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This paper studied the effects of boundary bearing conditions and fluid-solid interaction two factors on the natural vibration characteristics of a deep hole bulkhead gate. Calculated with Block Lanczos method in model analysis of ANSYS, the results show that the influence on gate’s natural vibration characteristics is very significant when the restraints of forward flow direction, transverse direction or vertical direction changes within a certain range. Its rule is in accordance with the rule of transverse vibration of rectangle thin plate. The natural frequencies are closely related to the restraints of the modal vibration direction, and have nothing to do with other directions. Therefore, the corresponding direction of vibration modes can be obtained by analysing the rule of gate’s natural frequency changing with the restraints. In considering the effect of fluid-solid interaction, water in front of the gate is simulated by added mass, the result shows that the impact created by upstream water level changing within a certain range on gate’s natural frequency can be neglected, and the restraints have a relatively small effect.

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org/sas

Natural Vibration Characteristics of Deephole Bulkhead Gate

Beier Luo*1, Junxing Wang2, Wen Wang3

State Key Laboratory of Water Resource and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University

Wuhan, Hubei, 430072, P.R. China

lbe415@whu.edu.cn; 2jxwang@whu.edu.cn; 3wangwen@whu.edu.cn

*1

2014 Science and Engineering Publishing Company

Abstract

This paper studied the effects of boundary bearing

conditions and fluid-solid interaction two factors on the

natural vibration characteristics of a deep hole bulkhead

gate. Calculated with Block Lanczos method in model

analysis of ANSYS, the results show that the influence on

gates natural vibration characteristics is very significant

when the restraints of forward flow direction, transverse

direction or vertical direction changes within a certain range.

Its rule is in accordance with the rule of transverse vibration

of rectangle thin plate. The natural frequencies are closely

related to the restraints of the modal vibration direction, and

have nothing to do with other directions. Therefore, the

corresponding direction of vibration modes can be obtained

by analysing the rule of gates natural frequency changing

with the restraints. In considering the effect of fluid-solid

interaction, water in front of the gate is simulated by added

mass, the result shows that the impact created by upstream

water level changing within a certain range on gates natural

frequency can be neglected, and the restraints have a

relatively small effect.

Keywords

Deep Hole Bulkhead Gate; Natural Vibration Characteristics;

Restraint Condition; Fluid-Solid Interaction

Introduction

Deep-hole bulkhead gate is widely used in the field of

hydraulic engineering but the issues of flow-induced

vibration are often problematic to the engineers.

Strong vibration is likely to occur in some situation

leading to the failure of the structure. Therefore, the

study of the flow-induced vibration of deep-hole

bulkhead gate is necessary. The natural vibration

characteristics of the bulkhead gate are the foundation

12

Further analysis can only be conducted when the

impact factors and variation trend of the natural

vibration characteristics of the bulkhead gate are fully

evaluated and recommendations are proposed for

actual engineering practice.

In actual engineering practice, Wu et al. proposed the

fundamental equations and definite condition for

fluid-structure interaction system for common

hydraulic structure; Li simulated the water in front of

the bulkhead gate using fluid elements in ANSYS and

results showed that the effect of fluid-structure

interaction on the natural vibration characteristics of

bulkhead gate was substantial; relevant research was

conducted on the vibration characteristics of fluidstructure interaction of plate structure under different

constraint: Haddara et al. evaluated the kinetic

characteristics of rectangular plate immersed in the

water; Ergin et al. studied the kinetic characteristics of

vertical cantilever plate partly immersed in the water;

Kerboua et al. evaluated the vibration problem of

horizontal and vertical plate immersed in or floating

on the water. It is clear that studies of the vibration

characteristics of plate structure mainly focused on the

problem of fluid-structure interaction but the influence

of variation of boundary conditions was neglected.

