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CE 26/27-I-02-14
KING SAUD UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Evaluation of Shear Strength Characteristics


of Riyadhs Soil in the Triaxial Tests

By
SALEH DHAHAWI Al-SHAMMARI

RIYADH
JUMADA AWAL,1427
JUNE,2006

KING SAUD UNIVERSITY


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Evaluation of Shear Strength Characteristics


of Riyadhs Soil in the Triaxial Tests

By
Saleh Dhahawi Al-Shammari

Submitted Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement


for the degree of Bachelor of science on Civil Engineering
in the College of Engineering

RIYADH
JUMADA AWAL,1427
JUNE,2006

We hereby approve the report entitle


"Evaluation of Shear Strength Characteristics of Riyadh,s Soil in the

Triaxial Tests"

Prepared by:Saleh AL-Shammari

COMMITTEE MEMBERS:

Advisor

Signature:
Dr. Abdullhakem AL-Ghanem

Examiner

Signature:
Dr.Abdul Aziz AL-Enazi

Date:June 2006

CONTENTS

page

List of tabel

iv

List of figures

Acknowledgement

ix

Absract

CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background

1.2 Scope of work

CHAPTER TWO:LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 The principle of effective stress

2.2 Shear strength theory

2.2.1 Shear strength of soil

2.2.1 Stress-Strain relationship

2.3 Triaxial Test

2.4

2.3.1 The theory of triaxial test

2.3.2 Types of triaxial test

Factors effecting triaxial test

13

CHAPTER THREE:EXPERIMENTAL WORK


3.1 Intoduction

16

3.2 Soil characteristics

16

3.3 Grain size analysis

16

3.4 Specific gravity test

17

3.5 Limits and indices

17

3.6 Compaction test

17

CHAPTER FOUR :RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


4.1 Shear strength of soil by triaxial test

25

4.2 Consolidated drained tests

25

4.3 Total and effective consolidated undrained tests

25

4.4 Comparision of the C.D.and C.U.tests

25

4.5 stresses paths

26

CHAPTER FIVE:CONCLUSION

36

APPENDIX A

37

REFERENCES

44

List of tables
Table NO:
2.1

Title

page

The effect of void ratio,grain shap


,grain Size distribution,

15

3.1

Grain size analysis

18

3.2

Hydrometer method

19

3.3

Specific gravity test

21

3.4

Determination of atterberg limits


of soil

22

3.5

Standard compaction test

23

4.1

Area of failure

35

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig: NO
2.1

Title

page

The effect of pore-pressure


Dissipation On volume change

2.2

Stress system

2.3

The triaxial apparatus

11

2.4

Stress system in triaxial test

12

3.1

Grain size distribution curve for Riyadh


Soil

20

3.2

Standard compaction test

24

4.1

Deviator stress against axial strain obtained


From consolidated drained triaxial test

4.2

Total and effective stress failure envelopes


For consolidated drained test

4.3

29

Total and effective stress failure envelopes


For consolidated undrained test

4.5

28

Deviator stress against axial strain obtained


From consolidated undrained test

4.4

27

30

Variation of volume change with axial strain


From consolidated drained test

4.6

Stresses paths consolidated drained

4.7

Stresses paths effective condolidated


undrainedtest

31
32
33

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the Name of Allah,Most Gracious,Most Merciful
I wish to express my deep appreciation and gratitude to my project supervisor
Dr. Abdullhakem AL-Ghanem and the examiner member Dr.Abdul Aziz ALEnazi for their since encouragement ,helpful suggestion and valuable guidance
throughout all stages of my project.
My deep thanks to engineer:Abdusstar and Jalal in the soil laboratory for their help
through laboratory testing.

Saleh AL-Shammari

Abstract

There is ahardely a problem in the field of geotechnical engineering which


does not involve the shear strength properties of the soil in some manner
In this investigation the shear strength parameters of AL-Nassem area wrer
investigation .The soil was silty sand .Two types of tests were preferd,consolidated
drained and consolidated undrained triaxial compression tests.
The test results were consistent with that of under or normal consolidated soil.
A comparison between total and effective shear strength parameters of the tests
results were performed.
The report contains introduction ,literature review,experimental work,results and
descucison with a complete condition of these results.

10

Chapter One
Introduction
1.1.

Background:
The civil engineer, in facing the practical problems raised by the use of the soil

as a foundation and as a construction material, has frequently to strike a balance


between the need for a careful experimental investigation and the need for simplicity
in the means employed. His decision will depend on his own experience and on the
magnitude, or novelty, of the particular problem. His difficulty in reaching a decision
is often increased by lack of certainty as to what testing procedure is appropriate and
practicable in each case.
Shearing strength is the property which enables soil to maintain equilibrium on a
sloping surface, such as a natural hillside, the back slope of a highway or railway cut,
or the sloping sides of an embankment. This strength materially influences the
bearing capacity of a foundation soil and the lateral pressure which a soil backfill
exerts against a retaining wall or similar retaining structures. There is a hardly a
problem in the field of soil engineering which does not involve the shear properties
of the soil in some manner.

For the laboratory measurement of shear strength under controlled conditions of


drainage, undrained and of deformation characteristics (other than compressibility),
the engineer is largely dependent on the triaxial test.
Triaxial test methods are two of several methods which are used in the
laboratory to measure the shear strength parameters of a soil, where in each method.

11
the stress and strain conditions and drainage patterns are different. However, these
methods are effected by many factors, one such factor is the rate of loading at which
the external load is applied to the specimen.
The test may, however, be performed in various ways; and, in order to
distinguish between the different types of test and relate them to the more common
practical problems, it is necessary to make a brief survey of the basic factors
controlling shear strength and deformation.

1.2 Scope of Work:


The scope of this study is to perform undrained and drained triaxial testing on
soil sample. Shear strength parameters from these tests will be compared to study the
effect of drain and undrained conditions on shear strength characteristics

12

Chapter Two
Literature Review
2.1.

