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You are on page 1of 36

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

1. DC Machines Constructions

Direct current machines can be considered consisting of four main parts namely; Stator, Rotor, Air

Gap, and Commutators and Brushes. Figs. 1 and 2 present an illustrative diagram to the main

mechanical components of DC machines.

Stator: This is the stationary part in DC machines. It is responsible for generating a stationary

electromagnetic field in the air gap. It usually houses the field winding and known as woundfield DC motor. It is usually made of solid cast steel frame mounted to which a set of salient

poles from the inner layer. The poles are usually made of stacked iron laminations. The field

windings (coils) are mounted on these poles. These field coils carry the DC excitation current

when connected to an external DC source. This excitation current is responsible for generating

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E.F. EL-Saadany

the magnetic flux in the machine. In some cases, the stator may be constructed from permanent

magnets instead of the field windings and referred to as permanent magnet DC motor.

Rotor: The rotor and the commutators represent the main rotating parts of the DC machine as

shown in Fig. 3. The rotor is usually made of slotted, insulated iron laminations cylinder as

shown in Fig. 4. It carries the armature winding that usually arranged in slots as shown in Fig. 5.

These armature conductors are insulated from each other and from the iron core by paper or mica

layers.

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Air gap: It is the air section separating between the stator and the rotor. The energy conversion

phenomenon occurs in the air gap.

Commutators and Brushes: The commutator is made of tapered copper segments mounted on

the rotating shaft. These segments are insulated from each other through mica sheets and are

connected to the armature windings as shown in Fig. 3. On the other hand, the brushes are made

of carbon (a mixture of carbon and small amount of copper is sometimes used to increase

conductivity). They are mounted on the commutator as shown in Fig. 6. Springs are used to

provide suitable pressure for the brushes to be in good contacts with the commutators.

2. Principle of Operation

2.1 Generator Mode of Operation

Fig. 7 presents a schematic diagram of a single coil DC generator where the coil rotates using an

external prime-mover. During the coil rotation, an emf (voltage) is induced between its terminal a and

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d. This induced emf depends on the coil angular position with respect to the two magnet poles. This

voltage is at its maximum positive value whenever side ab faces the north (N) pole as shown in Fig. 8

for one revaluation of the coil. On the other hand, the induced voltage is at its maximum negative value

whenever side ab faces the south (S) pole. Moreover, whenever the coil is at a vertical position the

generated emf is zero because there are no cut fluxes. Therefore, the generated voltage at the coil

terminal is an AC voltage as indicated by Fig. 8.

The DC generator is equipped with a pair of commutators and brushes as shown in Fig. 7. Each half

(segment) of the commutator slip ring rotates with the coil while the brushes remain stationary. Each

segment is connected to one of the coil-end terminals. The generated voltage across the segments is

picked up by the stationary brushes and it is alternating as descried previously. The segments design

allows synchronization between changing the polarity of the generated voltage at each segment and

changing its contact with the brushes. Therefore, the generated load voltage will be rectified (with

constant polarity). Consequently, the load current will always be unidirectional current.

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

A DC magnetic field is generated in the air gap by either the permanent magnet or the DC current

passing through the field windings (coils). Another DC current is forced to flow through the armature

windings (coils) from an external DC source passing through the commutators and brushes. A

magnetic force is therefore, generated as a result of the interaction between the field circuit magnetic

field and the armature current. This force acts on the side conductors of the same loop in an opposite

direction (because of the opposite direction of the currents as shown in Fig. 10) to create a torque that

starts to rotate the DC motors armature (in this case in clockwise direction).

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As the armature starts to rotate a counter (back) emf is induced in the armature windings that opposes

the armature voltage and, therefore, reduces the armature current. During the motors rotation, each

coil (turn) reaches a point in-between the field poles (neutral point) where the conductors are no longer

cuting the fields magnetic field. Therefore, the force acting on the conductors at this point is zero. Due

to the machines inertia and because there are other armature coils being cut by the field at the same

instant, the rotor continuous its clockwise rotation.

