portable control telephones.
Portable control telephones shall be 2 wire type in overhead communication territory, 4 wire
type in underground cable territory, and shall be of 2 wire / 4 wire type wherever a train passes
through both overhead communication and underground cable territories or 2 wire / 4 wire type
may be used over both type of territories. As soon as an accident occurs, driver/asst. driver
shall establish communication with the portable control telephone by hooking on to the
overhead lines / plugging into the emergency sockets, so as to establish communication with
control office.
IRISET

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INTRODUCTION TO S&T ORGANISATION

ROLE OF TELECOM IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

In addition to drivers being provided with portable control telephones, guards of all passengercarrying trains are also provided with portable control phones of the types mentioned above.
Guard of the passenger carrying train shall also establish communication with control office as
soon as an accident occurs.

In addition to portable control telephones, drivers and guards of all trains shall be provided with
5-watt walkie-talkie sets, and as soon as an accident occurs, information shall be given in the 5watt walkie-talkie set to the adjacent station wherever possible. Apart from giving information
through the walkie-talkie to the adjacent station, it is necessary that communication is
established to the control office using portable control phones. In some sections arrangements
are available to communicate with control office on walkie- talkie/ duplex VHF sets and this may
be used where such arrangement exist.

As and when, advanced means of communication like GSM-R are deployed on the Railways;
the same shall also be used to establish communication with the control office.

Additional means of communication shall be provided progressively within the shortest possible
time as under:

Provision of Railway telephone / telephones.


Provision of BSNL telephone / telephones.
Mobile phones wherever network coverage exists.
4.2 ACCIDENT RELIEF TRAINS (ART)

Accident Relief Trains (ART) are located at strategic locations of each division. ARTs are
stabled on separate sidings having double entry for faster movement in both directions.
Rescue/Restoration equipments are kept as per Railway Boards instructions.

Breakdown specials are kept with the following officials:

a) Mechanical & Electrical (G) tool vans - SSE/SE (Mech.)


b) Engineering tool vans - SSE/SE (P.Way)
c) Overhead equipments tool vans - SSE/SE/JE (OHE/TRD)

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ARTs are provided with telecommunication equipment for providing additional facilities as
under:

1. PA system shall be established for making important announcements.


2. Megaphones shall be given as per need at site.
3. Walkie-talkie sets shall be distributed as per need.
4. Magneto communication as required at site.
5. Communication through satellite phone shall be established.
6. FAX, E-mail shall be established wherever communication media is available.
7. It shall be possible to provide the communication using satellite technology /
through Railways own OFC links, by extending bandwidth from the accident site
to the adjacent station / using BSNL connections. Mobile telephone exchange
(WLL) may be established, if available.
8. Wherever cell phone coverage exists, cell phones available with officers and with ART
shall be used.
9. It is desirable to send pictures of accident spot to Railway Board / Zonal / Divisional
Headquarters using e-mail for which extension of internet/railnet to site is required.
10. It is desirable to send video coverage to Railway Board / Zonal / Divisional
Headquarters, as and when the necessary equipment are provided in the ARTs.

4.3 ACCIDENT INFORMATION FOR PUBLIC

As soon as information regarding an accident is received, accident information number shall be


activated and manned. This number shall normally be at the zonal/divisional headquarters.
Adequate personnel shall be posted by commercial branch to meet the demand depending on
the seriousness of the accident. Number of lines for this number shall be suitably augmented
depending on the demand.

Close liaison shall be maintained with BSNL officials for monitoring the call rates and increasing
the lines as necessary.

The accident information number should be made wide publicity through audio, video and print
media.
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4.4 GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR MAINTENANCE OF ARTs

ARTs are provided with equipment as detailed in section 4.5. The equipments are to be
periodically tested to ensure their satisfactory working at all times. Testing / Inspections shall be
carried out as under

Complete testing by ART nominated staff: once in 15 days.


Inspection by ASTE/DSTE: once in 3 months.
Inspection by Sr.DSTE/DSTE: once every year.

A register is to be maintained in the ART for making entries for testing of equipment. Whenever
the ART returns from accident spot, equipments are to be immediately checked for their proper
working. Any short fall / missing equipment should be replaced with good working equipment at
the earliest. All equipments having shelf life, viz. jointing kits, torch cells etc., shall be replaced
in due time.
4.5 ART EQUIPMENT

The list of minimum essential equipments to be provided in ART shall be as under:

S.No
ITEM
A. GENERAL (Common for RE as well as non-RE areas)
1.
Inspection Book
2(a)
Magneto Telephone
2(b)
Dry cells large 6-I, 1.5 volts each for magneto phones
3.
PVC insulated, PVC sheathed twin core cable
4.
Microphone for cordless PA system
5.
Loud speaker horn type 5/10 watts
6(a)
Amplifier of minimum 20 watts power output (having
interface for cordless microphones) and operating
voltage of 12 V DC
6(b)
12V storage battery for 6(a) along with appropriate
battery charger
7.
Megaphones Transistorised (minimum 10 watts each)
Portable stand for loudspeaker with adjustable height
8.
from 1.5M to 3M.
9.
Field service telephone cable PVC insulated (D-8)
10.