The Principle of Effective Stress:


The strength and deformation characteristics of soil are best understood by

visualizing it as a compressible skeleton of solid particles enclosing voids which, in


saturated soil, are filled with water, or, in partly saturated soil, with both air and
water. Shear stresses can of course carried only by the skeleton of solid particles. On
the other hand, the normal stress on any plane is, in general, the sum of two
components the stress carried by the solid particles and the pressure in the fluid in
the void space.
This, from the practical point of view, has two important consequences:
1) In the relationship between normal stress and volume change the controlling
factor is not the total normal stress, but the difference between the total
normal stress and the pressure of the fluid in the void space, termed the pore
pressure[1].For an equal all-round change in stress, this is expressed
quantitatively by the relationship:
V
C c ( u)
V

(2-1)

where V/V denotes the change in volume per unit volume of soil,
denotes the change in total normal stress,
u denotes the change in pore pressure
and

Cc denotes the compressibility of the soil skeleton, for the


particular stress range considered.

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The difference u is termed the effective stress and denoted by the symbol
' . It is important to note that equation (2.1) is valid whatever the contact

area between the solid particles [2],[3]. through within the stress range
encountered problems this area is likely to be small.
This relationship may be illustrated by a conclusion of practical importance
which follows directly from equation (2.1). A volume change will occur,
without any change in the applied or total stress, if the pore pressure
undergoes a change (Fig. 2.1). This is the primary cause of the long-term
settlements of buildings founded on clay, in which the excess pore pressure
set up during construction dissipates only at a slow rate. It is also the
explanation of the additional settlements caused by ground water lowering,
either for construction work or for water supply[4].
2) The shear strength of soils, as of all granular materials, is largely determined
by the frictional forces arising during slip at the contacts between the soil
particles. These are clearly a function of the component of normal stress
carried by the solid skeleton rather than of the total normal stress [5].
2.2.

Shear Strength Theory:

2.2.1. Shear Strength of Soil:


Meaning of Shear Strength:
The shear strength of a soil is measured in terms of a limiting resistance of
deformation offered by the soil mass or test sample when subjected to
loading or unloading. The limiting shearing resistance, corresponding to the
condition generally referred to as failure, can be defined in several different
ways. Criteria of failure commonly used as a basis for stability calculations
in foundation design are not necessary the same as a criterion that is relevant
to fundamental properties of soils in general[6].

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Fig. [2.1]
The effect of pore-pressure dissipation on volume change
(a) stress system applied to element;
(b) relationship between decrease in volume, V/V, and increase in
effective stress ' ;
(c) changes in total stress during test: stage I increase in total stress
under undrained conditions; stage II dissipation of pore pressure
under constant total stress;
(d) changes in pore pressure u;
(e) changes in effective stress ' ;
in a fully saturated soil.
(f) Changes in volume, V/V.

15
Shear strength is not a unique property of a soil but depends on many factors.
The shear strength of a test sample is measured in the laboratory by
subjecting it to certain defined conditions and carrying out a particular kind
of test. Failure can occur in the soil as a whole, or within limited narrow
zones referred to as failure planes. Some of the factors on which the strength
of soil as measured in a laboratory test depend are as follows[6]:
(a) Mineralogy of grains.
(b) Particle shape, size distribution and configuration.
(c) Voids ratio and water content.
(d) Previous stress history.
(e) Existing stresses in-situ.
(f) Stress changes imposed during sampling.
(g) Initial state of the sample.
(h) Stresses applied prior to test.
(i) Method of test.
(j) Rate at which loading is applied.
(k) Whether or not drainage is allowed during the test.
(l) Resulting pore water pressure.
(m) Criterion adopted for determining the shear strength.
Items (a) to (e) are related to natural conditions which cannot be controlled
but can be assessed from field observations, measurements and geological
evidence. Items (f) and (g) depend on the quality of sampling and the care
taken in handling and sample preparation, but (g) can be controlled with
remolded or compacted samples (e.g. density and moisture content). Testing
methods, items (h) or (k), can vary considerably and determine (l). Certain
triaxial test procedures are recognized as normal practice and many of these
are describe in this volume.
2.2.2. Stress-Strain Relationships:
Shear Strength Parameters:

16
For the specified failure criterion it is necessary to be able to relate the shear
strength on a potential failure surface to the stress normal to that surface,
denoted by n (total stress) or 'n (effective stress).
In terms of total stress the parameters are the cohesion, c, and the angle of
shear resistance, . The relationship between f n when failure occurs on
the plane is given by Coulombs equation.
f = c + n tan

(2-2)

in terms of total stresses.


The parameters c and are not fundamental properties of a particular soil but
depend on other factors of which moisture content and voids ratio are the
most significant. They are used only in total stress analysis where pore
pressures are not measured.
2.3.

Triaxial Test:

2.3.1. The Theory of Triaxial Test:


Ideally, the triaxial test should permit independent control of the three
principal stresses (Fig. 2.2), so that generalized states of stress can be
examined, including the important special case corresponding to plane strain.
However, the relatively high compressibility of the soil skeleton and the
magnitude of the shear strains required to case failure lead to mechanical
difficulties which make independent control too complicated for other than
special research tests. The type of triaxial test most commonly used in
research work and in routine testing is the cylindrical compression test.
In this test, shown diagrammatically in Fig. 2.3, the cylindrical specimen is
sealed in a water-tight rubber membrane and enclosed in a cell in which it can
be subjected to fluid pressure.

17
The water pressure, usually called cell pressure, can be measured directly
from a manometer or gauge, and an adaptation also enables the pore water
pressure inside the sample to be recorded.