Fixing of the support or water-sealing may cause pretension to the bulkhead gate or produce gaps, leading

to the variation of boundary conditions for the

vibration and change the characteristics of natural

vibration, affecting the kinetic behaviour of the gate

and the systematic nonlinear kinetic behaviour is

complex.

conditions focused on the transverse vibration

characteristics of the plate: Saha et al. studied the free

vibration problem of rectangular Mindlin plate with

uniform elastic constraint boundary condition; Zhang

et al. studied the vibration problem of rectangular thin

plate with arbitrary non-uniform elastic constraint.

The aforementioned studies were focused on plates

with regular shape and the distribution of boundary

constraint was regular. Theoretical solutions could be

obtained but those methods cannot be used on

bulkhead gate with complex size and constraint

conditions. Therefore, this study used a sliding deephole bulkhead gate with continuously variable

constraint stiffness as research object to study the

effect of boundary conditions on the natural vibration

characteristics of the gate. The variation of natural

vibration of the gate with constraint stiffness was

evaluated by calculation using ANSYS software. The

condition in the possible scenario of discontinuous

variation was analysed and the fluid-structure

interaction was studied to provide recommendation

for vibration reduction design of the gate in

engineering practice.

www.seipub.org/sas

could escape the slide way during forward flow

vibration leading to shifting of the gate towards

upstream and forward flow deformation of the gate.

The constraints of sliding blocks at downstream face

are ineffective and the arch-shape elastic sliding blocks

were compressed. In addition to the variation of the

pre-compressed amount of water-seal with vibration,

repeated impact of contact, separate and re-contact is

occurred to the gate resulting to the variation of

constraint stiffness in forward flow direction. In terms

of transverse vibration of the gate, due to the fact that

there is gap between the side sliding blocks and the

side chute slide way, the transverse constraint is not

unlimited line displacement but segmental. Whether

or not its effect on the vibration characteristics of the

gate can be ignored needs further investigation. For

vertical vibration of the gate, the lever of the hydraulic

pressure headstock gear can deliver simultaneously

tensile and compressive force and constraint stiffness

depends on the stiffness of the piston rod and the

fixing condition of hydraulic pressure headstock gear.

Research Object

A working gate located at the exit of the tail-end of the

sand duct of a hydraulic power plant was selected as

the research object. The hole had a dimension of

3.24.2m (width height) and a hydraulic head under

normal operation of 74m. The working gate was a

sliding bulkhead gate with top and side water-seals

located at the downstream face and the gate was

operated by a hydraulic pressure headstock gear. Line

contact existed between the downstream sliding block

and the chute slide way in the narrow door with P

type side and top water-seals positioned in area. On

the upstream face, two arc-shaped elastic sliding

blocks were used to contact with the inner surface of

the chute of the narrow door at the left and right hand

side of the gate to prevent the gate from incline or shift

towards the upstream face without getting to tight in

the chute to avoid difficulties in operating the gate.

Two rectangular blocks were positioned at each side of

the gate to avoid side shifting. A 5mm gap was

maintained between the sliding block and the chute

slide way. The size of the gate and the form of support

are shown in Fig. 1.

Due to the existence of arch-shape elastic sliding

SUPPORT FORM

Fundamental Theory

The bulkhead gate is analysed in a three-dimensional

system. In finite element method, the differential

equation of the linear constant coefficient matrix of

gate structure considering fluid-structure interaction is

expressed as:

( M + M a )

x(t ) + (C + Ca ) x (t ) + ( K + K a ) x(t ) =

P(t )

(1)

stiffness matrix of the gate structure; M a , Ca , K a are

respectively added mass, damping and stiffness

matrix of the gate vibration system under fluidstructure interaction; P(t ) is the pulsed compressive

13

www.seipub.org/sas

condition of the flow. When studying the natural

vibration of the bulkhead gate, damping has little

influence on the frequency and type of natural

vibration in a light damping system such as gate

structure, and ignoring the effect of damping

significantly

simplifies

the

calculation

of

characteristics of natural vibration of the structure, the

effect of damping was ignored in the study, i.e.

C + Ca =

0 . In addition, the added stiffness imposed by

flow to the gate is normally small compared with the

stiffness of the gate, K a = 0 was assumed in this study.

