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An endeavor has been made to study and analyze the effect of slip velocity on the performance of a squeeze film in porous rough infinitely long parallel plates in the presence of a magnetic fluid lubricant. The Neuringer-Rosensweig model governs the fluid flow while the velocity slip is modeled by the method of Beavers and Joseph. A stochastic random variable with nonzero mean, variance, and skewness characterizes the random roughness of the bearing surfaces. With the adding of suitable boundary conditions, the associated stochastically averaged Reynolds’ equation is solved to obtain the fluid pressure, in turn, which results in the calculation of the load-carrying capacity. It is found that although the bearing suffers owing to transverse surface roughness, the performance of the bearing system can be improved to some extent by the positive effect of magnetization, considering the slip parameter at the minimum, at least in the case of negatively-skewed roughness. A comparison of this study with some established investigations indicates that the reduction of load-carrying capacity due to porosity and slip velocity is comparatively less here especially, when negative variance occurs. Of course, in augmenting the performance of the bearing system, the aspect ratio plays a central role even if the slip parameter is at the minimum. This article offers the suggestions that for a better performance of the bearing system, the slip velocity should be minimized, even if the magnetic strength has been chosen suitably. It is established that the bearing can support a load even in the absence of flow, unlike the case of a conventional lubricant.

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org/fwr

Magnetic Fluid Based Squeeze Film in Porous

Rough Infinitely Long Parallel Plates

SnehalShukla*1, Gunamani Deheri2

Department of Mathematics, ShriR.K.Parikh Arts and Science College; Petlad, Gujarat, India

Department of Mathematics, Sardar Patel University; VallabhVidyanagar, Gujarat, India

*1

1

snehaldshukla@gmail.com; 2gm.deheri@rediffmaim.com

*1

2014 Science and Engineering Publishing Company

Abstract

An endeavor has been made to study and analyze the effect

of slip velocity on the performance of a squeeze film in

porous rough infinitely long parallel plates in the presence of

a magnetic fluid lubricant. The Neuringer-Rosensweig

model governs the fluid flow while the velocity slip is

modeled by the method of Beavers and Joseph. A stochastic

random variable with nonzero mean, variance, and skewness

characterizes the random roughness of the bearing surfaces.

With the adding of suitable boundary conditions, the

associated stochastically averaged Reynolds equation is

solved to obtain the fluid pressure, in turn, which results in

the calculation of the load-carrying capacity. It is found that

although the bearing suffers owing to transverse surface

roughness, the performance of the bearing system can be

improved to some extent by the positive effect of

magnetization, considering the slip parameter at the

minimum, at least in the case of negatively-skewed

roughness. A comparison of this study with some

established investigations indicates that the reduction of

load-carrying capacity due to porosity and slip velocity is

comparatively less here especially, when negative variance

occurs.Of course, in augmenting the performance of the

bearing system, the aspect ratio plays a central role even if

the slip parameter is at the minimum. This article offers the

suggestions that for a better performance of the bearing

system, the slip velocity should be minimized, even if the

magnetic strength has been chosen suitably. It is established

that the bearing can support a load even in the absence of

flow, unlike the case of a conventional lubricant.

Keywords

Parallel Plate Slider Bearing; Magnetic Fluid; Roughness; Slip

Velocity; Porosity; Load Carrying Capacity

Introduction

A slider bearing is the simplest and frequently

number of industrial slider bearing designs initially

evolved from a desire to create a bearing having better

load carrying capacity and/or to reduce friction and

wear. Thus, great deal of emphasis was placed on the

effectiveness of the bearing geometry to generate

pressure and thus increasing load capacity. Several

relevant studies on hydrodynamic lubrication of slider

bearing have been published (Pinkus&Sternlicht, 1961;

Cameron, 1972;Hamrock, 1994;Basu et al., 2009).In fact,

the infinite long slider bearing is the idealization of a

single sector shaped pad of a hydrodynamic thrust

bearing. Such a bearing consists of a pivoted pad and a

moving pad which may be plane, stepped, curved or

composite shaped (such bearings are widely used in

hydrodynamic generators and turbines).