2
3
Fig. [2.2]
Stress system
During the application of this load the sample experience shortening in the
vertical direction with a corresponding expansion in the horizontal direction.
Under these conditions the axial stress is the major principal stress 1; the
intermediate and minor principal stresses (2 and 3, respectively) are both
equal to the cell pressure.
Connections to the ends of the sample permit either the drainage of water and
air from the voids in the soil or, alternatively, the measurement of the pore
pressure under conditions of no drainage.

2.3.2. Types of Triaxial Test:


The triaxial test will be classified according to the conditions of drainage
obtaining during each stage.
i)

Unconsolidated Undrained Test:


In this test to drainage and no dissipation of pore pressure is
permitted during the application of the all-round stress which
indicates that the sample will not have any volume change due to

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dissipation of water and no drainage is allowed during the
application of the deviator stress.
ii)

Consolidated Undrained Tests:


In this test drainage will be permitted during the application of allround pressure (3) and the sample will considered under this
pressure and no drainage is allowed during the application of
deviator stress and this test can be carried out on undisturbed or
compacted samples of earth-fill, in particular when the degree of
saturation is not enough to result in a sufficient range of strengths in
the undrained test to define a satisfactory failure envelope. It may
also be used to examine the effect on C and of flooding
foundation strata and earth-fill materials, and indicates the
magnitude of the accompanying volume change.

iii) Consolidated Drained Test:


In this test drainage is permitted throughout the test so that full
consolidation occurs under the all-round stress and no excess pore
pressure is set up during the application of the deviator stress. When
the consolidation takes place the sample is then sheared by
increasing the axial load at a sufficiently slow rate to prevent any
build-up of excess pore pressure. The minor principal stress 3 at
failure is this equal to P, the consolidation pressure, the major
principal stress 1' in the axial stress, since the pore pressure is
zero, the effective stresses are equal to the applied stresses, and the
strength envelope in terms of effective stress is obtained directly
from the stress circles.
The values of C and are denoted by (C d), (d). The drained
test also provides information on the volume changes which
accompany the application of the all-round pressure and the deviator
stress, and on the stress-strain characteristics of the soil.

19

Fig. [2.3]
The triaxial apparatus.

20

Fig. [2.4]
Stress system in triaxial test.

21
2.4.

Factors Effecting Triaxial Test


The shear strength component of cohesion SC = C where C quantitatively

represents the intrinsic bond between grains. The bond is affected by the cementing
agents and the soluble salts. Also, the soil parameters C, are dependent upon
many factors.
Cohesion C is dependent upon:
1) Cementing agents and soluble salts.
2) Stress history of the soil mass, desiccation. And water content.
3) The fabric and structure of the soil mass.
4) Grain shape, size and surface roughness.
Angle of internal friction is dependent upon:
1) Void ratio or relative density.
2) Particle shape.
3) Grain size distribution.
4) Particle surface roughness.
5) Water content.
6) Intermediate principle stress.
7) Particle size.
8) Overconsolidation or prestress.
Void ratio, related to the density of the sand, is perhaps the most important
single parameter that affects the strength of sand, the lower the void ratio (higher
density or higher relative density), the higher the shear strength. The Mohr circles for
the triaxial test data shown in Fig. (2.2) for various confining pressures and four
initial void ratios. It can be seen that as the void ratio decreases, or the density
increases, the angle of internal friction or angle of shearing resistance increases.
The effects of relative density or void ratio, grain shape, grain size
distribution, and particle size on are summarized in Table 2.1.

22

Another parameter, not included in Table 2.1, is surface roughness, which is


very difficult to measure. Generally, the greater the surface roughness, the greater
will be .
Over consolidation or prestress of sands has been found to not significantly
affect , but it strongly affect the compression modulus of granular materials.

23
[7]
Table 2.1
The effect of void ratio, grain shape, grain size distribution, and particle size on *
Loose
Dense
D10
No. General Description Grain shape
(mm) Cu
e
(deg)
e
(deg)
Ottawa standard
Well
1
0.56 1.2 0.70
28
0.53
35
sand
rounded
Sand from St. Peter
2
Rounded
0.16 1.7 0.69
31
0.47
34
sandstone
Beach sand from
3
Rounded
0.78 1.5 0.89
29
--Plymouth. MA
Silty sand from
4
Franklin Falls Dam Subrounded 0.03 2.1 0.85
33
0.65
37
site, NH
Silty sand from
Subangular
5
vicinity of John
to
0.04 4.1 0.65
36
0.45
40
Martin Dam, CO
subrounded
Slightly silty sand
Subangular
from the shoulders
6
to
0.13 1.8 0.84
34
0.54
42
of Ft. Peck Dam,
subrounded
MT
Screened glacial
7
sand, Manchester,
Subangular 0.22 1.4 0.85
33
0.60
43
NH
Sand from beach of
hydraulic fill dam,
8
Subangular 0.07 2.7 0.81
35
0.54
46
Quabbin Project,
MA
Artificial, wellSubrounded
graded mixture of
9
to
0.16
68 0.41
42
0.12
57
gravel with sands
subangular
No.7 and No.3
Sand for Great Salt
10
Lake fill (dust
Angular
0.07 4.5 0.82
38
0.53
47
gritty)
Well-graded,
11 compacted crushed
Angular
----0.18
60
rock
* By A. Casagrande.
The angle of internal friction of the undisturbed St. Peter sandstone is larger than
60 and its cohesion so small that slight finger pressure or rubbing, or even stiff
blowing at a specimen by mouth, will destroy it.
Angle of internal friction measured by direct shear test for No. 8, by triaxial tests
for all others.

24

Chapter Three
Experimental Work
3.1.

Introduction
Since the soil properties at every location is different, the soil must be

evaluated in many different parts or sites in order to study all characteristics of the
soil.
However, the soil properties must be determined from laboratory tests.
The testing program includes determinations of physical characteristics of the
soil such as grain size analysis and specific gravity tests compaction tests and limits
and indicates.

3.2.