Therefore, Eq. (1) can be simplified as:

( M + M a )

x(t ) + Kx(t ) =

0

(2)

summaries as:

(1) Initialisation, i.e., randomly select n b matrix R0

to let Q0 = 0 , R1 = AR0 and R1 = Q1 B1 ;

(2) Loop i = 1, 2, , m , calculation the recursion using

Eq.(4):

with each column mutually orthogonal; Ai is b b

matrix, Bi is b b upper triangular matrix, b is the

size of the block, the tridiagonal matrix in block form

calculated by above process is:

A1

B1

Tm =

domain, separation of variables in Eq. (2) yields the

typical eigenvalue problem in Eq. (3):

n2 ( M + M a ) n = K n

(4)

Ri +1 = AQi Qi Ai Qi 1 BiT1

(3)

B1T

A2

B2

B2T

Bm 1

T

Bm 1

Am

with time but satisfy the boundary condition.

Method of Calculation

Real symmetric matrix is very significant in the

application of engineering and related field, especially

in the field of structural vibration engineering.

Depending on different types of matrix eigenvalue

problem, many methods can be used for calculation

including: deflation method, sub-space iteration

method, Lanczos Method, QL decomposition and

nonsymmetry method. Block Lanczos method was

adapted in this study.

Block Lanczos can be used to obtain the eigenvalue

and eigenvector for large symmetric matrix. The

method is based on blocking Lanczos theory with

combination of Sturm theory by using automatic

shifting technique to obtain the required eigenvalue

and eigenvector. Block Lanczos is a transformation of

the typical Lanczos method which uses multiple

vectors simultaneously to enable Lanczos recursion to

obtain the tridiagonal matrix similar to the original

matrix. The eigenvalue and eigenvector of the

tridiagonal matrix can be solved using QL method.

The eigenvalue is the approximation of the eigenvalue

of the original matrix and the eigenvector can be

transform to obtain the approximate eigenvector of the

original matrix. The extraction of the eigenvalue and

eigenvector for n order real symmetric matrix can be

14

(5)

where M = mb ( M n ) .

(4)

Repeatedly

decompose TM

by

QL

method

and the diagonal elements, 1 , , M and the required

eigenvalues.

The Effect of Constraint Conditions

The effect of added mass is ignored in this section.

Due to the deformation of the arch-shape elastic

sliding blocks in the upstream face, the contact and

escape process of the sliding blocks in the downstream

face and the gaps in the side sliding blocks, a certain

level of variation of constraint stiffness is likely to

occur. As a result, the natural mode of vibration of the

gate is formed with a part which is similar to rigid

body displacement and the mode of vibration can be

viewed as a combination of rigid body displacement

mode and elastic deformation mode. The two modes

are relative and it is hard to satisfy the displacement

boundary condition in calculation. One simply way is

to incorporate the variable degrees of freedom of the

constraints in the global stiffness matrix of the

structure to enable the implementation of variable

boundary conditions in the software.

geometry and force properties, the main structure

including plates in the upstream and downstream face,

main and secondary beams were modelled by

SHELL63 shell element. Movable supports located in

the chute were modelled by SOLID45 element.

Material parameters of the gate includes: elastic

modulus E=200GPa, Poissons ratio 0.3 and density

7800kg/m3.

www.seipub.org/sas

the elastic modulus of the gate E, the frequency of

natural vibration of the gate in forward flow direction

was relatively stable. In addition, the variation of

constraint stiffness in forward flow direction did not

change the mode of vibration but only the relative

deformation in each mode.