Self-lubricating porous bearings have been studied in

the last few decades because of their industrial

applications and machine manufacturing. These

bearings have self-contained oil reservoir and hence

continuous lubrication is not required.Numerous

papers are available in the literature for the study of

different types of porous bearings. (Wu, 1972) studied

the squeeze film effects between two porous

rectangular plates. Plane inclined porous slider

bearing was analyzed by (Prakash&Vij, 1973) and it

was concluded that the effect of porosity decreased the

load carrying capacity and friction. (Patel & Gupta,

1983) extended the above analysis by considering the

problem with slip velocity.

All the above studies dealt with conventional

lubricants. The use of the magnetic fluid as a lubricant

in bearing system has attained considerable

industrial applications. It is found that the magnetic

fluid has different applications in a variety of

engineering devices and systems, such as in

lubrication and sealing of bearings. The squeezing-film

technology is widely observed in applications of

engineering practices such as dampers, matching gears,

and machine-tool systems. In fact, a magnetic fluid is a

colloidal suspension of nano-sized magnetic particles

with average diameters of approximately 10 nm

covered with a surfactant layer in a carrier liquid. The

magnetic fluids change their structure under the

influence of an external magnetic field and do not

return immediately to the initial state after the

magnetic field is taken off. It is known that the cluster

of magnetic nano particles formed in the fluid

subjected to a magnetic field remains quite for

sometimes after the field has been removed (Bhat,

2003).Shah &Bhat (2005) theoretically analyzed the

combined effect of slip velocity and magnetic fluid on

the performance of a parallel plate porous slider

bearing. Here, it was shown that the increase in the

slip parameter failed to significantly alter the load

capacity and position of the centre of pressure; on the

other hand, increase in the material parameter caused

reduced friction. Elsharkaway&Alyaqout, (2009)

proposed an approach for designing the optimum

shape of slider bearing using sequential quadratic

programming. Wang(2012) studied the effect of slip on

the performance of the porous slider bearing. An

elastohydrodynamic numerical simulation was

conducted for one-dimensional Rayleigh step bearings

by Kazuyuki &Joichi(2013).

Several studies have been reported in the field of

magnetic fluid lubricated bearings. Ramanaiah (1967)

theoretically investigated the performance of a parallel

plate

slider

bearing

with

a

non-uniform

magneticfieldparallel to the plates and perpendicular

to the direction of the flow. Bhat(1978) initiated

theoretical investigation of a parallel plate porous

slider under a non-uniform applied transverse

magnetic field. Here also, it was shown that the

optimum magnetic profile was a step function and the

porosity

slightly

affected

the

performance

characteristics such as, load carrying capacity,

frictional force, friction factor and magnetic field state

location.Verma(1986) and Agrawal (1986) studied the

squeeze film performance by taking magnetic fluid as

a lubricant. Bhat&Deheri(1991) modified the analysis

of Verma&Agrawal (1986) by considering a magnetic

fluid based porous composite slider bearing with its

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Here, it was shown that the magnetic fluid lubricant

increased the load carrying capacity, friction,

coefficient of friction and shifted thecentreof pressure

towards the inlet. Shah &Bhat(2003) studied a slider

bearing with exponential film thickness profile and

obtained analytic expression for variation of nondimensional pressure, load carrying capacity, friction,

coefficient of friction and centre of pressure.Patel et

al.(2008) discussed the behavior of a magnetic fluid

based infinitely long hydrodynamic slider bearing. It

was concluded that the magnetic fluid lubrication

results in relatively better performance without

altering friction significantly.Devakar&Iyengar(2010)

considered the run up flow of a couple stress fluid

between

parallel

plates.Oladeinde&Akpobi(2010)

presented a mathematical model for the hydrodynamic

lubrication of finite slider bearing with velocity slip

and couple stress lubricants. At the juncture, film

thickness ratio was obtained for which load capacity

was maximized with or without slip.More recently,

Lin. et al. (2013) investigated the parallel circular

squeeze film disks with a non-Newtonian ferrofluid in

the presence of a transverse magnetic field. Using the

Shliomis Ferro hydrodynamic model, the modified

Reynolds equation was derived. Here, they compared

the results with Newtonian and non-Newtonian

ferrofluid cases and found that non-Newtonian

ferrofluid lubricated squeeze films provided a higher

load carrying capacity.

