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Friction and Wear Research Volume 2, 2014

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Improving of Motor and Tractors Reliability


by the Use of Metalorganic Lubricant
Additives
V. I. Balabanov
Russian State Agrarian University named after K. A. Timiryazev,
Timiryazevskaya, 49, Moscow, 127550, Russia
tribov@mail.ru
Received 23 July 2013; Accepted 23 October 2013; Published 15 April 2014
2014 Science and Engineering Publishing Company

Abstract
Text presents results of laboratorial tribological and
operational tests of various metalorganic additives
(repairing and maintenance compositions), including those
created with the use of nanotechnology, and introduces a
concept of engines maintenance and repair without
disassembling.
Keywords
Repairing and Maintenance Products; Metalorganic Additives;
Nanotechnology

Introduction
As a result of years of researches by tribologyscientists, mostly from Russian School of Science, now
we consider friction not only as a devastating natural
phenomenon. Under certain conditions, it can be used
as a constructive process, which led to developing of
new, unknown before methods of maintenance of
machines, including restoration of components and
equipment without disassembling and while running
[1-2].
new independent scientific area maintenance of
machines and equipment without disassembling
("CIP Service") has been arisen and is successfully
developing due to achievements of Russian scientists
and experts. It is a complex of technical and
technological measures aimed to fulfill a set of
maintenance and repairing operations without
disassembling and during not-stop exploitation.
These operations include engine run-ins, diagnostics,
preventions, auto chemical tuning, cleaning and
restoration of certain assemblies, as well as machines
and mechanisms in general [1-3].

All maintenance and repairing products can be


divided into three main groups, based on a
component composition, physical and chemical
processes of interaction with rubbing surfaces,
properties of derived coatings (protective films), as
well as features of functioning during the further
exploitation: metalorganic compositions (remetallisants), polymeric preparations and geomodifiers.
Laminated additives, as well as metal conditioners
might be attributed to a group of reductants using a
criteria of an increase of technical indicators of the
treated machines.
Under conditions of financial difficulties of the
majority of the population, a certain shortage of high
quality lubricants, a problem of maintaining in an
operable state of practically all domestic and a
number of second-hand imported machines can be
solved to some extent by the use of special repairing
products and technologies, including those based on
nanotechnology [1-3].
Nanotechnologies enable to create chemical structures
programmed to remove contaminations, adding antifriction protection and provide self-recovery of nanoand micro-defects of rubbing surfaces [1-3].
Products differ in the way of use (injection into
friction vapors at joints). The majority of compositions
are filled directly into the oil, fuel or greases. Some of
them are filled through a feed circuit (intake manifold)
in the form of aerosols and additives to the air-fuel
mixture (so-called "special treatment"). There are
products injected directly into the friction zone, such
as cylinders, wheels, etc.

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Classic approach to the process of recovery of


assemblies implies conducting technical and
technological measures aimed to bring their
geometrical sizes to nominal or acceptable values, or
bring their functionality to standard performance
indicators. However, conducting of repairing
measures is sensible even when these requirements
are met only partially.
The use of repairing and maintenance products is
determined by the technical condition of a vehicle.
Thus, a choice of necessary technology and additive is
a result of a technical diagnostic. It detects a need for
soft preventive compositions, or products
providing more intensive effect on the friction process.
It should be noted that sometimes a usage of repairing
and maintenance products is sensible in a number of
other situations and needs, such as races, rallies or
nonstandard situations, driving with a trailer.
This article presents the results of laboratorial
tribological and operational tests of a metalorganic
additive Renom Engine - a complex of fully oilsoluble components on the basis of organic fatty acids,
salts of ductile metals (copper, iron and tin), and a
number of other components, which are the knowhow of the Russian company - "Avtohimproekt".
Methodology of the Research
Comparative tribological tests of various repairing
additives were conducted at AGA Company facilities
on a modernized friction machine Timken-Machine.
General view of the friction machine TimkenMachine is shown on Fig. 1, following by installation
diagram on Fig. 2.

Friction and Wear Research Volume 2, 2014

1 - WEIGHTS 2 - TERMINATING MECHANISM 3 - UPPER


ROLLER SAMPLE WITH TEMPERATURE SENSOR , 4 - LOWER
ANNULAR SAMPLE 5 - LUBRICANT BATH 6 ELECTRIC
MOTOR 7 - FRAME; ADC ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERTER; PC
PERSONAL COMPUTER WITH THE SOFTWARE

The principle of operation of the friction machine


Timken-Machine is based on implementation of
rotational motion and the upper roller sample 3 with
lower annular sample 4. General view and sketches of
samples are shown in Fig. 4 and 5.

