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Teaching is considered as one of the profession that is exposed to stress. The
stress caused teachers to be in a state of depression, mental stress, frustration and
anxiety. Teachers are entrusted to give knowledge to our generation, therefore they
are required to develop themselves with any form of change that occurs from time to
time. But lately, we often see in mass media on issues of teacher misconduct that
violates the code of ethics for teachers. To keep the image of the profession, every
teacher must adhere to ethical professionalism, teaching ethics, ethical behavior,
and ethics of public service (Abd. Rahim, 2007).
The issue that is often talked about lately is the issue of teacher hurting
students in the teaching and learning process in the classroom. Among the reasons
given by teachers are students coming late to school, did not bring exercise books,
did not do homework and some other minor offenses committed by students. We are
aware that teachers do that to educate the students so that students do not repeat
the same mistakes but giving punishment until hurting them is an inappropriate act.
The action will not only affect the image of the teacher but also the image of the
teaching profession itself.
The Ministry of Education has issued a circular that all punishment that would
be imposed on students who have discipline problems must obtain authorization and
instructions from the headmaster himself because if anything happened the first
person will be accounted for is the headmaster of the school involved. It is important
for a teacher to behave so as not to taint the integrity of the teaching profession. If a
teacher fails to maintain the behavior and attitudes, then the image of teachers
across the country will be questioned and eventually, people will not trust the
teachers in the role of "surrogate parents in school" to educate their children. In
short, the discipline teachers action in the 3 articles has made the public questioned
the professionalism of teachers and this has challenged the integrity of the teaching
profession in our country.
Therefore, the issue of teacher hurting students and also other issues
regarding teachers misconduct must be contained and resolved quickly so that the
teaching profession is still trusted as an agent of change that will shape their children
to become successful in life and in the future and can also contribute to the country.

Everything that happens must have a cause or factors contributing to it.
Teachers are also ordinary people who have different levels of patience. When
teachers act over the limits, it may stem from the attitude of parents who are
defending their children even though it is their childrens fault. Therefore, students
did not afraid of teachers and lose respect because they knew their parents would
back them up. This situation will give stress to teachers. According Sapora Sipon
(2007), teachers who fail to control themselves because of stress will affect the
rapport between teachers and students and the quality of teaching and learning and
thus affecting the quality of education and the teaching profession.
The next factor is the workload. The duty of teachers is not an easy thing to
bear. Work demands requires teachers to master new skills especially skill in using
technology. Duties of teachers are not only to educate, teach and guide students.
Ghazali (1997) study showed 38.7% of teachers in Malaysia is at a low level of job
satisfaction, it is because they often feel depressed and less enthusiastic while
performing duties as a teacher. There are also some teachers that retired before
their retirement age because of the heavy workload.
In addition, appreciation is also a factor that can cause stress to the teachers.
Appreciation refers to awards or praise that should be given to teachers who are
diligent, dedicated, and excel in academics and co-curricular activities. If viewed in
reality, there are teachers who actually gave a strong commitment to teaching and
learning, but no appreciation had been given. Teachers are very caring and concern
for the success of their students, especially in education. According to Hall, George
and Rutherford (1977), the concern is defined as a composite representation of the
feelings, thoughts and attention given to an issue or task. When students do not
appreciate the sacrifices made by teachers, it can lead to teachers acting
unexpectedly, causing injury to the students.


Teachers and school authorities need to encourage a dialogue among
workers about stress management. Sometimes this is achieved through simple
surveys or questionnaires. Developing forums where these issues can be discussed
openly are helpful too. The main objective should be for teachers to dialogue
together to decide themselves how hard to work. Sharing of ideas, tips and tricks are
a great means for feeling connected to co-workers too. Educators need to take
control and accept some responsibility for how they perform as teachers.
Ideally schools should make opportunities available to their staff for
mindfulness exercises and to enjoy peaceful environments. A quiet break room, a
comfortable lunchroom, a place to read, study or prepare free of distractions are
common needs in all workplaces. Schools are no exception. Brain patterns are
affected by underlying daily anxiety and irritability. Switching to calmer modes of
dealing with stress will help you respond to situations more effectively and thus can
prevent teachers from doing misconduct.
Another measures to overcome this issue is by having a positive thinking. It is
not surprising many studies showed the attitudes, values, and beliefs of teachers
about students, teaching, and his influence has impact on student learning and
development (Collinson et. Al, 1999). It is very important for us to think wisely when it
is in such a tense situation. Other than that is teachers must love the teaching career
in order to prevent stress in teaching. Interest in themselves is very important. When
we do our work with love, everything will be easier. All problems can be solved if we
love it and think rationally.
Finally, teachers must manage their time wisely so that they could
have time to rest from the fatigue of work. Time management is effective
in planning our lives either on a daily, weekly, or long-term to allow time
for activities such as learning, leisure, personal responsibility and the rest
(Good, 1973). This is because there are some people who like to
postponed work in the office to take home. This habit should be stopped
altogether because it invites stress. With good time management, stress