Moreover, the commutators and brusches sets are designed in such a way to reverse the current in the

armature coils after passing this neutral point to maintain the clockwise rotation direction. Thus, the

current in the armature windings is an AC current while the current in the armature external circuit

(before the brushes) maintain its direction, i.e a DC current.

The induced voltage in the armature winding Ea is known as the generated voltage in the case of

generator and the back emf if the machine is operated as a motor. The mathematical expression for this

back emf can be derived as follows;

Consider a single turn (coil) rotating between two curved poles as shown in Fig. 11. The total induced

emf in the turn (eind) can be expressed, in the terms of the induced emf in each segment, by;

where:

eba

is the induced emf in segment ba and is given, in terms of the magnetic field

density vector ( B ), the tangential velocity of the segment ba ( V ), and the

segment length ( L ), by,

eba = V B L

Under the pole face the vectors B and V are perpendicular to each other and

their cross product vector aligned with the vector L . On the other hand, beyond

the pole face edges the vector B is zero. Therefore,

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Spring 2006

v B l

eba =

0

E.F. EL-Saadany

beyound pole edges

Fig. 11 Single turn (coil) rotating between two curved poles. [3]

ecb

is the induced emf in segment cb. The vectors B and V are perpendicular to

each other and their cross product vector is always perpendicular to the vector

L . Therefore,

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Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

ecb = 0

edc

is the induced emf in segment dc. Under the pole face the vectors B and V are

perpendicular to each other and their cross product vector aligned with the

vector L . On the other hand, beyond the pole face edges the vector B is zero.

Therefore,

v B l

edc =

0

ead

beyound pole edges

is the induced emf in segment ad. The vectors B and V are perpendicular to

each other and their cross product vector is always perpendicular to the vector

L . Therefore,

ead = 0

Therefore, the total induced emf in the turn (eind) can be expressed by;

2 v B l

eind = eba + ecb + edc + ead =

0

beyound pole edges

Since the tangential velocity ( v ) can be related to the rotational speed ( ) and the coil radius ( r ) by;

v=r

Therefore,

2 r B l

eind =

0

beyound pole edges

Since there are two poles, the area under each pole can be expressed approximately by;

AP =

2 r l

= r l

2

8

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

Therefore,

eind

2

B AP

=

beyound pole edges

Since the flux density is always constant under the pole faces, then the total flux under each pole can

be expressed by;

= AP B

Therefore,

2

eind =

0

beyound pole edges

For DC motors with N turns, P poles, and a parallel paths, the total induced emf in the armature (Ea)

can be expressed by;

Ea = K a m

where:

Ka

NP

,

a

Ea

Once again, consider the single turn (coil) rotating between two curved poles as shown in Fig. 11. The

total induced (developed) torque in the turn (ind) can be expressed, in the terms of the induced torque

by each segment, by;

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Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

ind = ba + cb + dc + ad

where:

ba

is the induced torque on the rotor by segment ba. The force on the wire segment

ba can be expressed, in terms of the magnetic field density vector ( B ), the

flowing current magnitude (i), and the segment length ( L ), by,

Fba = i L B

Under the pole faces, the vectors B and L are perpendicular to each other

while, beyond the pole face edges the vector B is zero. Therefore,

i l B

Fba =

0

beyound pole edges

r i l B

0

cb

beyound pole edges

is the induced torque on the rotor by segment cb. The vectors B and L are

parallel to each other. Therefore,

cb = 0

dc

is the induced torque on the rotor by segment dc. Under the pole faces, the

vectors B and L are perpendicular to each other while, beyond the pole face

edges the vector B is zero. Therefore,

i l B

Fdc =

0

beyound pole edges

10

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

r i l B

0

ad

beyound pole edges

is the induced torque on the rotor by segment ad. The vectors B and L are

parallel to each other. Therefore,

ad = 0

Therefore, the total induced torque on the rotor by the turn (ind) can be expressed by;

