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Demand: Why do people

engage in tourism?
Md Zaker Hossin

Objectives
Introduction
Tourism demand
The motivation dichotomy
Irinsic and extrinsic motivation
Maslows Hierarchy Model and Tourist Motivation
Consumer Behaviour and Tourism.

Group Discussion
Get into groups and discussed the following questions- 15 mins
Who are the tourists?
What do tourists come here for?
What facilities are used by tourists to your town?
Where do they come from?
Where do they go?
Why do people travel?
When do people travel?

Tourism Demand
The total number of persons who travel, or wish to travel,
to use tourist facilities and services at places away from
their places of work and residence. Matheson and Wall,
1982.
Component of Demand
Effective or Actual Demand
Suppressed Demand
---Potential Demand
---Differed Demand

No Demand
Substitution of Demand
Redirection of Demand.

Concept map for understanding tourist behaviour

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs & Travel Motivation.

Travel Motivation Categories


Physical motivators: Physical test, sports participation,
beach recreation, relaxing, entertainment and health
consideration.
Cultural Motivators: the desire to see & know more
about other cultures their music, art, folklore, dances,
paintings and religion.
Interpersonal motivators: the desire to meet new
people, to visit friends & relatives, to escape from
routine, family or neighbours, or to make new friendship.
Status & prestige motivators: the desire for recognition,
attention, appreciation and a good reputation.

Plogs Psychographic Traveller Types


Distribution of Tourist in each Typology

Allocentric
Independent
travellers
Above average
income
Seek more
adventurous
experiences

Mid-Centric

Psychocentric

Majority of
travellers
Seek well-known
established
destinations
May go to
destination
populated by
allocentrics

Less sure, more


insecure travellers
Choose
destination similar
to home
Like the familiar
and may be repeat
visitor.

Mayo & Jarvis Travel Buying Behaviour

Typology of Tourist

Psychographic based on personality and lifestyle of


tourist.
Demographic based on characteristics of age,
occupation, education, gender, family cycle.
Geographic- based on nationality or tourist generating
region.

VALS lifestyle categories

Need-driven groups
Survivor lifestyle
Sustainers lifestyle

Inner-directed groups
I-am-me lifestyle
Experiential lifestyle
Societally conscious lifestyle
Self-directed lifestyle

Outer-directed groups
Belongers lifestyle
Emulator lifestyle
Achiever lifestyle

Combined inner- and outerdirected groups


Integrated lifestyle.

Dimension of Tourist Personality


Ross (1991) stated 8 dimension of tourist personality:
---Venturesomeness: type of individual who is more seeking and
exploring (tend to be first user).
---Pleasure-seeking: type of person who desires a considerable amount
of luxury and comfort in all aspect of travel.
---Impulsive: the tendency to want to do something now.
---Self-confidence: the willingness to do unique and different things.
---Plantfulness: individuals who is systematic and plantful.
---Masculinity: the action-oriented man or the outdoorsman.
---Intellectualism: type of individual who has heavy orientation or
high-brow interests.
---People orientation: a desire to get close to people through travel
and to experience the man culture of worlds.