Soil Characteristics
The soil used in this project was brought from Al-Nassem east of Riyadh.

Number of tests were conducted on this soil to find its physical characteristics.

3.3. Grain Size Analysis:


1) Sieve Analysis:
Sieve analysis test was carried in the laboratory using U.S. Bureau test sieves
for determination of grain size distribution. The results of this test are given

25
in Table (3.1) and the gradation curve was plotted in Fig. (3.1). The soil is
classified as silty sand (SM).

2) Hydrometer Method:
Sieve analysis for them. For the particles passing sieve No. 200. I should
make precipitation and put them in a small dish in the oven and after drying
use them for hydrometer method. In this test, a dispersing agent of 125ml of
4% sodium metaphosphate (NaPO3) mix with the soil and water were used to
make the suspension volume of 1000ml. The test data recorded in Tables 3.2.
3.4. Specific Gravity Test:
A specific gravity tests were performed on one soil sample, and their results
are testes in Table (3.3). The specific gravity of the soil is taken to be the average of
the two values in Table (3.3) was found to be equal to 2.68.
3.5. Limits and Indices:
Several tests were performed to determined the Atterberg Limits, liquid
limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit and indices like plasticity index, flow index
and toughness index. These limits and indices are useful to identify and classify the
soil. The test data recorded in table 3.4.
3.6. Compaction Test:
The moisture-density (compaction) test is designed to aid the field
compaction of the soil so as to develop the best engineering properties of the
material. It is assumed that the strength or shearing resistance of the soil increases
with higher densities.
Compaction tests are necessary to determine the optimum water content and
the maximum dry density for the soil and there is a definite relationship between the

26
soil moisture content and the degree of dry density to which a soil may be
compacted, and that for a specific amount of compaction energy applied on the soil.
There is one moisture content termed the (optimum moisture content) at which
particular soil attains its maximum dry density. The result of this test is given in table
3.5.

27
Table 3.1
GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS (Mechanical)
Sample Location : Riyadh East
Dry wt. of sample =

500 gms.

Sieve

Sieve
diam.

Wt.
retained

no.

(mm)

(g)

retained

passing

4.76

0.000

100.0

10

2.000

0.02

0.004

100.0

16

1.180

7.26

1.452

98.5

20

0.850

19.35

3.870

96.1

40

0.425

80.66

16.132

83.9

60

0.250

166.37

33.274

66.7

100

0.150

260.17

52.034

48.0

200

0.075

342.61

68.522

31.5

28
Table 3.2
GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS - HYDROMETER METHOD
Sample Location :
Riyadh East
Date of Testing :

Date

Time
of
test

Elapsed
time

Temp.
Co

(min.)

Corr.
Hyd.

L
from
table
(65)

L/t

Finer

Hyd.
Corr.
read.
Only
for
mensc.

Actual
hyd.
Read.

readings

Ra

Rc

K,
from

Corr.

SQRT
of

table

Diam.

L/t

(6-4)

D , mm

Finer

26101426
09:20

17101426

09:50

0.5

25

49

46.3

92.0

50

8.1

16.2

4.0249

0.0128

0.0515

28.99

25

47

44.3

88.1

48

8.4

8.4

2.8983

0.0128

0.0371

27.74

25

45

42.3

84.1

46

8.8

4.4

2.0976

0.0128

0.0268

26.49

25

42

39.3

78.1

43

9.2

2.3

1.5166

0.0128

0.0194

24.61

25

39

36.3

72.2

40

9.7

1.213

1.1011

0.0128

0.0141

22.73

16

25

36

33.3

66.2

37

10.2

0.6375

0.7984

0.0128

0.0102

20.85

32

14.5

31

28.15

56.0

32

11.1

0.3469

0.5890

0.01285

0.0076

17.63

64

24

26

23

45.7

27

11.9

0.1859

0.4312

0.0128

0.0055

14.40

185

23.5

21

17.85

35.5

22

12.7

0.0686

0.2620

0.0128

0.0033537

11.18

1470

24

16

13

25.8

17

13.5

0.0092

0.0958

0.0128

0.0012266

8.14

29

30

Table 3.3
SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST

Depth : 0.5
m

Sample Location : Riyadh East


Test No.

729.53

729.02

25.5

29.5

wt.flask+ water = wbw

698.15

697.65

0.99875

0.9977

50

50

Ww = ws+wbw-wbws

18.62

18.63

Gs = Ws/Ww

2.682

2.678

wt.flask+ water +soil = wbws


temperature,c

wt.of dry soil = ws

Average specific gravity of soil solids (Gs) =


2.68

31

32

33

34

Chapter Four
Results and discussion
4.1 SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOIL BY TRIAXIAL TESTS
Six triaxial tests were performed during this study with different drainage
condition in order to evaluate the shearing strength parameters .The tests were
performed as follows:
1-Three consolidated drained tests (C.D.tests)
2-Three consolidated undrained tests(C.U.tests)
4.2 Consolidated Drained Tests (C.D.tests)
Consolidated drained triaxial tests were conducted on specially molded
samples at chamber pressure of 100 kpa,200 kpa and 300 kpa. The stress strain
curves for the three samples are plotted in figure (4.1 ).The stress circles at failure
Mohr-Coulomb envelope for the samples in figure (4.2).
.
From figure (4.1 ) it can be observed that the shearing strength of the soil increases
with increasing consolidation pressure.
4.3 Total and EffectiveConsolidated Undrained Tests (C.U.tests)
Three consolidated undrained triaxial tests with measurements of change in
pore water pressure were conducted on specially molded samples with different
chamber pressures.The stress strain curves for the three samples are plotted in
figure (4.3) .The stress circles at failure Mohr-coulomb envelope for the samples in
figure(4.4).
4.4 Comparision of the C.D and C.U tests
The Mohr-coulomb envelope for the C.D. tests gave the shear strength
parameters C=30 kpa and =29(reference figure 4.2),whereas the Mohr-coulomb
envelope for the C.U.tests gave C=5kpa and =30.5(reference figure 4.4) and area
failure for C.U.tests =0.1361 mm^2 and show table 4.1

