Problems for ideal gas laws.

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Problems for ideal gas laws.

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Abbreviations

atm - atmosphere

mm Hg - millimeters of mercury

torr - another name for mm Hg

Pa - Pascal (kPa = kilo Pascal)

K - Kelvin

C - degrees Celsius

Conversions

K = C + 273

1 cm3 (cubic centimeter) = 1 mL (milliliter)

1 dm3 (cubic decimeter) = 1 L (liter) = 1000 mL

Standard Conditions

0.00 C = 273 K

1.00 atm = 760.0 mm Hg = 101.325 kPa = 101,325 Pa

104. How many moles of gas are contained in 890.0 mL at 21.0 C and 750.0 mm Hg pressure?

105. 1.09 g of H2 is contained in a 2.00 L container at 20.0 C. What is the pressure in this

container in mm Hg?

106. Calculate the volume 3.00 moles of a gas will occupy at 24.0 C and 762.4 mm Hg.

107. What volume will 20.0 g of Argon occupy at STP?

108. How many moles of gas would be present in a gas trapped within a 100.0 mL vessel at 25.0

C at a pressure of 2.50 atmospheres?

109. How many moles of a gas would be present in a gas trapped within a 37.0 liter vessel at

80.00 C at a pressure of 2.50 atm?

110. If the number of moles of a gas are doubled at the same temperature and pressure, will the

volume increase or decrease?

111. What volume will 1.27 moles of helium gas occupy at STP?

112. At what pressure would 0.150 mole of nitrogen gas at 23.0 C occupy 8.90 L?

113. What volume would 32.0 g of NO2 gas occupy at 3.12 atm and 18.0 C?

114. Find the volume of 2.40 mol of gas whose temperature is 50.0 C and whose pressure is

2.00 atm.

115. Calculate the molecular weight of a gas if 35.44 g of the gas stored in a 7.50 L tank exerts a

pressure of 60.0 atm at a constant temperature of 35.5 C

116. How many moles of gas are contained in a 50.0 L cylinder at a pressure of 100.0 atm and a

temperature of 35.0 C?

117. Determine the number of moles of Krypton contained in a 3.25 liter gas tank at 5.80 atm

and 25.5 C. If the gas is Oxygen instead of Krypton, will the answer be the same? Why or why

not?

118. Determine the number of grams of carbon dioxide in a 450.6 mL tank at 1.80 atm and minus

50.5 C. Determine the number of grams of oxygen that the same container will contain under

the same temperature and pressure.

119. Determine the volume of occupied by 2.34 grams of carbon dioxide gas at STP.

120. A sample of argon gas at STP occupies 56.2 liters. Determine the number of moles of argon

and the mass in the sample.

121. At what temperature will 0.654 moles of neon gas occupy 12.30 liters at 1.95 atmospheres?

122. A 30.6 g sample of gas occupies 22.4 L at STP. What is the molecular weight of this gas?

123. A 40.0 g gas sample occupies 11.2 L at STP. Find the molecular weight of this gas.

124. A 12.0 g sample of gas occupies 19.2 L at STP. What is the molecular weight of this gas?

125. 96.0 g. of a gas occupies 48.0 L at 700.0 mm Hg and 20.0 C. What is its molecular weight?

126. 20.83 g. of a gas occupies 4.167 L at 79.97 kPa at 30.0 C. What is its molecular weight?

127. At STP 3.00 liters of an unknown gas has a mass of 9.50 grams. Calculate its molar mass.

128. At STP 0.250 liter of an unknown gas has a mass of 1.00 gram. Calculate its molar mass.

129. At STP 150.0 mL of an unknown gas has a mass of 0.250 gram. Calculate its molar mass.

130. 1.089 g of a gas occupies 4.50 L at 20.5 C and 0.890 atm. What is its molar mass?

131. 0.190 g of a gas occupies 250.0 mL at STP. What is its molar mass? What gas is it? Hint calculate molar mass of the gas.

132. If 9.006 grams of a gas are enclosed in a 50.00 liter vessel at 273.15 K and 2.000

atmospheres of pressure, what is the molar mass of the gas? What gas is this?

133. What is the value of and units on R? What is R called ("A letter" is not the correct answer!)?

134. A 50.00 liter tank at minus 15.00 C contains 14.00 grams of helium gas and 10.00 grams of

nitrogen gas.

a. Determine the moles of helium gas in the tank.

b. Determine the moles of nitrogen gas in the tank.

c. Determine the mole fraction of helium gas in the tank.

d. Determine the mole fraction of nitrogen gas in the tank.

e. Determine the partial pressure of helium gas in the tank.

f. Determine the partial pressure of nitrogen gas in the tank.

h. Determine the volume that the mixture will occupy at STP.

104. n = PV / RT

n = [ (750.0 mmHg / 760.0 mmHg atm1) (0.890 L) ] / (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (294.0 K)

Please note the division of 750 by 760. That is done in order to convert the pressure from mmHg

to atm., because the value for R contains atm. as the pressure unit. If we used mmHg, the

pressure units would not cancel and we need to have them cancel because we require mol. only

to be in the answer.