2 r i l B

0

ind =

ind

beyound pole edges

2 r l

= r l , and = AP B , therefore,

2

2

i

=

0

beyound pole edges

For DC motors with N turns, P poles, and a parallel paths, the total induced (developed) torque (T) can

be expressed by;

T = Ka Ia

where

T

Ka

Ia

11

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Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

mechanical power = electric power

T m =

n=

Note:

where

Ea I a

m

60

2

4. Types of DC Motors

In general, DC motors can be classified into Four main categories; based on its field winding

connection; namely; Separately Excited Motors, Shunt Motors, Series Motors, and Compound Motors.

In this type, the armature and the field winding are separated from each other and connected to

different DC sources as shown in Fig. 12.

The mathematical equations that illustrate the operation of separately excited DC motors can be

expressed as follows;

12

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Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

E a = Vt I a Ra

It = Ia

Vf = I f Rf

E a = K a m

T = K a I a

The equations that represent the terminal characteristic (speed torque characteristic) for separately

excited DC motors, presented in Fig. 13, can be derived as follows;

Q E a = Vt I a Ra

Ia =

Vt E a

Ra

Q E a = K a m

Ia =

Vt K a m

Ra

Q T = K a I a

V K a m

T = K a t

Ra

m =

K a Vt (K a )2 m

=

Ra

Ra

Vt

Ra

T

K a (K a )2

m = K 1 K 2T

13

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

where

K1 =

K2 =

Vt

K a

Ra

( K a )2

In this type, the armature and the field winding are connected in parallel and they are connected to the

same DC source as shown in Fig. 14. Shunt DC motors are usually used with applications requiring

high speed and low torque.

The mathematical equations that illustrate the operation of shunt DC motors can be expressed as

follows;

Vt = I a Ra + E a

It = I a + I f

E a = K a m

Vt = I f R f

T = K a I a

The equations that represent the terminal characteristic for shunt DC motors, presented in Fig. 15, can

be expressed by (similar to the case of separately excited DC motors);

m = K1 K 2T

14

where

K1 =

K2 =

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Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

Vt

K a

Ra

( K a )2

In this type, the armature and the field winding are connected in series and they are connected to the

same DC source as shown in Fig. 16.

The mathematical equations that illustrate the operation of series DC motors can be expressed as

follows;

15

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Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

E a = Vt I a ( Ra + R f )

E a = K a m

T = K a I a

=k If

It = Ia = I f

The equations that represent the terminal characteristic for series DC motors, presented in Fig. 17, can

be derived as follows;

Q E a = Vt I a Ra + R f

Q It = Ia = I f = I

I Ra + R f = Vt E a

Q E a = K a m = K a k I f m = K I m

I Ra + R f = Vt K I m

I =

Vt

Ra + R f + K m

Q T = K a I a = K a k I f I a = K I 2

Vt

K (Vt )2

T = K

=

Ra + R f + K m

Ra + R f + K m

2

Ra + R f + K m

Ra + R f + K m =

m =

m

)2

K (Vt )2

=

T

K

Vt

T

K

Vt R a + R f

Ra + R f

V

1

T

= t

K

K

K

T

1

Note: at T = 0, m =

16

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

In this type, the field windings are divided into two parts, a series part connected to in series to the

armature winding and a parallel part as shown in Fig. 18.

Cumulative Compound where the mmfs generated from both field windings are add

together to strengthen the net mmf. The total mmf increases with the increase of the load.

In this type, there is one components of the field flux that is constant while the other is

proportional to the armature current. At light loads, it behaves very close to the shunt

motor characteristic as the effect of the series field flux will be very small. At higher

loads, it behaves very close to the series motor characteristic as the effect of the series

field flux increases with the increase in loading conditions will be very small. This type of

17

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E.F. EL-Saadany

connections combines the best features of both the series type (represented by high

starting torque) and the shunt type (represented by no over-speed occurrence at no-load).