FIG. 3 GENERAL VIEW OF SAMPLES FOR TRIBOLOGICAL


TESTS ON THE FRICTION MACHINE TIMKEN-MACHINE: A
LOWER ANNULAR, B UPPER ROLLER

FIG. 4 SKETCHES OF SAMPLES TO THE FRICTION MACHINE


TIMKEN-MACHINE: A LOWER ANNULAR, B UPPER
ROLLER
TABLE 1 LIST OF EXAMINED COMPOSITIONS:

NAME
Lukoil Super
10W40
Resurs
Motor Healer
Return Metal
Valena
MCF-18NT
Cremnesem

FIG. 1 GENERAL VIEW OF THE FRICTION MACHINE


TIMKEN-MACHINE

Bemit
DLCf
Forsan
nanoceramics
XADO Engine
GTM
Renom Engine

FIG. 2 SCHEME OF THE FRICTION MACHINE TIMKENMACHINE:

MANUFACTURER

TYPE

% W.

JSC

Base oil

0,0

VMPavto Company
JSC Fine Metal
Powders
Agrotechnical
University of
V.P.Goryachkina
Kuskovsky plant of
greases
Tribotehnologiya
Company
Scientific Institute
GOSNITI
Scientific Institute
GOSNITI
Tribotehnologiya
Company

Remetallizant

5,0

Remetallizant

5,0

Remetallizant

5,0

Remetallizant

0,6

Remetallizant

5,0

Geomodifier

1,0

Geomodifier

1,0

Geomodifier

1,0

Forsan Company

Geomodifier

3,0

XADO Company
Vico Company
Avtohimproekt
Company

Geomodifier
Geomodifier

3,0
1,0

Complex

5,0

Friction and Wear Research Volume 2, 2014

External rings of conic bearing (type 7202 GOST 520)


were used as a lower sample disk, and as an upper
roller sample - bearing rollers 8 mm in diameter,
made of bearing steel SH15 GOST 801-78.
Examination results of same structural materials
lubricated by Lukoil Super 10W40 are taken as a
comparison base.

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method of a successive removal of upper layers to a


depth of 0.1 microns (argon bombardment).
Results of the Research
Results of tribological tests are shown on Figure 5:

The relief of the samples after the tribological tests


was examined and recorded using a scanning electron
microscope Stereoscan- 360 of Cambridge Instrument
Company at different magnifications of same areas in
order to detect changes in the structure of surface of
friction.
Physiochemical studies were conducted using Auger
spectrometer PHI-590/550 of Perkin Elmer Company
at the Research Institute of General Physics named
after F.V.Lukin. Peaks of Auger spectra of surface of
friction were examined to detect copper in the surface
layers by means of successive cancellation (argon
bombarding) of upper layers to a depth of 0.1 microns.
Based on the results of tribological examinations
which showed high efficiency of the repairing
additive
Renom
Engine,
specialists
of
"Avtohimproekt" carried out its performance tests in
March - April 2013 as an additive to motor oil in the
engine of D -242 MTZ- 82 (Belarus) tractor.
Before changing the oil, given a total running time of
the tractor equal to 8951 moto-hours a compression of
the engine cylinders was measured, as well as average
fuel consumption with the use of the navigation
system GLONASS. The tractor was sent for service
exploitation in OOO "Moscow stud farm 1"
(Moscow region).
Second similar tests was carried out after the tractors
engine exploitation with Renom Engine and total
running time equal to 8972 moto-hours, giving 21
moto-hours trial.
The surface topography of friction samples after the
trial was studied and recorded using a scanning
electron microscope Stereoscan-360 of Cambridge
Instrument Company. Same friction surface areas
were examined at different magnification range to
detect changes in the structure.
Physicochemical studies were carried out using Auger
spectrometer PHI-590/550 of Perkin Elmer company at
the Science and Research Institute of General Physics
of F.V Lukin. In order to detect copper, Auger spectra
peaks of the friction surfaces were examined using a

FIGURE 5 SAMPLE WEAR AFTER TRIBOLOGICAL TESTS OF


VARIOUS LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS:
1 - RESURS; 2 - MOTOR HEALER; 3 - RETURN METAL; 4 LUKOIL SUPER 10W40 (BASE); 5 VALENA; 6 - CREMNESEM;
7 - "BEMIT"; 8 - RENOM ENGINE; 9 - DLCF; 10 - MCF-18NT; 11 FORSAN NANOCERAMICS; 12 XADO; ENGINE; 13 GTM.