After having some run-in and wear, the bearing

surfaces tend to develop roughness. Even sometimes

contamination of lubricants and chemical degradation

of the surfaces contribute to the roughness. Decreasing

the roughness of a surface will usually exponentially

increase its manufacturing costs. This often results in a

trade-off between the manufacturing cost of a

component and its performance in an application. The

effect of the surface roughness on the behavior of a

thin film flow has long been the subject of intensive

studies. Various ways have been introduced to study

and analyze the effect of surface roughness on the

performance of the bearing systems.Some of the most

popular results are the Christensen &Tonder(1969a,

1969b, 1970) for longitudinal and transverse roughness

and the Patir&Cheng(1970) flow factor model for a

more general surface roughness pattern.Tzeng&Seibel

(1967) employed a stochastic approach to study the

effect

of

surface

roughness.Bujurke&Naduvinamani(1998) studied the

effect of roughness on squeeze film characteristics

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plate has a roughness structure and lower plate has a

porous material. Here, it was shown that the effect

oflongitudinal roughness increased load capacity of

the bearing compared to smooth case. Litwin(2011)

investigated the effect of roughness on the waterlubricated polymer bearing and showed that the effect

of roughness to the sliding direction of the bearing

could increase hydrodynamic load capacity. Lahmar et

al.(2013) analyzed the homogenization method of

roughness in turbulent lubrication. Here, it was found

that the effect of turbulence was to greatly increase the

load, in both the rough and smooth cases.

Deheri et al.(2008) studied the effect of magnetic fluid

lubrication on the performance of a squeeze film in

rough porous infinitely long parallel plates with

porous matrix of variable film thickness. It was found

that the positive effect of a magnetic fluid lubricant

minimized the adverse effect of roughness and

porosity up to certain extent.Patel &Deheri(2011)

evaluated the performance of a magnetic fluid based

squeeze film for a parallel plate porous slider bearing

with slip velocity. It was established that for an

effective performance of the bearing system, the slip

velocity should be kept at minimum, even if the

magnetization is in force. Chiang et al.(2012)

considered the performance of a magnetic

hydrodynamic tilted bearing under the effect of

surface roughness. Here, it was found that the tilted

bearing lubricated with ferro-fluid had the higher

built-up pressure distribution and load carrying

capacity. Recently, Kudenatti et al.(2013) theoretically

discussed the effect of surface roughness and couplestress fluid between two rectangular plates. Results

obtained here showed that the pressure distribution,

load capacity and squeeze film time were predominant

for larger values of roughness parameters and smaller

values of couple-stress parameters when compared

with their classical cases.

Thus, it was deemed appropriate to make an

investigation on the performance of a magnetic fluid

based squeeze film between porous rough infinitely

long parallel plates taking the slip velocity in to

account.

Analysis

The geometry and orientation of the bearing structure

is given in Figure1.

incompressible fluid between two infinitely long

parallel pates approaching each other, and upper plate

having a porous facing approaches the lower one

normally with velocity= dh/dt.

model to describe the steady flow of magnetic fluids in

the presence of slowly changing magnetic fields. The

model consists of the following equations:

)

(.

) = + 2 + 0 (.

. = 0

=0

=

+

) = 0

. (

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

0 2

+ 2

2

(6)

(.

) =

1

2

0 2 is

magnetic fluid is used as a lubricant.

The expression for film thickness is considered in the

form of Christensen &Tonder (1969a,1969b and 1970).

() = () + (7)

randomly varying portion measured from the mean

level characterizing the random roughness.

Here is assumed to have the probability density

function ( ) over the domain [-b. b]

3

32

2

1

(8)

( ) = 35

2

0,

elsewhere

and skewness associated with the characterization of

roughness

can

be

seen

from

Christensen

&Tonder(1969a, 1969b and 1970).