Differential Compound: where the mmfs generated from both field windings opposes

each other. The total mmf decreases with the increase of the load. As the load motor

increases, the armature current increases. Thus the net motor flux decreases that leads to

an increase in the motor rotational speed. This increase in the motor speed increase the

motor loading that result in further increase in the armature current, further decrease in

the net flux, further increase in the rotor speed, and so on. Therefore, these types of

motors are unstable and tend to run away.

The mathematical equations that illustrate the operation of compound DC motors can be expressed as

follows;

E a = Vt I a ( Ra + R fs )

E a = K a m

V f = I f R fp

T = K a I a

It = Ia + I f

The terminal characteristic for compound DC motors are presented in Fig. 19. Fig. 20 presents the

terminal characteristics for most DC motors types.

18

MTE 320

Spring 2006

5. Power Flow

In general, the power flow equations for DC motors can be expressed by;

Pin = Pout + Losses

Losses = I a2 Ra + I 2f R f

Pin = Vt I t

Pout = Pout , net + Protational

where

Pout = E a I a = T * m ,

Protational = mechanical losses,

Pout , net is called the shaft power,

moreover, net =

Ea I a T m

=

,

Vt I t

Vt I t

Pout net

Pin

19

E.F. EL-Saadany

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

6. Starting of DC Motors

The main problem with the starting of DC motors is that at starting m = 0 and hence E a = 0 .

Since, I a =

Vt E a

Vt

, therefore, at starting I a =

.

Ra

Ra

The solution for this problem is to add a resistance to the armature at starting such that R a new is

high to limit the current and then cut it in steps as E a builds up (this technique is called starter). Fig.

22 presents a schematic diagram for a manual face-plate starter. When using this starter, the contact

arm starts at position N where all starter resistances (R1, R2, R3, and R4) are being connected in series to

the armature windings. The armature current will be limited to its maximum permissible value Imax

(usually ranging from 1.5 to 2 times the armature full-load current) as shown in Fig. 23. The induced

emf starts to build up and the motor starts to rotate. With the increase in the rotors rotational speed,

the induced emf increases and the armature current decreases. This process is continued until the

rotational speed cant further increased with such connection and the corresponding armature current

will be Imin. At this operating point the contact arm is moved to the next step to disconnect the starter

resistance R1. The armature current will increase again to its permissible maximum value and the

process is repeated with the new starter resistance. This operation continues until the starters

resistances are disconnected. It is worth mentioning that electronic semiconductor devices are currently

used in the starting of DC motors.

20

MTE 320

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E.F. EL-Saadany

1: Contact arm,

2: Insulated handle to move the arm.

3: Spring to pull the arm to its original dead position when the supply voltage is interrupted.

4: Eelctromagnet to hold the arm magnetically in its last contact position

Since E a = Vt I a Ra and E a = K a m ,

Therefore, m =

Vt I a Ra

, i.e. m = K1 Vt K 2T

K a

To control the motor speed one of the following parameters has to be changed:

21

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1. The armature resistance Ra: Increasing the armature resistance reduces the output torque for

the same rotational speed as shown in Fig. 24. This is governed by the speed equation

m = K1 Vt K 2T .

2. The flux by varying the field terminal voltage or the field resistance. In this case, increasing

the field current, or reducing the field resistance, reduces the output torque for the same

rotational speed as shown in Fig. 25. This is governed by the speed equation

m =

Vt

Ra

K If

K If

)2

T.

3. The armature terminal voltage Vt: Increasing the armature terminal voltage increases the

output torque for the same rotational speed as shown in Fig. 26. This is governed by the speed

equation m = K1 Vt K 2T .

22

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

4. Solid state devices speed control: Speed control of DC motors can be also performed using

solid state switches that are used to vary the armature voltage and / or the field current. This

will be discussed in later lectures.