11
12.
13.
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Push button auto telephone with tone/pulse switching


facility
(a) Walkie-talkie sets (2/5watts-VHF) with 100%
spare batteries
(b) Battery chargers for 12(a) (two position charger
with rapid charging)
Multimeter
Extension Boards for power supply (Mains)
21

Quantity
1 no.
4 nos.
12 Nos.
500 mts
2 Nos.
2nos.
2 nos.
2 sets
3 nos.
2 nos.
4 drums of 500 meters each
4 nos
30 nos
30 nos
1 no.
4 nos.
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ROLE OF TELECOM IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

14.
15.

Hand held torch of 3 cells complete with dry cells


Jointing kit & material for cables and overhead wires

16

Control way station equipment DTMF type 2 wire & 4


wire with amplispeaker telephone and suitable Ni-Cd
cells
Tape recorder (cassette type)
Cellular Phones/Fixed communication terminals.
Satellite phone (SAT phone miniature type)
FAX Machine (Plain paper)
Auto dialing system from emergency socket (only
way station emergency control telephone)
Map showing sections of track where communication
through cellular phone is possible
WLL mobile exchange with 30 handsets

17
18
19
20
21
22
23

4 nos.
This is required to be
decided by the Railways
themselves according to
their local needs for different
ARTs.
2 nos.

2 nos.
5 Nos
2 nos.
1 no.
1 no.
1 set.
1 set.

B. TOOL BOX CONTAINING


1
Soldering iron 10W/12volts, 10 W/220V & 65 W/220V 1 no. each
2
Long nose plier 200mm
1 no.
3
Cutter diagonal 200mm
1 no
5
Box spanner 6, 5.5 & 5mm
1 no. each
6
Hammer Steel 750 grams
1 no.
7
Hammer wooden
1 no.
8
Adjustable spanner 300 mm
1 no.
9
Screw Driver 200mm
1 no.
10
Screw Driver 250 mm
1 no.
11
Mains tester (230 volts)
1 no.
12
Electrical insulation tape 12mm x 15 meters
1 no.
13
Resin core
500 gms
C. SPECIFIC EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED FOR ARTS HAVING BEATS IN NON-RE AREA
1
2 wire portable control phone in a suitable box with
2 sets
dry cells
2
Telescopic pole of minimum 6 meters height with its
2 nos.
bracket opening space at least 350mm
3
Overhead control alignment charts
1 set
D. SPECIFIC EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED FOR ARTS HAVING BEATS IN RE AREA:
1
4 wire Emergency portable control telephone in a
2 sets
suitable box with dry cells
2
Tapping transformers (1120:1120)
2 nos each
3
Terminating transformers (1120:470)
2 nos.
Adequate space shall be provided in the ART for housing all the equipments. The telecom
equipment shall be properly housed to avoid the equipment rolling off during the movement of
ART.

Adequate packing shall be provided for sophisticated equipments like satellite phones, walkietalkie sets, FAX machines, PA equipment etc. Sophisticated equipments shall not be stacked

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one above the other, unless packed in proper protective boxes and arrangements are provided
to secure them properly.

Arrangements shall be made for extending power supply for charging batteries for PA system,
VHF batteries etc. For satisfactory charging of batteries, regular power supply shall be made
available near to the Art location, where it is normally stationed.
4.6 STAFF FOR ART

Every ART shall have nominated telecom staff. The incharge shall generally be SE/JE and shall
be assisted by 2 Telecom Maintainers and 3 Khalasi Helpers / Khalasis. The nominated staff
shall test the ART equipment as per schedule and ensure satisfactory working of all
equipments. The nominated staff shall respond immediately whenever an accident takes place
and proceed by ART to the site of accident. The nominated staff shall be responsible for
establishing communication as detailed in para 17.5 & 17.6, immediately on reaching the site of
accident.
4.7 INSTRUCTIONS FOR TESTING OF ART EQUIPMENT

1) All active devices shall be tested for their satisfactory operation.