35
4.5 Stresses paths
The (p-q )circles Mohr coulomb for the C.D. tests in figure (4.6) gave the
range of stresses a=26.24kpa and =25(reference figure 4.6), whereas the Mohrcoulomb envelope for the total C.U.tests gave a=4.31kpa and =27 (reference
figure 4.7) and Mohr-coulomb envelope for effective C.U.tests gave a=8.4kpa and
=28.25 (reference figure 4.8)

36

37

1200
1100
c=30kpa
a n g le = 2 9 d e g

1000
900

S h e a r S tr e s s , k P a

800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

N o r m a l S tr a in , k p a
Figure:4.2 total and effective stress failure envelopes for C.D.triaxial test.

38

39

1000
900
c o h e s io n :
to ta l= 5 k p a
e ffe c tiv e = 1 0 k p a

800

a n g le o f f r ic t io n :
to ta l= 3 0 .5 d e g .
e ffe c tiv e = 3 2 .5 d e g .

S h e a r S tr e s s , k P a

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

N o rm a l S tre s s k p a
Figure :4.4 total and effectives stress failure envelopes for C.U.triaxial
.
Test.

40

41

1200
1100
a=26kpa
a n g le = 2 5 d e g r e e

1000
900
800

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

p
Figure:4.6 stresses pathes C.D.test.

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

42

1000
a = 8 .4 k p a
a n g le = 2 8 .2 5 d e g r e e

900
800
700

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

P
Figure:4.7 stresses paths effective C.U.triaxial test.

800

900

1000

43

1000
900
a = 4 .3 1 k p a
a n g le = 2 7 d e g r e e

800
700

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

P
Figure:4.8 stresses paths for total C.U.triaxial test.

Table 4.1 Area failure of C.U.tests

800

900

1000

44

3 kpa

(1-3) kpa

uf %

Af

100

217.15

37.5

0.17269

200

419.1

48

0.11453

300

632.59

76.5

0.12093

Af
avg=.1361mm2

45

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION
Based on laboratory investigation of the soil the following conclusions may be
1-The soil can be classified as SM (silty sand) soil as per unified soil classification
system.
2-From the test results,the total angle of internal friction yields to =30.5 with
acohesion of 5kpa while the effective angle of internal friction was =32.5 with
cohesion of 10kpa.The results that there are small change in the value of the angle of
internal friction while the value of cohesion were doubled .This pore that effect of
pore water pressure on the cohesion more than on the angle of internal friction.
3-The relatisonship between the volume change and the strain are consistant with the
calculated skepton pore water parameters at failure (Af);which they both indicate that
the sample were under consolidated.
4-The results of stress path both tests were consistant with that of provded in the
litruture.since that the parameters obtained from the polted stress paths parameters
are consistant with that can be calculated from existing relationships given in the
literature;which as follows
sin=tan
a=c cos
5-From all tests,the stress strain realationship were followed the residual shear
failure.This indicator of the sample consolidation conditions since,the residual shear
failure are for lose sand in granular soils and for under or normal consolidation for
cohesion soil.while the peak shear (brittle)failure are for dense sand in granulare soils
and for over consolidated clay.

46

APPINDEX (A)

47

TRIAXIAL TEST

48

Consolidated Drained Test ( CD )


Sample data : dia. = 3.6 cm , length = 7.2 cm ,

Load ring factor = 0.323 kg/div.

Stress = 100 kPa

Volume

Volume

Def.

Load

dalta

Unit

Area

change

change

Reading

(cm3)

(cm3)

(div)

Reading

Strain

Corr.factor

(div)

(mm)

8.42

0.00

0.0

0.0000

8.42

0.00

20

10

0.2

8.42

0.00

40

28

8.4

-0.02

60

8.23

-0.19

8.2

Corr.

Deviator

Axial

Area

Stress

Strain

dv/v

( cm2)

( kPa)

(%)

(%)

1.0000

9.8980

0.00

0.00

0.000

0.0028

0.9972

9.9260

31.92

0.28

0.000

0.4

0.0056

0.9944

9.9541

89.13

0.56

42

0.6

0.0085

0.9915

9.9824

133.32

0.85

80

53

0.8

0.0113

0.9887

10.0108

167.76

1.13

-0.22

100

59

1.0

0.0141

0.9859

10.0394

186.22

1.41

8.19

-0.23

120

64

1.2

0.0169

0.9831

10.0682

201.42

1.69

8.12

-0.30

140

67

1.4

0.0197

0.9803

10.0971

210.26

1.97

8.1

-0.32

160

71

1.6

0.0225

0.9775

10.1262

222.17

2.25

8.1

-0.32

180

73

1.8

0.0254

0.9746

10.1555

227.77

2.54

8.08

-0.34

200

75

2.0

0.0282

0.9718

10.1849

233.33

2.82

-0.42

250

79

2.5

0.0352

0.9648

10.2592

244.00

3.52

7.9

-0.52

300

82

3.0

0.0423

0.9577

10.3347

251.41

4.23

7.82

-0.60

350

83

3.5

0.0493

0.9507

10.4112

252.61

4.93

7.8

-0.62

400

84

4.0

0.0563

0.9437

10.4889

253.76

5.63

7.8

-0.62

450

86

4.5

0.0634

0.9366

10.5678

257.86

6.34

7.78

-0.64

500

87

5.0

0.0704

0.9296

10.6478

258.90

7.04

7.27

-1.15

650

91

6.5

0.0915

0.9085

10.8955

264.65

9.15

7.25

-1.17

700

92

7.0

0.0986

0.9014

10.9806

265.48

9.86

7.19

-1.23

750

93

7.5

0.1056

0.8944

11.0671

266.27

10.56

7.16

-1.26

800

95

8.0

0.1127

0.8873

11.1549

269.85

11.27

7.15

-1.27

850

96

8.5

0.1197

0.8803

11.2441

270.53

11.97

7.05

-1.37

900

97

9.0

0.1268

0.8732

11.3348

271.16

12.68

6.95

-1.47

1000

98.5

10.0

0.1408

0.8592

11.5206

270.91

14.08

0.000
0.028
0.270
0.313
0.327
0.427
0.455
0.455
0.484
0.598
0.740
0.854
0.882
0.882
0.911
1.636
1.665
1.750
1.793
1.807
1.949
2.092