Example 1: A DC shunt motor running at 1150 rpm, takes 38.5 A from a 230 V DC voltage

supply. What value of extra resistance inserted into the rotor circuit (armature

circuit) would provide a speed of 450 rpm at 120 % of rated torque. The armature

resistance is 0.3 and the field resistance is 128 .

Given:

n1 = 1150 rpm,

It1 = 38.5 A,

Ra1 = 0.3 ,

Rf = 128 ,

Vt = 230 V.

Solution:

23

T2 = 1.2 T1 and

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Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

If =

Vt

230

=

= 1.8 A

Rf

128

constant.

I a1 = I t1 I f = 38.5 1.8 = 36.7

Since T = K a I a and is constant, therefore,

T2 K a I a 2 I a 2

=

=

T1

K a I a1

I a1

Ia2 = 1.2 Ia1 = 1.2 x 36.7 = 44.04 A.

E a 2 K a m 2 m 2 n2

=

=

=

E a1

K a m1 m1

n1

Therefore

E a 2 = E a1 x

n2

450

= 219 x

= 85.7 V .

1150

n1

Since Vt = I a 2 Ra 2 + E a 2 , therefore,

Ra 2 =

Vt E a 2 230 85.7

=

= 3.28 .

44.04

I a2

24

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

Therefore, the extra resistance to be added to the rotor is then R and is equal to,

R = Ra 2 Ra1 = 3.28 0.3 = 2.98 .

Example 2: 100 V, 10 hP, 1100 rpm, DC shunt motor has an armature resistance of 0.05 . The

field winding resistance is 50 . Friction and windage losses (rotational losses) are

250 W. When the motor is delivering rated load at 1100 rpm, calculate:

1. The armature current,

2. The back emf.,

3. The no-load speed,

4. The efficiency of the motor.

Given:

n = 1100 rpm,

Ra = 0.05 , Rf = 50 ,

Solution:

Pout = E a I a = Pout , net + Protational

Pout = E a I a = 10 x 746 + 250 = 7710 W

25

Vt = 100 V,

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Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

Vt I a = (I a )2 Ra + I a E a

(I a )2 Ra Vt I a + I a E a = 0

I a =

100

2 x 0.05

I a =

A

80.3

I a = 80.3

2. The back emf can be calculated from the output power as follows,

E a I a = Pout

Ea =

Pout 7710

=

= 96 V

Ia

80.3

If =

Vt

100

=

=2

Rf

50

constant.

For no-load conditions, Ia = 0 and Ea = Ea NL

E a NL = Vt I a Ra = Vt = 100 V

E a NL

Ea

K a m NL

K a m

26

m NL

m

n NL

n

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Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

n NL = n x

E a NL

Ea

= 1100 x

100

= 1145.7 rpm .

96

Pout , net = 10 x 746 = 7460 W

I t = I a + I f = 80.3 + 2 = 82.3 A

Pin = Vt x I t = 100 x 82.3 = 8230 W .

Pout , net

Pin

7460

= 0.906 = 90.6 %

8230

Example 3: A 200 V, 20 hP, series DC motor has an armature resistance of 0.02 . The field

winding resistance is 0.03 . The rotational speed is 900 rpm when the armature

current is 50 A. Neglect friction and windage losses and assume that the machine is

unsaturated. Calculate:

1. The back emf.,

2. The input power in kW,

3. The developed torque,

If the load torque is halved, calculate:

4. The armature current,

5. The speed,

6. The output power.

Given:

n1 = 900 rpm,

Ia1 = 50 A,

Ra = 0.02 , Rf = 0.03 ,

Protational losses = 0 W.

27

Vt = 200 V, and

Solution:

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Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

E a = K a m

T = K a I a

It = Ia = I f

E a = K a K I a m = K sr I a m

(1)

T = K a K (I a )2 = K sr (I a )2

(2)

where K sr = K a K = Constant

E a = Vt I a1 ( Ra + R f )

E a = 200 50(0.02 + 0.03) = 197.5 V

Pin = Vt x I t = 200 x 50 = 10,000 W = 10 kW .

