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ARCHANA G. C, 2REEMA.N

1,2

E-mail: 1archanagc@gmail.com, 2n.reema3@gmail.com

Abstract Induction motor speed control is very important in many industrial applications, domestic applications and

transportation. When we apply a load, the motor speed will vary from the reference speed. By using some nonlinear

controllers the speed can be controlled. So in this paper comparison of V/f speed control of induction motor using different

controllers like PI, PID controllers are explained. All the simulations are done in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

Keywords Induction motor, V/f control, PI, PID controller.

I. INTRODUCTION

Induction motors are widely used in many

applications due to its many advantages like high

efficiency, low maintenance cost, robust construction

etc. Speed control is required for many applications

like industrial and domestic applications. When we

apply a load the actual speed will differ from the

reference speed. So for a particular application it is

very important to maintain the actual speed and

reference speed to the same value after load variation.

Many control techniques are available for speed

control of induction motor. Out of these many

techniques, scalar control and vector control are

significant techniques.But scalar control is cheap and

well implementable method, because of these

advantages and simplicity, many applications in the

industry operate with this control technique.

Here one of the scalar speed control method of V/f

control using conventional controllers like PI, PID

controllers are used and the comparison of their

performance studies is done.

speed are:

Induction motor is simulated in SIMULINK as it

helps to achieve a transient behavior of electrical

machine and drives. The model is valid under the two

assumptions.

Each stator phase of the motor has the same

number of turns and uniform partial

displacement

Magnetic saturation is neglected.

Here theparameters of induction motor used are given

in the appendix 1.The MATLAB/SIMULINK model

of induction motor is developed using generalized

mathematical equations given below.

Proceedings of 57th IRF International Conference, 5th June, 2016, Pune, India, ISBN: 978-93-86083-35-7

17

MATLAB/SIMULINK model developed is given in

figure 1.The rated power of induction motor is 5HP

and reference speed is 1500rpm.From figure 2, at no

load, both the reference speed and actual speed are

same before applying the load. The rated torque of 23

Nm is applied at a step time of 2.5s.Then the speed

decreases to the speed of 1478 rpm as shown in the

simulation result. From figure 3,at starting, the torque

is very highand reaches a value of 281 Nm, and then

reaches to 0 at no load condition, and then settles to

the rated torque of 23 Nm at a step time of 2.5s.

Fig 4: Strategic block diagram of closed loop V/f control

1800

USING DIFFERENT CONTROLLERS

1600

1400

given in the figure 5. The controller portion changes

with the different controllers. The inverter here used

for modulation is Sine Pulse Width Modulator

(SPWM).The frequency signal from the controller

will change the width of voltage pulses of the SPWM

to keep the V/f ratio constant.

The output equations of the SPWM are:

s p e e d (rp m )

1200

1000

800

600

400

actual speed (rpm)

200

0

-200

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

time (s)

Fig2 : Speed vs time graph.

also given below.

350

300

to rq u e (N m )

250

200

150

100

50

0

-50

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

time (s)

Fig 3: Torque vs time graph

control of IM drive

4.1. PI Controller

PI controller will eliminate the forced oscillations and

steady state error of P controller. However

introducing the integral mode will have adverse effect

on the stability of the system and speed of response.

So the PI controller will not increase the speed of

response and also the PI controller cannot predict

what will happen with the error in near future.

PI controllers are usually used in the place when

speed of response is not an issue. Also this controller

can be used when there is a large transport delays in

closed loop of V/f control. The actual speed of the

rotor is compared with its commanded value , and

the error is processed through a controller, and a

limiter to obtain the slip speed command . The

limiter ensures that the slip speed command is within

the maximum allowable slip speed of the induction

motor. The slip speed command is added to the

electrical rotor speed to obtain the stator frequency

command.

Proceedings of 57th IRF International Conference, 5th June, 2016, Pune, India, ISBN: 978-93-86083-35-7

18

process is present. PI controller can effectively work

when there is a presence of a noise or large

disturbance during the operation of a process.

The PI speed controller gains are selected by trial and

error method by observing their effects on the

response of the drive. Figure 6 shows the speed

response of IM drive at reference speed of 1500rpm

and load torque of 23Nm is applied at 2.5s.Here the

settling time is 0.5s. The IM drive speed decreased

during loaded condition, but due to the effect of PI

controller the speed catches to reference speed within

a time of 1s. Figure 7 shows the speed response of

IM drive at reference speed of 1200 rpm and load

torque of 23Nm is applied at 2.5s. Here the settling

time is 1.25s, and then due to the effect of PI

controller, speed catches to the reference speed within

a time of 1.3s after applying the load.By using this PI

controller the speed control can be achieved from the

speed range of 1000 rpm to 1700 rpm.

improves stability of the system and enables increase

in gain K and decrease in integral time constant Ti,

which increases speed of the controller response. PID

controller is used when dealing with processes with

more than one energy storage when their dynamic is

not similar to the dynamics of an integrator.