TRIAXIAL TEST
Consolidated Drained Test ( CD )

49
Sample data : dia. = 3.6 cm ,
Loading rate

length = 7.2 cm ,

= 0.3 mm/min.

Load ring factor = 0.323 kg/div.

Stress = 200 kPa

Volume

Volume

Def.

Load

dalta

Unit

Area

Corr.

Deviator

Axial

change

change

Reading

Reading

Strain

Corr.factor

Area

Stress

Strain

dv/v

(cm3)

(cm3)

(div)

(div)

(mm)

( cm2)

( kPa)

(%)

(%)

7.38

0.0

0.0000

1.0000

9.8980

0.00

0.00

0.000

7.35

-0.03

20

25

0.2

0.0028

0.9972

9.9260

79.81

0.28

-0.043

7.2

-0.18

40

50

0.4

0.0056

0.9944

9.9541

159.16

0.56

-0.256

7.1

-0.28

60

63

0.6

0.0085

0.9915

9.9824

199.98

0.85

-0.398

7.02

-0.36

80

73

0.8

0.0113

0.9887

10.0108

231.06

1.13

-0.512

6.92

-0.46

100

82

1.0

0.0141

0.9859

10.0394

258.81

1.41

-0.655

6.84

-0.54

120

88

1.2

0.0169

0.9831

10.0682

276.95

1.69

-0.768

6.72

-0.66

140

96

1.4

0.0197

0.9803

10.0971

301.26

1.97

-0.939

6.64

-0.74

160

100

1.6

0.0225

0.9775

10.1262

312.91

2.25

-1.053

6.6

-0.78

180

104

1.8

0.0254

0.9746

10.1555

324.49

2.54

-1.110

6.5

-0.88

200

108

2.0

0.0282

0.9718

10.1849

336.00

2.82

-1.252

6.4

-0.98

250

117

2.5

0.0352

0.9648

10.2592

361.36

3.52

-1.394

6.22

-1.16

300

123

3.0

0.0423

0.9577

10.3347

377.12

4.23

-1.651

6.1

-1.28

350

129

3.5

0.0493

0.9507

10.4112

392.61

4.93

-1.821

-1.38

400

134

4.0

0.0563

0.9437

10.4889

404.80

5.63

-1.964

5.9

-1.48

450

139

4.5

0.0634

0.9366

10.5678

416.78

6.34

-2.106

5.82

-1.56

500

143

5.0

0.0704

0.9296

10.6478

425.55

7.04

-2.220

5.7

-1.68

550

147

5.5

0.0775

0.9225

10.7291

434.13

7.75

-2.390

5.66

-1.72

600

149

6.0

0.0845

0.9155

10.8117

436.68

8.45

-2.447

5.62

-1.76

650

151

6.5

0.0915

0.9085

10.8955

439.14

9.15

-2.504

5.52

-1.86

700

154

7.0

0.0986

0.9014

10.9806

444.39

9.86

-2.647

5.48

-1.9

750

155

7.5

0.1056

0.8944

11.0671

443.78

10.56

-2.703

5.44

-1.94

800

157

8.0

0.1127

0.8873

11.1549

445.97

11.27

-2.760

5.24

-2.14

900

161

9.0

0.1268

0.8732

11.3348

450.07

12.68

-3.045

5.24

-2.14

1000

165

10.0

0.1408

0.8592

11.5206

453.82

14.08

-3.045

5.24

-2.14

1100

169

11.0

0.1549

0.8451

11.7126

457.20

15.49

-3.045

TRIAXIAL TEST
Consolidated Drained Test ( CD )
Sample data : dia. = 3.6 cm , length = 7.1 cm ,

Load ring factor = 0.323 kg/div.

50
Loading rate

= 0.3 mm/min.

Stress = 300 kPa

Volume

Volume

Def.

Load

dalta

Unit

Area

Corr.

Deviator

Axial

change

change

Reading

Reading

Strain

Corr.factor

Area

Stress

Strain

dv/v

(cm3)

(cm3)

(div)

(div)

(mm)

( cm2)

( kPa)

(%)

(%)