The arch-shaped sliding blocks at the upstream face is

elastic to some extend and remained contact but the

sliding blocks at the downstream face is one-way

linearly contacted with the chute and can escape the

slide way. Therefore, it is possible that for the gate at a

certain moment that the supports at the downstream

face in the extreme conditions of fully contact or fully

escape. In order to evaluate the variation trend of the

frequency of natural vibration between the two

extreme conditions, the forward flow constraints was

set as four constant stiffness elastic constraints in the

upstream face with an elastic modulus of 10GPa; the

constraint at the slide way in the downstream face was

set to be linear displacement variable stiffness elastic

constraints; transverse and vertical constraints were

set as one-way fixed constraints. The effect of the

forward flow constraints on the frequency of natural

vibration of the gate was studied by continuous

variation of constraint stiffness method. The

frequencies of the first 6th order were extracted. As the

model of natural vibration in each order will exhibit

different rate of variation with the variation of the

stiffness of the constraint, the variation trend of

respective frequency of each 6 order with the elastic

modulus of the forward flow constraint ES is shown in

Fig. 2; where S1 is the forward flow arch-shaped swing,

S2 is the forward flow incline forward and backward

vibration, H is the vertical straight movement, C is the

transverse rotation, S3 is the forward flow pulse, SC is

the forward flow S-shaped twist accompanied with

transverse rotation.

It is clear from Fig. 2 that the variation of the stiffness

of constraints mainly affected the mode of vibration in

forward flow direction and there was little effect on

the vertical vibration. The variation trend was similar

to an S-shaped curve and increased with the increase

of ES. When ES varied between 107~1010(Pa), the rate of

variation of frequencies in each order was significant

and the rate of variation was stable and move towards

the two extreme conditions when ES lied outside the

VIBRATION WITH FORWARD FLOW CONSTRAINTS

VIBRATION WITH TRANSVERSE CONSTRAINTS

VIBRATION WITH VERTICAL CONSTRAINTS

15

www.seipub.org/sas

In order to evaluate the effect of transverse and

vertical constraints on the frequency of natural

vibration of the gate, the forward flow constraints

were fixed and the transverse and vertical constraints

were set as variable elastic modulus elastic constraints.

Calculate the variation trend of the frequency of

natural vibration of the gate f with the elastic modulus

of transverse constraints EC and vertical constraints EH

by extracting the first 6th orders, the results are given

in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4.

with ES and EC were evaluated and are given in Fig. 5.

transverse constraints affect significantly the

frequency of the transverse vibration. The variation

trend appeared to be S-shaped and the mode of

vibration was similar to transverse rigid body rotation.

When EC varied between 108~1011(Pa), the variation of

the frequency of transverse vibration was obvious but

the forward flow vibration and vertical vibration were

not affected. During flow induced vibration, the

transverse vibration of the gate is less significant and

therefore gaps in the side slide way do not essentially

affect the vibration characteristics of the gate.

Moreover, the variation of the stiffness of vertical

constraints affects significantly the frequency of the

vertical vibration and the trend was similar to the case

of transverse constraints. The variation trend appeared

to be S-shaped and when EH varied between

108~1011(Pa), the variation of the frequency of vertical

vibration was obvious. The mode of vertical vibration

was similar to rigid body motion and the frequency

was determined by the stiffness of the vertical

constraints. Due to the effect of dowel bars, the

stiffness of vertical constraints would not vary in a

large range. Nevertheless, if the dowel bars are

damaged or the connection to the hydraulic gear is

loosen which results in a sudden reduction of stiffness

of vertical constraint and thus the frequency of vertical

vibration of the gate, the gate will vibrate strongly in

vertical direction if induced by high water flow.

Therefore, the assurance of the safety of the strength

and stiffness of the dowel bars reduces the probability

of the excess vertical vibration of the gate. In addition,

drum type hoist is connected with the gate by steel

rods and the stiffness of vertical constraints for this

type of hoist is smaller, resulting in a reduced

frequency of vertical vibration which is easier for

vertical induced vibration to occur.

The Effect of Global Constraints

Fix the vertical constraints, the variation of the first 6

16

www.seipub.org/sas

similar to that in the (0,3) order and SC in Fig. 5(f) is

similar to that in the (2,0) order, as shown in Fig. 6.

(a)S1

(b)S2

(c)S3

(d)SC

IN EACH ORDER FOR THE GATE

vibration controlled by the transverse constraints.