2) Charging of batteries shall be carried out as per requirement. The requirement may vary
depending on the battery and the self-discharge characteristics of the battery.
3) Wherever feasible, batteries shall be separated from the equipment and protected
properly to minimize the self-discharge.
4) Primary cells viz., torch cells shall be replaced as soon as deterioration in performance
is observed. In any case, the cells shall be replaced at interval not exceeding one year.
Leak proof cells only shall be used.
5) While inspecting the telecom equipments in ART, the following guidelines related to the
equipments shown against them may be observed
i. Portable Telephone Set:
a) Check for any physical damage to the phone, wires, cords and the plug. (Pole
and connecting bracket in the case of 2W PT set).
b) Condition of dry cells; change if due.
c) Quality of speech both ways.
ii. Magneto Phones:
a) Check for any physical damage to the phones & wires.
b) Condition of dry cells; change if due.
c) Quality of speech both ways.
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d) Ring Test.
e) Check FS cables continuity & insulation.
iii. Megaphones:
a) Condition of dry cells; change if due.
b) Quality of speech and condition of volume control.
c) Working of the Siren.
iv. P.A. System:
a) Functional Test.
b) Quality of reproduction of the amplifier.
c) Condition of mike cords.
d) Condition of Loud Speaker wires.
e) Functional test in the case of cordless mike.
f)

Condition of standby battery 12V.

v. Walkie Talkie sets:


a) Functional test.
b) Quality of speech.
c) Condition of battery.
d) Battery swapping after charge.
vi. 25W VHF set:
a) Physical check of set, antenna, feeder, mike and battery cord
b) Functional test.
c) Condition of 12V storage battery.
vii. Way Station Control Equipment:
a) Functional test (Ring & Speech).
viii. Auto Dialler:
a) Functional test.
ix. Fax Machine:
a) Physical check.
b) Functional test.
x. Cassette Tape Recorder:
a) Functional test.
b) Condition of dry cells; change if due.
xi. Checking of Records:
a) Availability of all material as per check list.
b) Inspection book for record of inspections.
c) Record of charging of storage batteries & walkie-talkie batteries.
d) Record of replacement of dry cells.

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4.8

ARRANGEMENTS

AT

DISASTER

MANAGEMENT

CONTROL

ROOMS

AT

HEADQUARTERS / DIVISIONS
The following facilities shall be available in the disaster management control rooms at
headquarters and divisions:
a) BSNL Phones 2 Nos with ISD facility.
b) Railway Telephones 3 Nos with STD facility.
c) Fax Machines 1 No. connected to BSNL line and 1 No. connected to railway line.
d) Facility to extend section control to the disaster management control. The concerned
section control, in whose jurisdiction the accident takes place, shall be connected.
e) Hot line between Headquarters and divisional disaster management control rooms shall
be provided.
f)

Important telephone numbers of hospitals / doctors /officials of state and district


administration and other important functionaries be kept ready.

4.9 RECOMMENDATIONS OF HIGH LEVEL COMMITTEE ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT


Ministry of Railways constituted a High Level Committee vide Railway Board's Order NO: ERBI/2002/23/44 Dt.16.09.2002 to review the disaster management system in IR to give
recommendations to strengthen the system
MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE
MEMBER MECHANICAL / RB

CONVENER

MEMBER TRAFFIC/ RB

- MEMBER

FINANCIAL COMMISSIONER/ RB

- MEMBER

DIRECTOR GENERAL /
RAILWAY HEALTH SERVICE

- MEMBER

DIRECTOR GENERAL /RAILWAY


RAILWAY PROTECTION FORCE

- MEMBER

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR/SAFETY/RB

- SECRETARY OF THE COMMITTEE

Recommendations of the committee were accepted by the Railway Board (total 111 nos) in the
year 2003-04 & Zonal Railways were advised to implement the same.

Recommendations pertaining to Telecom are listed in the following table. These have been
implemented/under implementation in various Zonal Railways.

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RECOMMENDATIONS PERTAINING TO TELECOMMUNICATION


Recommendation no.

43.

44.

96.

97.

98.

99.

Description
a) Satellite phones - all divisional & H/Q control rooms are
provided with one satellite phone each. Instructions have also
been issued for providing an additional satellite phone at each
H/Q & Divisional Control Room.
b) One ISD connection at each Zonal H/Q and Divisional control
to establish communication from accident site to satellite phone Four digits No. 107x (where x is the specific digit to be allotted
to Railway).
Specific BSNL telephone no. for railway accident information
Powers to hire cell phones: In case of passenger train accident,
at a station, which has cell phone connectivity, a few cell phones
are to be immediately hired by the SM & the stranded passengers
may be allowed to use these phones free of charge. SM should
have powers to hire cell phones
Walkie-talkie and VHF sets ARTs at divisional head quarters to
be provided with thirty walkie-talkie sets and two nos of 25W VHF
sets.
WLL (Wireless in Local Loop) Exchange having 50 lines capacity
ARTS at Divisional Head Quarters to be provided with one WLL
Exchange having 50 lines
capacity.
Videoconferencing facilities from the site of accident. It is
proposed to provide videoconferencing facility from disaster site
to Railway Board and zonal Railway's headquarter. Initially the
videoconferencing equipment will be provided in Railway Board
and transportable units will be kept in one Railway head quarter.
Divisional ARTs to be provided with one PC along with high
speed satellite modem (for internet connectivity)

The information given in this notes is taken from various manuals and
through guest lectures and is not fully exhaustive. For further information
refer the manuals and books of references enlisted in para 2.8 of this
notes.

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