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formis found to be

where

= ( ),

= [( )2 ],

= [( )3 ],

2

(9)

() = ( ) (10)

theory are taken in-to consideration in the

development of the analysis. Following the method

adopted in Bhat(2003) and resorting to Beavers &

Joseph(1967) slip model as well as Andharia et al.(1997,

1999) roughness model, one arrives at the associated

Reynolds equation

H2

B2

6 dh

P 0=

(2 2 sh 3s 2 h 2 ) (

x 2 ) (11)

a (h) dt

2

4

Where

a (h) = h3 + 3 h 2 + 3( 2 + a 2 )h + + 3 2 + 3 + 12 H ,

which is just 3 + 12in the case of smooth bearings.

magnitude is given by Bhat(2003),

2

2 (12)

4

where = 1014 2 4 chosen so as to have a magnetic

field of strength over 105 . The inclination of the

magnetic field to the X-direction has been considered

from Agrawal(1986).

2 =

= 0 , at = and = (13)

2

2

Introducing the dimensionless quantities

0 kh3

x

h3

*

P

u

=

=

, P*

,

,

2

B

h

hB

L *

s* sh

=

=

=

=

,

,

, *

, (14)

3

B

h

h

a ( h)

H

A(h)

=

, *

,=

,

* =

3

h

h

h3

and substituting, one obtains the expression for

pressure distribution in dimensionless form as:

x*

=

60.25( )2 22 +3

()

3

4

= (0.25 ( )2 )

(15)

= 2 (16)

5

24

5 22 3

()

(17)

distribution is obtained from Equation (15) while the

dimensionless load carrying capacity is determined

from Equation (17). In the case of smooth surfaces

setting the slip parameter to be zero, this study

reduces to the investigation of Bhat(1978) in the

presence of porosity. For a porous bearing with

smooth surfaces, this investigation reduces to the

study of Bhat&Deheri(1991). Further, considering the

magnetization parameter to be equal to zero for a

porous bearing with smooth surfaces, one can obtain

the results of Prakash&Vij(1973). In addition, setting

the magnetization parameter to be zero for a

nonporous bearing with smooth surfaces, the results of

Bhat (2003) can be available. Considering the slip

parameter as well as the magnetization parameter to

be zero for a nonporous bearing with smooth surfaces,

this study comes down to the discussions of Cameron

(1972).

Aclose glance at (17) tends to indicate that the slip

velocity of the bearing decreases the load carrying

capacity.Also, it is noticed from Equation (15) that the

dimensionless pressure increases by

(0.25 ( )2 )

(18)

2

While Equation (17) establishesthat the nondimensional load carrying capacity gets enhanced by

5

(19)

24

as compared to the case of conventional lubricant. It is

manifested that the expression for the load carrying

capacity is linear with respect to the magnetization

parameter and hence the dimensionless load carrying

capacity increases with increasing magnetization

parameter as shown in FIG. (2)-(7). The magnetization

results in an improvedperformance because it

increases the viscosity of the lubricant leading to an

increase in pressure; thus,giving increased load

carrying capacity. Besides, the expression for nondimensional pressure distribution indicates that slip

velocity of the bearing significantly distorts the profile

of pressure distribution.

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0.44

W*

W*

0.455

0.435

0.365

0.29

0.415

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.215

0.2

*

*=0.5

*=0.2

0.1

0.15

0.2

*

*=0.1

RESPECT TO AND .

the effect on load carrying capacity with respect to the

magnetization parameter can be nominal as in the FIG.

2. The effect of standard deviation is negligible up to

0.05. Likewise, the effect of porosity on load carrying

capacity with respect to is almost negligible up to

the porosity 0.001(FIG.5)

*=0

*=0.0001

*=0.01

*=0.1

*=0.001

RESPECT TO AND .

0.4775

W*

*=0

*=0.15

0.05

0.4525

0.4275

0.4025

0.5125

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

W*

0.4875

0.4625

0.4375

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

*

*=-0.05

*=0.05

*=0.1

s*=0.31

s*=0.33

s*=0.34

s*=0.32

RESPECT TO AND .