3.9

0.00

0.0

0.0000

1.0000

9.8980

0.00

0.00

-0.10

20

27

0.2

0.0028

0.9972

9.9260

86.19

0.28

4.1

-0.20

40

64

0.4

0.0056

0.9944

9.9541

203.73

0.56

4.2

-0.30

60

83

0.6

0.0085

0.9915

9.9824

263.46

0.85

4.4

-0.50

80

96

0.8

0.0113

0.9887

10.0108

303.86

1.13

4.42

-0.52

100

105

1.0

0.0141

0.9859

10.0394

331.40

1.41

4.6

-0.70

120

114

1.2

0.0169

0.9831

10.0682

358.78

1.69

4.64

-0.74

140

122

1.4

0.0197

0.9803

10.0971

382.86

1.97

4.8

-0.90

160

128

1.6

0.0225

0.9775

10.1262

400.53

2.25

4.82

-0.92

180

134

1.8

0.0254

0.9746

10.1555

418.10

2.54

4.82

-0.92

200

137

2.0

0.0282

0.9718

10.1849

426.22

2.82

5.2

-1.30

250

147

2.5

0.0352

0.9648

10.2592

454.02

3.52

5.24

-1.34

300

158

3.0

0.0423

0.9577

10.3347

484.43

4.23

5.32

-1.42

350

166

3.5

0.0493

0.9507

10.4112

505.22

4.93

5.44

-1.54

400

177

4.0

0.0563

0.9437

10.4889

534.70

5.63

5.5

-1.60

450

184

4.5

0.0634

0.9366

10.5678

551.70

6.34

5.56

-1.66

500

191

5.0

0.0704

0.9296

10.6478

568.39

7.04

5.7

-1.80

600

202

6.0

0.0845

0.9155

10.8117

592.01

8.45

5.8

-1.90

700

208

7.0

0.0986

0.9014

10.9806

600.22

9.86

5.9

-2.00

800

212

8.0

0.1127

0.8873

11.1549

602.20

11.27

-2.10

900

215

9.0

0.1268

0.8732

11.3348

601.03

12.68

6.4

-2.50

1100

234

11.0

0.1549

0.8451

11.7126

633.04

15.49

0.000
0.142
0.285
0.427
0.711
0.740
0.996
1.053
1.281
1.309
1.309
1.850
1.907
2.020
2.191
2.277
2.362
2.561
2.703
2.846
2.988
3.557

TRIAXIAL TEST
Consolidated Undrained Test ( CU )

51

Load ring factor = 0.323 kg/div.

Sample data : dia. = 3.6 cm , length = 7.2 cm ,


Loading rate
Pore
water

= 0.3 mm/min.
Pore
water
Def.

Stress = 100 kPa


Load

dalta

Unit

Area

Corr.

Deviator

Axial

pressure

pressure

Reading

Reading

Strain

Corr.factor

Area

Stress

Strain

(div)

(kPa)

(div)

(div)

(mm)

( cm2)

( kPa)

(%)

0.0

0.0000

1.0000

9.8980

0.00

0.00

0.5

20

12

0.2

0.0028

0.9972

9.9260

38.31

0.28

15

5.5

40

33

0.4

0.0056

0.9944

9.9541

105.05

0.56

22

60

45

0.6

0.0085

0.9915

9.9824

142.84

0.85

26

11

80

55

0.8

0.0113

0.9887

10.0108

174.09

1.13

33

14.5

100

59

1.0

0.0141

0.9859

10.0394

186.22

1.41

37

16.5

120

62

1.2

0.0169

0.9831

10.0682

195.12

1.69

42

19

140

65

1.4

0.0197

0.9803

10.0971

203.98

1.97

45

20.5

160

66

1.6

0.0225

0.9775

10.1262

206.52

2.25

47

21.5

180

67

1.8

0.0254

0.9746

10.1555

209.05

2.54

49

22.5

200

69

2.0

0.0282

0.9718

10.1849

214.67

2.82

52

24

220

70

2.2

0.0310

0.9690

10.2145

217.15

3.10

54

25

240

70

2.4

0.0338

0.9662

10.2443

216.51

3.38

56

26

260

70

2.6

0.0366

0.9634

10.2742

215.88

3.66

56

26

280

70

2.8

0.0394

0.9606

10.3044

215.25

3.94

57
60

26.5
28

300
350

70
70

3.0
3.5

0.0423
0.0493

0.9577
0.9507

10.3347
10.4112

214.62
213.04

4.23
4.93

63

29.5

400

70

4.0

0.0563

0.9437

10.4889

211.47

5.63

66

31

450

70

4.5

0.0634

0.9366

10.5678

209.89

6.34

68

32

500

69

5.0

0.0704

0.9296

10.6478

205.33

7.04

74

35

550

69

5.5

0.0775

0.9225

10.7291

203.78

7.75

76

36

600

69

6.0

0.0845

0.9155

10.8117

202.22

8.45

78

37

650

69

6.5

0.0915

0.9085

10.8955

200.67

9.15

79

37.5

700

68

7.0

0.0986

0.9014

10.9806

196.23

9.86

TRIAXIAL TEST
Consolidated Undrained Test ( CU )
Sample data : dia. = 3.6 cm ,

length = 7.2 cm ,

Load ring factor = 0.323 kg/div.

52
Loading rate
Pore
water

= 0.3 mm/min.
Pore
water
Def.

Stress = 200 kPa


Load

dalta

Unit

Area

Corr.

Deviator

Axial

pressure

pressure

Reading

Reading

Strain

Corr.factor

Area

Stress

Strain

(div)

(kPa)

(div)

(div)

(mm)

( cm2)

( kPa)

(%)