can be reduced and the teachers teaching and learning sessions can run
well without any problems arising.

In the context of education, teaching and learning in a collaborative

and cooperative way means having learning activities in groups, under the
guidance of teachers, exchanging ideas through discussion or contribute
their skills in order to solve the problem or carry out a project assigned. In
other words, collaborative and cooperative learning refers to a strategy
and methods of teaching where teachers guide students in groups of
various abilities. They cooperate and help each other to complete a
course or project work provided.
Here we can see that the collaborative and cooperative learning is a
method of teaching and learning used by teachers to form a group in a
class with the teacher only as a guide. In addition, the goal in both of
these methods is to solve a problem. However, in fact, both methods are
very different and this is very important to understand the difference
between these two methods. Collaborative learning is a method of teaching and
learning in which students team together to explore a significant question or create
a meaningful project. A group of students discussing a lecture or students from
different schools working together over the Internet on a shared assignment are both
examples of collaborative learning. Collaboration can improve success when
groups collaborate together to share knowledge and reach a consensus to
solve a problem. While cooperative refers to the teaching method that
requires the students of various abilities to work in small groups to
achieve a common goal (Slavin, 1982). In cooperative learning, students work
together in small groups on a structured activity. They are individually accountable
for their work, and the work of the group as a whole is also assessed. Cooperative
groups work face-to-face and learn to work as a team. With these definitions,
many may assume that the collaborative and cooperative methods are
almost the same method. However, according to John Myers (1991),

collaborative learning emphasizes on the process of working together

while cooperative learning emphasizes on the learning outcomes or
It is very important for a teacher to create a culture of collaboration
and cooperative to improve and develop his professional skills, especially
in the 21st century. As suggested by Lieberman, schools can not progress
without all the staff working together (Lieberman, 1999). Many studies
have found that teachers can grow professionally through collaborative
and cooperative.
In addition, expertise in teaching arises from the process of sharing,
trying new ideas, reflect on practice and developing new approaches.
Through collaborative and cooperative, a professional development can
occur as it involves the process of sharing, giving and receiving. Ideas and
suggestions of every individual or teachers should be heard, made
reflection and respected. Among the elements that should be taken into
account to establish effective collaboration and cooperative is working
relationship that is developed and maintained among teachers. Teachers
must have a belief that working together is not something forced but


Nothing in this world that is perfect. Similarly, in achieving these

goals, we would be faced with many challenges and constraints. Similarly,
in creating a culture of collaboration and cooperative teaching and
learning. It also has a variety of constraints that must be confronted in
order to achieve effective collaboration and cooperative culture.
A question that may arise when using collaboration learning is how
well students contribute in discussions with members of the group. It is in
relation to the issue of responsibility within the group. No doubt some
students would think that if they do not contribute in the discussions, the
work still to be completed because they have other group members, and
this is common thinking in a groupwork. In order to avoid this, teacher
must act as a facilitator to the task given, the teacher must observe the
development of each member of the group at random. At least, teachers
are able to observe members of the group which does not give an
involvement in the group. Therefore, as a facilitator and mentor, it is okay
for a teacher to reprimand any member of the group who did not
participate in the groupwork. This is to produce students who are bold and
active in any activity or program that is held in school either in curriculum
or co-curriculum.