0.4875

*=0

w*

*=-0.1

s*=0.3

RESPECT TO AND .

0.4625

0.4375

0

0.47

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

W*

0.42

=0.7

=0.71

=0.73

=0.74

=0.72

0.37

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

*

*=-0.1

*=-0.05

*=0.05

*=0.1

*=0

RESPECT TO AND .

10

RESPECT TO AND .

load carrying capacity increases sharply due to

magnetization barring the case of porosity.The effect of

standard deviation on the distribution of load carrying

capacity is displayed in FIG. 8-12.

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0.37

W*

W*

0.43

0.345

0.32

0.405

0.05

0.15

0.2

0.38

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

*

*=-0.05

*=0.05

*=0.1

*=0

0.43

s*=0.3

s*=0.31

s*=0.33

s*=0.34

s*=0.32

WITH RESPECT TO AND s .

0.47

W*

*=-0.1

RESPECT TO AND .

W*

0.1

0.45

0.43

0

0.38

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.33

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

*

*=-0.1

*=-0.05

*=0.05

*=0.1

W*

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

*

*=0

*=0.0001

*=0.01

*=0.1

=0.71

=0.73

=0.74

=0.72

WITH RESPECT TO AND .

*=0

RESPECT TO AND .

=0.7

*=0.001

WITH RESPECT TO AND .

carrying capacity due to gets increasing due to

negatively skewed roughness. It is easily noticed that

the load carrying capacity decreases considerably

owing to the standard deviation. This is because

surface roughness of the bearing system retards the

motion of the lubricant, resulting in decreased loadcarrying capacity. However, this decrease is relatively

less in the case of porosity and negligible up to

=0.001, which can be seen from FIG. 10.

load-carrying capacity with respect to variance from

FIG. 13- 15. (positive) decreases the load-carrying

capacity. It is seen that (negative) induces an

increase in the load-carrying capacity. One can easily

find that the effect of slip velocity and aspect ratio is

sharper, which can be seen from FIG.14and FIG.15. It

is interesting to note that the effect of the porosity on

the distribution of the load-carrying capacity with

respect to variance is negligible up to 0.001.

11

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negatively skewed roughness. Furthermore, itcan be

visualized that the combined effect of negatively

skewed roughness and negative variance is

significantly positive in most of the situations.

0.44

W*

0.365

0.29

0.215

0.14

-0.1

-0.05

0.05

*=0.0001

*=0.01

*=0.1

0.38

W*

*

*=0

0.43

0.1

0.33

-0.1

*=0.001

-0.06

-0.02

0.02

0.06

0.1

WITH RESPECT TO AND .

*=-0.1

*=-0.05

*=0.05

*=0.1

*=0

0.43

WITH RESPECT TO AND .

W*

0.38

0.43

0.33

W*

0.33

0.23

0.28

-0.1

-0.05

0.13

0

0.05

0.1

-0.1

-0.05

*

s*=0.3

s*=0.31

s*=0.33

s*=0.34

s*=0.32

W*

*=0

*=0.0001

*=0.01

*=0.1

*=0.001

WITH RESPECT TO AND .

0.505

0.43

0.455

0.405

W*

0.38

0.33

-0.05

0.1

WITH RESPECT TO AND s .

-0.1

0.05

-0.1

0

0.05

-0.05

0.1

0.05

0.1

*

=0.71

=0.73

=0.74

=0.72

WITH RESPECT TO AND .

capacity with respect to skewnessis depictedin FIG. 1619. It is found that the skewness follows the trends of

the variance. The effect of slip velocity as well as

aspect ratio is sharp, which can be seen from FIG. 18

and FIG. 19. It is noticed that the effect of the porosity

on the distribution of the load-carrying capacity with

respect to skewness is negligible up to 0.001. However,

one can easily notice that the positive effect of negative

12

s*=0.3

s*=0.31

s*=0.33

s*=0.34

s*=0.32

WITH RESPECT TOAND s .