It was found that repairing additive Renom Engine


provides
maximum
anti-wear
properties in
comparison with the other investigated additives and
reduces wear of the surfaces of friction compared to
base oil Lukoil Super 10W40 at 8.59 times.
Performance tests at the facilities of agricultural
enterprise showed the following data:
Average compression in the cylinders of the
engine D-242 tractor MTZ-82 is:
Before use of Renom Engine - 2.1 MPa,
After use of Renom Engine - 2.3 MPa.
Fuel consumption for the transport stage:
Before use of Renom Engine - 40 liters per 100
km;
After use of Renom Engine - 37 liters per 100
km.
During the trial period, there were no failures of
lubricated components. Based on the acceptance tests
results, the committee ascertained that the use of
repairing additive Renom Engine for the tractor
MTZ-82 provides:
Increase of average compression in the
cylinders of the engine by 9.52%.
Reduce of average fuel consumption for the
transport stage by 8.1%.
It is needed to continue testing of the repairing
additive Renom Engine on more tractors and longer
trial.
X-ray physicochemical studies of the friction surfaces
have shown that the use of the additive Renom

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Friction and Wear Research Volume 2, 2014

Engine provides formation of nanometer film


containing copper on the friction surfaces (Fig. 6) [2-3].
According to the research it was found that the
friction surfaces of steel samples after laboratorial
tribological tests on pure oil given 1000 zoom (Fig. 7)
have explicit scoring areas (white diagonal spots of
the figure). Dark areas of the image (lower left corner)
are the surfaces affected by microcorrosion processes.
All of that indicates insufficient anti-friction and anticorrosion properties of the used base oil at the
specified test modes [2].

FIG. 6 THE RESULTS OF X-RAY ANALYSIS OF THE FRICTION


SURFACES: PURE MOTOR OIL (A); MOTOR OIL WITH THE
ORGANOMETALLIC ADDITIVE RENOM ENGINE (B)

Examination of the friction surface after testing of the


lubricant composition with the organometallic
additive (2b) indicates that the use of the additive
enhances the quality of the friction surface. As we see,
in areas previously filled with scores, such defects are
practically eliminated. There are only minor
microscores at an area with initial deep metal defects
(dark spot in the center). The use of the repairing
additive enabled to eliminate corrosion of the friction
surfaces as well.

a)

b)
FIG. 7 STEEL FRICTION SURFACES AFTER LABORATORIAL
TRIBOLOGICAL TESTS ON: PURE OIL (A); OIL WITH THE
METALORGANIC ADDITIVE (B)

Based on the physical and chemical it is found that the


metalorganic additive Renom Engine is able to
partially restore the micro-defects of the friction
surfaces by forming of the protective coppercontaining servovit film, characterized by two energy
bursts of copper on the Auger spectra of the
researched samples of friction.
4

Conclusion
1. The studies of self-organization, energy
dissipation, abnormally weak friction, the effect
of Rebinder and no-wear effect in machine
and technical joints, which are corner stones of
synergetics, allowed to formulate the concept of
engines maintenance and repair without
disassembling and while running.
2. The results of tribological tests of the
metalorganic
additive
Renom
Engine
indicated its high efficiency for use as a
repairing tool for recovery of motor and tractor
engines functionality.
3. It should be noted that the process of formation
of a stable servovit is quite a long, and most
importantly, gradual process. Thus, there is not
a sharp rise, but gradual improvement of the
technical characteristics of the engine, such as
power, fuel consumption, emissions and others.
Maximum performance results are achieved
after 1,500 km run or tractor engine running for
more than 10 hours and last different amount
of time depending on initial technical condition
of a car or a tractor.
4. On the basis of exploitation tests it was found
that the use of the metaloranic additive
Renom Engine enables to restore the engine
compression, to reduce the carbon monoxide
concentration in the exhaust gases three times,
to save up to 10% of lubricant and fuel, as well
as provide an easier start-up and stable
operation of the engine.
5. The use of "CIP Service" technology enables to
significantly improve the wear resistance of
rubbing joints, significantly reduce the
economic costs of its operation and
maintenance. The exploitation results of motor
and tractor machines in real conditions of an
enterprise, as well as reviews of many private
vehicle-holders, indicate that the use of "CIP
Service" enables to significantly reduce the
overall costs of maintaining machines efficiency.
REFERENCES

Balabanov, V., Ishchenko S.A. Restoration of a working


condition of the engine without its disassembly:
BALTTRIB 2007 International Scientific Conference,
Proceedings

International

Scientific

Vizerana. Kaunas, 2007. . 72-76.

Conference,

Friction and Wear Research Volume 2, 2014

Balabanov V.I. Reconditioning of moving joints of machines


and mechanisms in

assembly through depositing of

nonferrous metal coating.

Metal Science and Heat

Treatment. 2001. . 43. 7-8. . 288-289.

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Beklemyshev, V., Makhonin, I., Letov, A., Filippov, V.,


Balabanov, V. / Effect of metal-organic renom additives
on friction surfaces of car techniques / Vestnik
mainostroeni,

Moscow,

2004,

10, pp. 51-54