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Information Technology Delhi

Lecture – 5

• Voltage Reflection Coefficient

• Examples

• Standing Waves

ECE230

Date: 18.01.2016

VL V ( z 0) V0 V0 V0 V0 I L I ( z 0) Z0 Z0 .Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Voltage Reflection Coefficient • To determine the unknowns ?0+ and ?0− . we need to consider the lossless transmission line in the context of complete circuit including a generator circuit at its input terminals and a load at its output terminals. ?? and ?? are the total voltage and current at the load. At the load side: VL ZL IL • Where.

) VL V ( z 0) V0 V0 V0 V0 ZL V V 0 0 VL ZL IL • Solving for V0 V0 V0 V0 V0 V0 I L I ( z 0) Z0 Z0 Z0 Z0 Z Z V Z L Z0 L 0 0 gives: V V 0 V0 Z L Z0 Z L Z0 The ratio of the amplitudes of the reflected and the incident voltage waves at the load is called voltage reflection coefficient Γ ?0− 0 V0 Z L Z 0 V0 Z L Z0 .Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Voltage Reflection Coefficient (contd.

Find the reflection coefficient at the load for a 100MHz wave. .Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Example – 1 • A 100Ω transmission line is connected to a load consisting of a 50Ω resistor in series with a 10pF capacitor.

. Calculate Γ.Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Example – 2 • A 150Ω lossless transmission line is terminated in a capacitor with impedance ?? = −?30Ω.

.Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Example – 3 • Show that Γ = 1 for a lossless line connected to a purely reactive load.

V0e j z V ( z ) V0 e j z 0e j z • For a short circuited line: Γ0 = -1 ZL z=0 V (l ) V0 e j l 0e j l V (l ) V0 e j l e j l 2jsin(βl) V (l ) 2 jV0 sin l .Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Standing Wave and Standing Wave Ratio 0 • Another traditional real-valued measure of load match is j z V 0 e Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR). Consider again the Z0 voltage along a terminated transmission line. as a function z = -l of position ?.

and so on → standing wave pattern!!! . 3λ/2.Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Standing Wave and Standing Wave Ratio (contd. t ) Re V (l )e jt Re 2 jV0 sin( l )e jt v(l . t ) 2V0 sin( l )cos(t ( / 2)) Definitely not a traveling wave!! Always zero for -l=0 i.) v(l . λ.. the point of short-circuit Where has the traveling wave V(z) gone? • As the time and space are decoupled → No wave propagation takes place • The incident wave is 180ο out of phase with the reflected wave → gives rise to zero crossings of the wave at 0.e. λ/2.

λ/2. 3λ/2 ?? Standing Wave Pattern for Various Instances of Time • for arbitrarily terminated line: V (l ) V0 e j l 0e j l V0 e j l 1 0e j 2 l V (l ) A(l ) 1 (l ) Valid anywhere on the line . λ. π.Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Standing Wave and Standing Wave Ratio (contd. 3π Spatial Location: 0.) ?(?)/2?0 + Corresponding βl: 0. 2π.

Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Standing Wave and Standing Wave Ratio (contd. Γ0 = 0 and therefore Γ(-l) = 0 → as expected. for an arbitrarily terminated line: V (l ) max VSWR V (l ) min We have: V (l ) V0 e j l 1 0e j 2 l • Two possibilities for extreme values: 0e j l 1 0 e j l 1 . • SWR is defined as the ratio of maximum voltage (or current) amplitude and the minimum voltage (or current) amplitude along a line → therefore. • For other arbitrary impedance loads: Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) or Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) is the measure of mismatch.) V (l ) A(l ) 1 (l ) Valid anywhere on the line • Under the matched condition. only positive traveling wave exists.

?? = ?0 ). if Γ0 = 1 (i. voltage: 0 0 1 • Note if Γ0 = 0 (i. SWR can only be defined for lossless line as the SWR equation is not valid for attenuating voltage and current . voltage: V(l ) max V0 1 0 1 0 VSWR 1 0 Apparently: V(l ) Min. • Conversely. We find for this case: V ( z) max 2 V0 V ( z) min 0 In other words. We find for this case: min V0 1 0 1 VSWR V ( z) max V ( z) min V0 In other words..e. ?? = ?0 ). the voltage magnitude is a constant with respect to position ?. the voltage magnitude varies greatly with respect to position ?. then VSWR = ∞. then VSWR = 1.Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Standing Wave and Standing Wave Ratio (contd.e..) Max. In practice.

Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Example – 4 • A 50Ω lossless transmission line is terminated in a load with impedance ?? = (100 + ?30)Ω. . Calculate voltage reflection coefficient and the voltage standing wave ratio.

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