Ifthe PID controllers are tuned properly they can

provide robust and reliable control.This very feature

has made PID controller exceedingly popular in

industrial applications.PID controller is also used in

the control of mobile objects (course and trajectory

following included) when stability and precise

reference following are required.

The PID speed controller gains are selected by trial

and error method by observing their effects on the

response of the drive. Figure 8 shows the speed

response of IM drive at reference speed of 1500rpm

and load torque of 23Nm is applied at 2.5s. From

figure8 it can be seen that settling time is 0.2s and

speed catches with reference speed at a time of

0.25s.Here due to the effect of integral mode and

derivative mode the speed of response increases and

so that actual speed will catch the reference speed

more fast. Figure 9 shows the speed response of IM

drive at reference speed of 1200rpm and load torque

of 23Nm is applied at 2.5 s. Here the speed catches to

the reference speed at a time of 0.2s.By using this

PID controller the speed control can be achieved from

the speed range of 800 rpm to 1800 rpm.

1600

1400

1200

s p e e d (rp m )

1000

800

600

400

actual speed

200

reference speed

1600

1400

-200

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

1200

s p e e d (rp m )

time (sec)

1000

of 1500 rpm

800

600

1400

400

200

1000

s p e e d (rp m )

1200

800

-200

actual speed

reference speed

0

0.5

1.5

3.5

4.5

speed of 1500 rpm

400

200

reference speed (rpm)

-200

2.5

time (sec)

600

1400

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

time (s)

1200

of 1200 rpm

s p e e d (rp m )

1000

800

By using their 3 basic behavior types or modes: Pproportional, I- integrative, D- derivative PID

controller will control the speed of the IM drive. The

proportional and integrative control mode is used as

single control method but the derivative mode is

rarely used on its own in control system.

PID controller has all the necessary dynamics such as

suitable action inside control error area to eliminate

oscillations (P mode), increase in control signal to

lead error towards zero (I mode) and fast reaction on

600

400

200

actual speed

reference speed

0

-200

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

time (sec)

Fig 9: Speed vs time graph of PID controller at a reference

speed of 1200 rpm

Proceedings of 57th IRF International Conference, 5th June, 2016, Pune, India, ISBN: 978-93-86083-35-7

19

can be controlled is more than PI controller.

From the results itis seen that PID controller is better

than the PI controller

CONTROLLER

The performance of a well-tuned PI and PID

controller is undoubtly ahead in terms of system

robustness and predictability. In PI controller due to

presence of the integral term, steady state error of

speed is zero, making the system quite accurate.

However it has certain drawbacks like if very fast

response is desired, the penalty paid is a higher

overshoot which is undesirable. The PID controller

offers a very efficient solution to numerous control

problems in the real world. In PI controller the

proportional controller will have the effect of

reducing the rise time and steady state error. But, will

never eliminate the error.The Integral control will

have the effect of reduced the error near to zero

value. But, it has a negative effect on the speed of the

response and overall stability of the system. PID

controller combines the advantage of proportional,

derivative and integralcontrol action. From the

simulation graphs of both controllers at loaded and no

load condition of IM drive, it is seen that the settling

time, and time taken for speed to catch the reference

speed by PID controller is very much less than the PI

controller.

APPENDIX A

The following parameters of induction motor are

selected for the simulation studies:

HP

Rated stator voltage

Frequency

Rated current

No of poles

Speed

Moment of inertia, J

Rotor resistance, Rr

Stator resistance, Rs

Mutual inductance, Lm

Stator inductance, Ls

Rotor inductance, Lr

5 HP

220 V

50 Hz

13.54 A

4

1500 rpm

0.1111 kg

0.39

0.49

2e-3 H

0.71e-3 H

0.5e-3 H

REFERENCES

[1]

CONCLUSIONS

[2]

in MATLAB/SIMULINK using PI and PID

controllers. The major conclusions obtained are as

follows:

1. The both controllers will catch the reference

speed at loaded and no load condition, but the time

taken by PID controller to catch the reference speed

and settling time is very much less than the PI

controller.

[3]

[4]

[5]

controlled inverter fed induction motor drive at different

conditions International journal of Engineering Trends

and Technology, Volume 26 issue 4-2015

R.Krishnan, Electric motor drives modeling, analysis and

control, Precentice Hall, New Jersey, 2001

Bimal K Bose,Modern power electronics and

drives,Precentice Hall.Inc.2002.

KritikaRajanwal,RituShakya, Comparative analysis of

PI,PID and fuzzy logic controllers for speed control of DC

motor, International journal of Engineering Research and

Technology, Volume 3 issue 1-2014

Suetake, M., da Silva, I.N., Goedtel, A.: Embedded DSPbased compact fuzzy system and its application for

induction-motor v/f speed control, IEEE Trans. Ind.

Electron., 2011, 58, (3), pp. 750760

Proceedings of 57th IRF International Conference, 5th June, 2016, Pune, India, ISBN: 978-93-86083-35-7

20

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