Transverse vibration is basically similar to rigid body

motion and is a secondary factor. Therefore, in the

condition that constraint is not damaged, substantial

transverse vibration would not occur. Fig. 5(f) shows

the mode of vibration controlled simultaneously but

forward flow and transverse constraints which when

the stiffness of transverse constraints are large, the

mode of vibration is shown in Fig. 6(d). Fig. 5(c) is the

vertical vibration which is basically not related to the

forward flow and transverse constraints.

FIG. 5 VARIATION TRENDS OF FREQUENCIES OF NATURAL

VIBRATION WITH FORWARD FLOW AND TRANSVERSE

CONSTRAINTS: (a) S1; (b) S2; (c) H; (d) C; (e) S3; (f) SC.

forward flow direction are richer than that in

transverse or vertical directions, which is similar to the

natural mode of vibration of rectangular plate in the

transverse direction, whose frequency of natural

vibration can be calculated by Eq. (6). In Eq. (6),

mn

is

determined by the boundary conditions of the

supporting plate. Different value of mn , corresponds

different natural mode of vibration in (m,n) order

which is related to m, n and the shape of vibration.

Normally, m and n respectively represent the number

of semi-waves in each direction of the rectangular.

mn =

2

mn

a2

(6)

significantly with ES with did not varied with EC,

which matches the mode of vibration in forward flow

direction. The shape was similar to the transverse

vibration of thin plate which is simply-supported at

both ends. For instance, S1 in Fig. 5(a) is similar to the

mode of vibration of rectangular plate with simplysupported ends in the (1,0) order, S2 in Fig. 5(b) is

vibration are closely related to the condition of

constraints in the vibrating direction but no related to

the constraints in other directions. A general picture of

the relevant mode of vibration can be obtained by

analysing the variation trend of the frequency of

structure with the constraints. For bulkhead gates, the

characteristics of natural vibration are similar to the

case of transverse vibration of rectangular thin plates

and the forward flow vibration is the controlling

model of vibration and the transverse vibration is

secondary.

The Effect of Fluid-structure Interaction

The characteristics of natural vibration of the gate are

not only related to the constraints but also the contact

with water. In this section, the effect of water was

added as a certain type of boundary condition into the

gate system. In other words, the effect of water was

equalised to added mass to simplify the model.

In order to evaluate the effect of added mass, the

eigenvalue equation is given in Eq. (3) and the added

mass can be calculated by classical Westergaard

hydrodynamic pressure approximation.

Added mass force is essential a fluid inertia force

caused by counter action of the structure from the

17

www.seipub.org/sas

structure. With different mode of vibration, the added

mass will change. For bulkhead gate, transverse

vibration has only relative slipping at the water-solid

surface and no added mass is formed in the

assumption that perturbed motion has potential.

Moreover, the forward flow vibration is the

controlling vibration and it is significantly affected by

added mass. Therefore, the variation of forward flow

vibration with added mass is discussed in this section.

variation of the three forward flow vibrations with the

stiffness of forward flow constraints is given in Fig. 8.

constraints were fixed and the added mass was

reflected by different amount of hydraulic head H

from 5m to 74m (the designed water level) and mass

element MASS21 was used to add the mass to the

plate in the upstream face. The relationship of the

frequency of the first three orders of natural vibration

and the water level H is given in Fig. 7.

VIBRATION IN FORWARD FLOW VIBRATION OF THE GATE

WITH UPSTREAM WATER LEVEL

increased with the increase of H; the frequency of

natural vibration in each order of the gate reduced

with the increase of added mass; when the hydraulic

head at the gate was smaller than 20m, the rate of

variation of the frequencies were large and the effect

of added mass was obvious; when the hydraulic head

exceeded 60m, the variation of the frequencies became

smooth and the effect of added mass was minimum. It

can be seen that the frequency of natural vibration of

swallow-hole gate is very sensitive to the variation of

added mass but the frequency of natural vibration of

deep-hole gate is stable toward the variation of added

mass (the variation of upstream water level). In other

words, upstream water level does not affect the

characteristics of forward flow vibration for deep-hole

gate in a certain range.