105. P = nRT / V

P = [ (1.09 g / 2.02 g mol1) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (293.0 K) ] / 2.00 L

Multiply the answer (which is in atm) by 760.0 mmHg atm1 to get mmHg

106. V = nRT / P

V = [ (3.00 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (297.0 K) ] / (762.4 mmHg / 760.0 mmHg atm1

107. V = nRT / P

V = [ (20.0 g / 40.0 g mol1) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (273.0 K) ] / (1.00 atm)

108. n = PV / RT

n = [ (2.50 atm) (0.1000 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (298.0 K) ]

109. n = PV / RT

n = [ (2.50 atm) (37.0 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (353.0 K) ]

110. The volume would increase. In fact, it would double.

111. V = nRT / P

V = [ (1.27 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (273.0 K) ] / 1.00 atm

or

(22.4 L / 1.00 mol) = (x / 1.27 mol)

112. P = nRT / V

113. V = nRT / P

V = [ (32.0 g / 46.0 g mol1) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (291.0 K) ] / 3.12 atm

114. V = nRT / P

V = [ 2.40 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (323.0 K) ] / 2.00 atm

115. n = PV / RT

n = [ (60.0 atm) (7.50 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (308.5 K) ]

Divide 35.44 g by the number of moles calculated to get the molecular weight.

116. n = PV / RT

n = [ (100.0 atm) (5.00 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (308.0 K) ]

117. n = PV / RT

n = [ (5.80 atm) (3.25 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (298.5 K) ]

The moles of gas would be the same if the gas was switched to oxygen. Since the temperature

and pressure would be the same, the same volume willcontain the same number of molecules of

gas, i.e. moles of gas. This is Avogadro's Hypothesis.

118. n = PV / RT

n = [ (0.4506 atm) (1.80 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (222.5 K) ]

This calculates the number of moles of CO2. Multiply the moles by the molecular weight of CO2

to get the grams. Under the same set of conditions, the moles of oxygen would be the same, so

multiply the calculated moles by the molecular weight of O2 to get the grams.

119. V = nRT / P

V = [ (2.34 g / 44.0 g mol1) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (273.0 K) ] / 1.00 atm

120. n = PV / RT

n = [ (1.00 atm) (56.2 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (273.0 K) ] Multiply the moles by the

atomic weight of Ar to get the grams.

121. T = PV / nR T = [ (1.95 atm) (12.30 L) ] / [ (0.654 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) ]

122. Since one mole of gas occupies 22.4 L at STP, the molecular weight of the gas is 30.6 g

mol1

123. 11.2 L at STP is one-half molar volume, so there is 0.5 mol of gas present. Therefore, the

molecular weight is 80.0 g mol1

124. This problem, as well as the two just above can be solved with PV = nRT. You would solve

for n, the number of moles. Then you would divide the grams given by the mole calculated.

Since it is at STP, we can also use a ratio method (see prob. 111)

(19.2 L / 12.0 g) = (22.4 L / x )

125. n = PV / RT

n = [ (700.0 mmHg / 760.0 mmHg atm1) (48.0 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (293.0 K) ]

Then, divide the grams given (96.0) by the moles just calculated above. This will be the

molecular weight.

126. n = PV / RT

n = [ (79.97 kPa / 101.325 kPa atm1) (4.167 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (303.0 K) ]

Then, divide the grams given (20.83) by the moles just calculated above. This will be the

molecular weight.

127. (3.00 L / 9.50 g) = (22.4 L / x )

128. (0.250 L / 1.00 g) = (22.4 L / x )

129. (0.150 L / 0.250 g) = (22.4 L / x )

130. n = PV / RT

n = [ (0.890 atm) (4.50 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (293.5 K) ]

Then, divide the grams given (1.089) by the moles just calculated above. This will be the

molecular weight.

131. n = PV / RT

n = [ (1.00 atm) (0.2500 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (273.0 K) ]

Then, divide the grams given (0.190) by the moles just calculated above. This will be the

molecular weight.

132. If 9.006 grams of a gas are enclosed in a 50.00 liter vessel at 273.15 K and 2.000

atmospheres of pressure, what is the molar mass of the gas? What gas is this?

n = PV / RT

n = [ (2.000 atm) (50.00 L) ] / [ (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (273.15 K) ]

Then, divide the grams given (9.006) by the moles just calculated above. This will be the

molecular weight.

The answer (2.019 g mol1) is approximately that of hydrogen gas, H2

133. 0.08206 L atm mol1 K1

The gas constant.

134.

a. 14.0 g / 4.00 g mol1 = 3.50 mol

b. 49.0 g / 28.0 g mol1 = 1.75 mol

c. 3.50 mol / 5.25 mol

d. 1.75 mol / 5.25 mol

e. Use PV = nRT to determine the total pressure in the container.

P = nRT / V

P = [ (5.25 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (258.0 K) ] / 50.00 L

The total pressure times the mole fraction of He will give helium's partial pressure.

f. The total pressure times the mole fraction of N2 will give nitrogen's partial pressure. Since it is

the only other value, you could subtract helium's answer from the total.

g. Already done to answer part e.

h. V = nRT / P

V = [ (5.25 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (273.0 K) ] / 1.00 atm

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