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# Indraprastha Institute of

Information Technology Delhi

Lecture – 5
• Voltage Reflection Coefficient
• Examples
• Standing Waves

ECE230

Date: 18.01.2016

VL  V ( z  0)  V0  V0 V0 V0 I L  I ( z  0)   Z0 Z0 .Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Voltage Reflection Coefficient • To determine the unknowns ?0+ and ?0− . we need to consider the lossless transmission line in the context of complete circuit including a generator circuit at its input terminals and a load at its output terminals. ?? and ?? are the total voltage and current at the load. At the load side: VL ZL  IL • Where.

) VL  V ( z  0)  V0  V0  V0  V0 ZL     V  V 0  0 VL ZL  IL • Solving for V0 V0 V0 V0 V0  V0 I L  I ( z  0)    Z0 Z0 Z0   Z0     Z  Z V Z L  Z0  L 0 0 gives: V   V   0  V0 Z L  Z0  Z L  Z0  The ratio of the amplitudes of the reflected and the incident voltage waves at the load is called voltage reflection coefficient Γ ?0−  0 V0 Z L  Z 0     V0 Z L  Z0 .Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Voltage Reflection Coefficient (contd.

Find the reflection coefficient at the load for a 100MHz wave. .Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Example – 1 • A 100Ω transmission line is connected to a load consisting of a 50Ω resistor in series with a 10pF capacitor.

. Calculate Γ.Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Example – 2 • A 150Ω lossless transmission line is terminated in a capacitor with impedance ?? = −?30Ω.

.Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Example – 3 • Show that Γ = 1 for a lossless line connected to a purely reactive load.

V0e j z V ( z )  V0 e  j z   0e  j z  • For a short circuited line: Γ0 = -1 ZL z=0 V (l )  V0 e j l   0e  j l  V (l )  V0  e  j l  e  j l  2jsin(βl) V (l )  2 jV0 sin  l .Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Standing Wave and Standing Wave Ratio 0 • Another traditional real-valued measure of load match is   j z V 0 e Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR). Consider again the Z0 voltage along a terminated transmission line. as a function z = -l of position ?.

and so on → standing wave pattern!!! . 3λ/2.Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Standing Wave and Standing Wave Ratio (contd. t )  Re V (l )e jt   Re  2 jV0 sin(  l )e jt   v(l . t )  2V0 sin(  l )cos(t  ( / 2)) Definitely not a traveling wave!! Always zero for -l=0 i.) v(l . λ.. the point of short-circuit Where has the traveling wave V(z) gone? • As the time and space are decoupled → No wave propagation takes place • The incident wave is 180ο out of phase with the reflected wave → gives rise to zero crossings of the wave at 0.e. λ/2.

λ/2. 3λ/2 ?? Standing Wave Pattern for Various Instances of Time • for arbitrarily terminated line: V (l )  V0  e  j l   0e  j l   V0 e  j l 1   0e  j 2  l   V (l )  A(l ) 1  (l )  Valid anywhere on the line . λ. π.Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Standing Wave and Standing Wave Ratio (contd. 3π Spatial Location: 0.) ?(?)/2?0 + Corresponding βl: 0. 2π.

Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Standing Wave and Standing Wave Ratio (contd. Γ0 = 0 and therefore Γ(-l) = 0 → as expected. for an arbitrarily terminated line: V (l ) max VSWR  V (l ) min  We have: V (l )  V0 e  j  l 1   0e  j 2  l • Two possibilities for extreme values:  0e  j l  1   0 e  j  l  1 . • SWR is defined as the ratio of maximum voltage (or current) amplitude and the minimum voltage (or current) amplitude along a line → therefore. • For other arbitrary impedance loads: Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) or Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) is the measure of mismatch.)  V (l )  A(l ) 1  (l )  Valid anywhere on the line • Under the matched condition. only positive traveling wave exists.

?? = ?0 ). if Γ0 = 1 (i. voltage: 0  0  1 • Note if Γ0 = 0 (i. SWR can only be defined for lossless line as the SWR equation is not valid for attenuating voltage and current . voltage: V(l ) max  V0 1   0 1  0 VSWR  1  0  Apparently: V(l ) Min. • Conversely. We find for this case: V ( z) max  2 V0 V ( z) min 0 In other words. We find for this case: min  V0 1   0  1  VSWR   V ( z) max  V ( z) min  V0 In other words..e. ?? = ?0 ). the voltage magnitude is a constant with respect to position ?. the voltage magnitude varies greatly with respect to position ?. then VSWR = ∞. then VSWR = 1.Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Standing Wave and Standing Wave Ratio (contd.e..)  Max. In practice.

Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology Delhi ECE230 Example – 4 • A 50Ω lossless transmission line is terminated in a load with impedance ?? = (100 + ?30)Ω. . Calculate voltage reflection coefficient and the voltage standing wave ratio.