W*

=0.7

0.5275

0.5025

0.4775

0.4525

-0.1

-0.05

0.05

0.1

*

=0.7

=0.73

=0.71

=0.74

=0.72

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WITH RESPECT TO AND .

can be seen from FIG. 20-21. Itcan be easily concluded

that indeed, the load capacity decreases sharply due to

porosity. This effect is almostnegligible in the case of

aspect ratio.

W*

0.39

0.29

0.19

0

0.025

0.05

0.075

0.1

*

s*=0.3

s*=0.31

s*=0.33

s*=0.34

s*=0.32

WITH RESPECT TO AND s .

W*

0.43

0.355

0.28

0.205

0.025

0.05

0.075

0.1

*

=0.7

=0.71

=0.73

=0.74

carrying capacity with respect to slip parameter makes

an interesting reading in the sense that load carrying

capacity decreases sharply with respect to s* when

higher values of are involved.

A close glance at the graphs reveals that the negative

effect of porosity can be overcome to a large extent by

the positive effect of magnetization in the case of

negatively skewed roughness for small to moderate

values of the slip parameter. The adverse effect of

standard deviation can be compensated to some extent

by the magnetization for small values of slip

parameter at least in the case when (-ve) is in place.

The combined negative effect of positively skewed

roughness and variance (+ve) can be reduced only to a

small extent, by the positive effect of magnetization,

keeping slip at minimum, for small values of standard

deviation suitably choosing the aspect ratio.

These observations confirm that in spite of the fact that,

the porosity, standard deviation and slip parameter

combine decreases the load carrying capacity, this

article offers some measures to improvethe situation.

Validation

=0.72

WITH RESPECT TO AND .

W*

WITH RESPECT TO s AND

Deheri et al. (2008) and Cameron (1972) indicates that

the load is decreasedby 1.45%. It is not surprising as

roughness, slip velocity and porosity combined

decreases the load carrying capacity. Only due to the

effect of surface roughness, does the load capacity gets

decreased by 2.1%.

In order to validation, the following sets of comparison

have been made with other well-known published

works.

0.44

0.39

0.3

0.31

0.32

0.33

0.34

s*

=0.7

=0.71

=0.73

=0.74

=0.72

without considering the given quantity from (Deheri et

al. 2008, paper*).

Table 3 represents the load-carrying capacity without

considering the quantity from Cameron (1972, paper**).

TABLE 1

Quantity

=-0.05

with consideration

0.405189

0.40217

0.98217857

0.44438

0.38620

0.93639767

0.40821

0.4113

0.99775243

0.45591

0.46192

1.12123543

0.41396

0.72803

1.00462604

without consideration

without consideration (paper*)

13

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TABLE 2

Quantity

S*=0.3

Quantity

S*=0.3

Conclusion

with consideration

with consideration

without consideration

without consideration (paper *)

0.39324

0.39021

0.43022

0.37551

0.39626

0.39901

0.35659

0.39670

0.46131

0.43734

TABLE 3

without consideration

without consideration (Cameron **)

0.47824

0.47095

0.83354

0.51923

0.51930

0.90608

0.47824

0.48156

0.83942

0.43036

0.47878

0.83449

0.55675

0.52783

0.92130

life period point of view the roughness aspects must be

considered carefully while designing this type of

bearing system, even if there is the presence of a

suitable magnetic strength and slip is at the minimum.

To mitigate the adverse effect of porosity and standard

deviation, even the aspect ratio may offer some help in

the case of negatively skewed roughness when

variance (-ve) occurs.

Nomenclature

h

slip parameter

lubricant pressure

velocity of slider

magnetization vector

external magnetic field

dimensionless pressure

inclined angle

fluid density

14

aspect ratio

porosity

standard deviation

0.95315409

0.91034067

0.96836269

0.9626919

1.06164908

skewness

variance

non-dimensional variance

non-dimensional porosity

non-dimensionalskewness

magnetization parameter

magnetic susceptibility

permeability of the free space

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

suggestions of the reviewers.

the

comments

and

REFERENCES

Bearing, WEAR, 107, 1986, 133-139.

Andharia, P.I., Gupta, J.L. and Deheri, G.M. Effect of

Longitudinal

Surface

Roughness

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