3. The output power can be related to the rotational speed and torque as follows,

Pout = E a1 I a1 = T1 * m1

T1 =

E a1 I a1

m1

28

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m1 = n1 x

T1 =

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

2

2

= 900 x

= 94.25 rad / s

60

60

E a1 I a1

m1

197.5 x 50

= 104.78

94.25

Nm

4. From equation (2) we can get,

2

(I a 2 )2 = I a 2

T2 K sr (I a 2 )

=

=

T1

(I a1 )2 I a1

K sr (I a1 )2

I a 2 = I a1

T2

= 50 x

T1

1

= 35.36

2

Consequently,

E a 2 = Vt I a 2 ( Ra + R f ) = 200 35.36(0.02 + 0.03) = 198.23 V

E a 2 K sr I a 2 m 2 I a 2 n 2

=

=

E a1

K sr I a1 m1

I a1 n1

n 2 = n1 x

E a 2 I a1

198.23

50

x

= 900 x

x

= 1277.3 rpm

197.5 35.36

E a1 I a 2

Pout = E a I a = Pout , net + Protational = Pout , net

Pout = Pout , net = E a 2 I a 2 = 198.23 x 35.36 = 7009.4 W

Example 4: A 230 V, 50 hP, DC shunt motor is connected to a 230 V DC supply and delivers

1200 rpm. It has an armature resistance of 0.2 . The rotational losses are 500 W.

Determine:

1. The value of the generated voltage at this loading conditions,

2. The value of the load torque,

3. The efficiency of the motor if the field resistance is 115 .

29

Given:

MTE 320

n = 1200 rpm,

Spring 2006

Ra = 0.2 ,

Ia = 200 A,

Rf = 115 ,

E.F. EL-Saadany

Vt = 230 V, and

Solution:

Pout = E a I a = Pout , net + Protational

Pout , net = E a I a Protational = 190 x 200 500 = 37,500 W

m = n x

2

2

= 1200 x

= 125.66 rad / s

60

60

Tout , net =

Pout , net

37500

= 298.4 Nm

125.66

If =

Vt

230

=

=2

Rf

115

I t = I a + I f = 200 + 2 = 202

30

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Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

Pin = Vt x I t = 230 x 202 = 46,460 W .

net =

Pout , net

Pin

37,500

= 0.807 = 80.7 %

46,460

Example 5: A 230 V, 12 hP, 1200 rpm DC series motor is connected to a 230 V DC supply and

0.25 and a field winding resistance of 0.1 . Assume magnetic linearity.

Determine:

1. The power and the torque delivered by the motor,

2. The speed, torque and delivered power if the motor draws 20 A.

Ia1 = 40 A,

Given:

n1 = 1200 rpm,

Solution:

Pout1 = E a1 I a1 = 216 x 40 = 8640 W

31

Vt = 230 V.

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Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

m1 = n1 x

Tout1 =

2

2

= 1200 x

= 125.66 rad / s

60

60

Pout1

m1

8640

= 68.75 Nm

125.66

2. If the motor draws 20 A and assuming linear relationship between and If, then

T = K a K (I a )2 = K sr (I a )2

K (I )2 (I )2 I

T

2 = sr a 2 2 = a 2 2 = a 2

T1

(I a1 ) I a1

K sr (I a1 )

I

T2 = T1 x a 2

I a1

20

= 68.75 x = 17.19

40

Nm

Pout 2 = E a 2 I a 2 = 223 x 20 = 4460 W

m2 =

Pout 2 4460

=

= 259.45 rad / s

T2

17.19

n2 = m 2 x

60

60

= 259.45 x

= 2477.6 rpm

2

2

Example 6: A 240 V, 2 hP, 1200 rpm, DC shunt motor drives a load whose torque varies linearly

with the rotational speed. The armature resistance of 0.75 . With a field current of