18

VIBRATION WITH FORWARD FLOW CONSTRAINTS FOR

DIFFERENT UPSTREAM WATER LEVEL: (a) S1; (b) S2; (c) S3.

level H, the variation trend of the frequency of natural

vibration with the stiffness of forward flow constraints

was identical when the added mass was not

considered but the rate of variation reduced. In other

words, the sensitivity of variation of the frequency of

natural vibration with the stiffness of forward flow

constraints reduced.

Conclusions

This study used a deep-hole bulkhead gate as research

object to evaluate the effect of boundary support

conditions and fluid-structure interaction on the

characteristics of natural vibration by means of

constraint stiffness variation and added mass using

Block Lanczos modal analysis in ANSYS software.

Results showed that the effect of constraint stiffness is

not negligible on the characteristics of natural

vibration and the variation trend that the frequency of

natural vibration of the gate reduces with the increase

of hydraulic head was established. The conclusions

can be referred by engineering practice in similar

fields. The main conclusions can be drawn:

(1) The variation of forward flow, transverse and

vertical constraint stiffness is substantially effective on

the characteristics of natural vibration in a certain

range. The frequency is stable outside this range. For

the gate in this study, when ES varied between

107~1010(Pa), the variation of frequencies in each order

was large and for EC and EH, the range was 108~1011.

This range is smaller than the elastic modulus of the

gate. Therefore in normal conditions, the frequency of

natural vibration of the gate is relatively stable. At the

same time, the stiffness of supports and moving

components of the gate as well as doweling bars

should be maintained to prevent reduction of the

frequency of vibration resulting in flow-induced

vibration.

(2)The frequency of natural vibration is related closely

to the constraints in the direction of vibration but not

related to constraints in other directions. The general

direction of vibration in the relevant mode can be

obtained by analysing the variation trend of frequency

of natural vibration of the gate. For bulkhead gate, the

characteristics of natural vibration are similar to the

case of the transverse vibration of rectangular thin

plate. The forward flow vibration is controlling and

the transverse vibration is secondary comparably.

(3) When the upstream water level H lied within 20m,

the variation of frequencies of natural vibration was

obvious; when the hydraulic head increased to above

60m, the variation of frequencies of natural vibration

was stable. For deep-hole gates, the added mass

induced by the variation of hydraulic head within a

www.seipub.org/sas

added mass, the sensitivity of variation of the

frequency of natural vibration with the stiffness of

forward flow constraints reduced. In other words, the

effect of constraints reduces when fluid-structure

interaction is considered.

(4) This study evaluated the characteristics of natural

vibration of the gate. The effect of boundary

conditions on the kinetic response requires further

research.

REFERENCES

plates partially submerged in fluid. Journal of Fluids

and Structures, 17 (2003): 927-939.

Haddara M R, Cao S. A study of the dynamic response of

submerged rectangular flat plates. Marine Structures, 9

(1996): 913-933.

Kerboua Y, Lakis A A, et al. Vibration analysis of

rectangular

plates

coupled

with

fluid.

Applied

Li H. Prediction of flow-induced vibration of deep plate

gate using physical and numerical model. Journal of

Nanchang University (Engineering & Technology), 29(4)

(2007): 395-400.

Liu Y. Research on flow-induced vibration of low head

hydraulic

tainter

gate.

Shen

Yang,

Northeastern

University, 2005.

Louis Komzsik, eds. Lanczos method: evolution and

application. Zhang W, Liao B, trans. Bei Jing: Tsinghua

University Press, 2011.

Saha K N, Kar R C, Datta P K. Free vibration analysis of

rectangular

Mindlin

plates

with

elastic

restraints

and Vibration, 192(4) (1996): 885-904.

Wu Y, Xie S. Dynamic characteristic analysis of interaction

of fluid and hydraulic structures. SHUILI XUEBAO, 1

(1995): 27-34.

Zhang X, Wen L L. Vibration of rectangular plates with

arbitrary non-uniform elastic edge restraints. Journal of

Sound and Vibration, 326 (2009): 221-234.

19

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