0.0

0.0000

1.0000

9.8980

0.00

0.00

10

0.1

0.0014

0.9986

9.9120

12.79

0.14

0.5

20

10

0.2

0.0028

0.9972

9.9260

31.92

0.28

30

12

0.3

0.0042

0.9958

9.9400

38.25

0.42

40

15

0.4

0.0056

0.9944

9.9541

47.75

0.56

2.5

50

45

0.5

0.0070

0.9930

9.9682

143.04

0.70

60

60

0.6

0.0085

0.9915

9.9824

190.45

0.85

13

6.5

70

72

0.7

0.0099

0.9901

9.9966

228.22

0.99

16

80

81

0.8

0.0113

0.9887

10.0108

256.38

1.13

19

9.5

90

88

0.9

0.0127

0.9873

10.0251

278.14

1.27

20

10

100

93

1.0

0.0141

0.9859

10.0394

293.53

1.41

26

13

120

102

1.2

0.0169

0.9831

10.0682

321.01

1.69

32

16

140

109

1.4

0.0197

0.9803

10.0971

342.06

1.97

35

17.5

160

114

1.6

0.0225

0.9775

10.1262

356.72

2.25

38

19

180

118

1.8

0.0254

0.9746

10.1555

368.17

2.54

43

21.5

200

121

2.0

0.0282

0.9718

10.1849

376.44

2.82

45

22.5

220

123

2.2

0.0310

0.9690

10.2145

381.56

3.10

49

24.5

240

125

2.4

0.0338

0.9662

10.2443

386.63

3.38

50

25

260

127

2.6

0.0366

0.9634

10.2742

391.67

3.66

52

26

280

128

2.8

0.0394

0.9606

10.3044

393.60

3.94

55

27.5

300

130

3.0

0.0423

0.9577

10.3347

398.58

4.23

59

29.5

350

132

3.5

0.0493

0.9507

10.4112

401.74

4.93

65

32.5

400

135

4.0

0.0563

0.9437

10.4889

407.83

5.63

68

34

450

137

4.5

0.0634

0.9366

10.5678

410.78

6.34

75

37.5

500

139

5.0

0.0704

0.9296

10.6478

413.64

7.04

78

39

550

141

5.5

0.0775

0.9225

10.7291

416.41

7.75

80

40

600

143

6.0

0.0845

0.9155

10.8117

419.10

8.45

84

42

650

144

6.5

0.0915

0.9085

10.8955

418.78

9.15

TRIAXIAL TEST
Consolidated Undrained Test ( CU )
Sample data : dia. = 3.6 cm ,
Loading rate

= 0.3 mm/min.

length = 7.2 cm ,

Load ring factor = 0.323 kg/div.

Stress = 300 kPa

53
Pore
water

Pore
water

Def.

Load

dalta

Unit

Area

Corr.

Deviator

Axial

pressure

pressure

Reading

Reading

Strain

Corr.factor

Area

Stress

Strain

(div)

(kPa)

(div)

(div)

(mm)

( cm2)

( kPa)

(%)

0.0

0.0000

1.0000

9.8980

0.00

0.00

10

0.1

0.0014

0.9986

9.9120

25.57

0.14

20

15

0.2

0.0028

0.9972

9.9260

47.88

0.28

30

22

0.3

0.0042

0.9958

9.9400

70.13

0.42

0.5

40

30

0.4

0.0056

0.9944

9.9541

95.50

0.56

1.5

50

48

0.5

0.0070

0.9930

9.9682

152.58

0.70

13

60

70

0.6

0.0085

0.9915

9.9824

222.20

0.85

16

5.5

70

92

0.7

0.0099

0.9901

9.9966

291.61

0.99

20

7.5

80

108

0.8

0.0113

0.9887

10.0108

341.84

1.13

22

8.5

90

120

0.9

0.0127

0.9873

10.0251

379.28

1.27

25

10

100

128

1.0

0.0141

0.9859

10.0394

403.99

1.41

32

13.5

120

142

1.2

0.0169

0.9831

10.0682

446.90

1.69

36

15.5

140

152

1.4

0.0197

0.9803

10.0971

477.00

1.97

42

18.5

160

160

1.6

0.0225

0.9775

10.1262

500.66

2.25

49

22

180

167

1.8

0.0254

0.9746

10.1555

521.06

2.54

52

23.5

200

173

2.0

0.0282

0.9718

10.1849

538.22

2.82

55

25

220

177

2.2

0.0310

0.9690

10.2145

549.07

3.10

59

27

240

181

2.4

0.0338

0.9662

10.2443

559.85

3.38

63

29

260

185

2.6

0.0366

0.9634

10.2742

570.55

3.66

66

30.5

280

188

2.8

0.0394

0.9606

10.3044

578.11

3.94

69

32

300

191

3.0

0.0423

0.9577

10.3347

585.61

4.23

81

38

350

197

3.5

0.0493

0.9507

10.4112

599.56

4.93

86

40.5

400

202

4.0

0.0563

0.9437

10.4889

610.23

5.63

95

45

450

206

4.5

0.0634

0.9366

10.5678

617.67

6.34

104

49.5

500

210

5.0

0.0704

0.9296

10.6478

624.93

7.04

114

54.5

550

212

5.5

0.0775

0.9225

10.7291

626.10

7.75

121

58

600

214

6.0

0.0845

0.9155

10.8117

627.18

8.45

125

60

650

216

6.5

0.0915

0.9085

10.8955

628.17

9.15

128

61.5

700

218

7.0

0.0986

0.9014

10.9806

629.07

9.86

133

64

750

220

7.5

0.1056

0.8944

11.0671

629.89

10.56

136

65.5

800

221.5

8.0

0.1127

0.8873

11.1549

629.19

11.27

139

67

850

224

8.5

0.1197

0.8803

11.2441

631.24

11.97

145

70

900

226

9.0

0.1268

0.8732

11.3348

631.78

12.68

146

70.5

950

228

9.5

0.1338

0.8662

11.4270

632.23

13.38

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1)

Bishop A.W. and Henkel, D.J. (1962). The measurement of soil properties in the
triaxial test, Edward Arnold Ltd, London, 2nd Ed. 227P.

54

2)

Bishop A.W., and Eldin, A.K.G, 1950. Undrained triaxial tests on saturated sands
and their significance in the general theory of shear strength, Geotechnique, 2: 1332.

3)

Laughton, A.S., 1955. The compaction of ocean sediments, Ph.D. Thesis,


University of Cambridge.

4)

Terzaghi, K. and Peck, R.B., 1967. Soil mechanics in engineering practice, John
Wiley and Sons, New York, 2nd Ed. 729P.

5)

Holtz, R.D., and Kovacs, W.D. 1981. An introduction to Geotechnical Engineering,


Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 733 pp.

6)

Head, K.H. 1986. Manual of soil laboratory testing, volume 3 effective stress tests,
Halsted Press, New York, 1240 pp.

7)

Casagrande, A., 1940. Characteristics of cohensionless soil affecting the stability of


slopes and earth fills, Contributions to soil mechanics 1925-1940, Boston Soc,
Civil Engrs, Oct. 1940.