1 A, the rotor draws a line current of 7 A and rotates at a speed of 1200 rpm.

Assume magnetic linearity. If the field current is now reduced to 0.7 A and the

rotational losses are 150 W., determine:

32

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

2. The line current, mechanical developed power, and the motor efficiency.

Given:

n1 = 1200 rpm,

It1 = 7 A,

If1 = 1 A,

If2 = 0.7 A,

Ra = 0.75 ,

Solution:

1. Since the load torque is assumed to vary linearly with the rotational speed,

therefore,

TLoad = K Load n

I a1 = I t1 I f 1 = 7 1 = 6

T = K a I a

T = K a K I a I f = K sh I a I f

where K sh = K a K = Constant

33

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

T2 K sh I a 2 I f 2 I a 2 I f 2

=

=

T1

K sh I a1 I f 1

I a1 I f 1

(1)

T2 TLoad 2 K Load n2 n2

=

=

=

T1 TLoad 1

K Load n1 n1

(2)

The armature current, in general, can be related to the terminal voltage and the

back emf using the following equation,

Ia =

Vt E a

Ra

I a 2 Vt E a 2

=

I a1 Vt E a1

(3)

Moreover, the back emf can be related to the field current and the rotational

speed as follows,

E a = K a m

E a = K a K m I f = K sh m I f

E a 2 K sh m 2 I f 2 m 2 I f 2 I f 2 n2

=

=

=

E a1

K sh m1 I f 1

m1 I f 1 I f 1 n1

(4)

I a2

I a1

Vt

E

a2

E

E a1

= a1

Vt

1

E a1

(5)

34

MTE 320

I a2

I a1

Spring 2006

I f 2 n2

Vt

E a1 I f 1 n1

=

Vt

1

E a1

E.F. EL-Saadany

(6)

Substituting equation (6) into equation (1) and then equation (2) we can get,

T2 I f 2

=

T1

I f1

I f 2 n2

Vt

E a1 I f 1 n1

n

= 2

Vt

n1

1

E a1

(7)

If2

I f1

If2

V

t

E a1 I f 1

n 2 n2 Vt

=

1

n1 n1 E a1

(8)

If2

Vt

E a1

I f1

n2

=

n1

I

V

t 1 + f 2

I f 1

E a1

(9)

Substituting n1 = 1200 rpm, If1 = 1 A, If2 = 0.7 A, Vt = 240 V, and Ea1 = 235.5 V

in equation (9)

0.7 240

n2

1

235.5

= 1.401

=

2

n1 240

0.7

1 +

235.5 1

n 2 = 1.401 x n1 = 1.401 x 1200 = 1681.2 rpm

Ea2 =

E a 2 I f 2 n2

=

E a1

I f 1 n1

I f 2 n2

0.7

E a1 =

1.401 235.5 = 230.95 V

1

I f 1 n1

35

MTE 320

I a2 =

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

I a 2 Vt E a 2

=

I a1 Vt E a1

Vt E a 2

240 230.95

I a1 =

6 = 12.07

240 235.5

Vt E a1

Pout 2 = E a 2 I a 2 = Pout , net 2 + Protational

Pout , net 2 = E a 2 I a 2 Protational = 230.95 x 12.07 150 = 2,637.6 W

Pin 2 = Vt x I t 2 = 240 x 12.77 = 3,064.8 W .

net 2 =

Pout , net 2

Pin 2

2,637.6

= 0.861 = 86.1 %

3,064.8

References

[1] Theodore Wildi, "Electrical Machines Drives, and Power Systems," Prentice Hall, Ohio, 2006.

[2] PC in Control, http://www.pc-control.co.uk/dc-motors.htm

[3] Stephen J. Chapman, Electrical Machinery Fundamentals, Fourth Edition, Mc Graw Hill, NY,

2005.

36

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