In addition, the problem of factionalism within the group is also one

of the disadvantages of this method of learning. An example of a situation
in this case is as follows. A teacher has divided several groups in a
classroom and conduct collaboration learning methods. Each group
consists of five members. In group C, Alya and Azrina are good friends but
they are against Ali and Abu whom also good friends. In the discussion,
Alya and Azrina had a fight with Ali and Abu which have a different stand
than them. Jason who is also a member of the group was only an observer
of the situation. There are several factors that cause the factionalism to
occur and among them are race, age, gender, interests, and various other
factors. In this case, the teacher must be wise to set a good group by
analysing the social relations within a class. However, this does not mean
that teachers do not need to mix them because if you do not mix them,
they will continue this factionalism in the classroom.
In addition, some of the challenges that should be noted by teachers
is the self esteem of one member of the group. This may occur when
ideas and thoughts of one of group members are often not accepted. For
example, in group B, Hafiz's ideas are often not accepted by members of
the group. This has led Hafiz to feel isolated and think about whether
members of the group did not like it or feel his thoughts are not needed in
the group. Finally, Hafiz will become a quiet person and often afraid to
give his ideas. Teachers should guide the students so that they respect the
ideas of every member of the group. In addition, teachers should also
guide the students on ways to deny other people's opinions in a more
polite way before starting a collaboration and cooperative activities.
Finally, feuds among members will also occur in a group. This is a
common problem that occurs in collaboration and cooperative learning
methods. This problem is also not something to be scared by a teacher as
in an argument or disagreement between members of the group, they in
turn will learn how to manage their conflicts. However, the teacher should
observe and monitor movement of the students so that the feuds will not
turn into a fight.


In order to ensure the effectiveness of collaboration and cooperative
teaching and learning, teachers must have a various ideas that are critical
and creative in applying collaboration and cooperative methods in
teaching and learning. There are various ways to apply these methods.
One of it is by knowing the teachers role. The role of the teacher in
Cooperative Learning differs considerably from the role of teachers in traditional
teacher-fronted lesson. The teacher has to create a highly structured and wellorganized learning environment in the classroom, setting goals, planning and
structuring tasks, establishing the physical arrangement of the classroom, assigning
students to groups and roles, and selecting materials and time (Johnson, 1994). In
dividing the students into groups, teachers must take a look at factors
such as the size of the group and the number of members in the group.
Several factors must be considered such as the mixing of gender,
interests, social relationships in class, racial, and others. This is to build
better relationships in the classroom. The conflict in the group will make

them more mature in resolving a conflict. An important role for the teacher is
that of facilitator of learning. In his or her role as facilitator, the teacher must move
around the class helping students and groups as needs arise. Another thing that the
teacher has to provide is to motivate students to solve their problems in groups and
support students cooperation in groups.
In addition, teachers can collaborate and cooperate with pupils
through Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Nowadays,
there are a range of amenities to facilitate communication despite the
distance between each other. Ease of information and communication
technology enables collaboration at a long distance. Various materials and
teaching resources, techniques and strategies can be shared by the
teachers through technology such as internet, e-mail, video conferencing,
and so on. E-mail is one of the most popular and oftenly used. Sharing
information, resources, materials and experience to resolve issues and
problems among teachers can be done via e-mail.
Finally, some of the ways that can be undertaken by teachers to
create a culture of collaboration and co-operative is a collaboration
between the organizations, institutions, or agencies. Many organizations
have begun to run a program in collaboration to improve the quality and
also to establish a good relationship. Collaboration between schools with
others is very important in improving the quality of programs and
activities. Teachers can also establish collaboration with the university or
agency in conducting a research. The collaboration between educational
institution with other agencies or organization is an effort to improve the
professionalism of teachers.

In conclusion, it can be said that the culture of collaboration and
cooperative is a culture or the method that is very important to be
practiced by all teachers, especially in Malaysia because with the
existence of this method, we can ensure a fun and meaningful learning.

Both collaboration and cooperative learning offers a great deal of diversity.

Students learn to work with all types of people. During small group interactions, they
find many opportunities to reflect upon and reply to the diverse responses fellow
learners bring to the questions raised. Small groups also allow students to add their
perspectives to an issue based on their cultural differences. This inevitability helps
students to better understand other cultures and points of view.
These two methods can also help build a better social interaction. In
one class, there are different types of students such as students who are
talkative and also students who are quite. Through this collaboration
learning methods, indirectly they will be able to build a good social
interaction. Therefore, teachers need to learn and understand more about
these collaboration and cooperative methods so that teaching and
learning process conducted by the teachers will give greater impact on
both teachers and students.


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pengetua sekolah menengah bandar Tangkak. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi
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