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methods for controlling the speed of BLDC motor, the

Simulation & controlling of Brushless DC motor


using PI/Fuzzy
Gagan Deep, Assistant Professor, Sunil Kumar, M.Tech Scholar
Baddi University of Emerging Science & Technology, Baddi, Himachal Pradesh, India
gagangumber48@gmail.com, sunilbarin@gmail.com
Abstract: - This paper presents adequate speed control
mechanisms for 3- permanent magnet DC synchronous motor
or PMBLDCM for a compound coordination. In the beginning,
the Proportional Integrated (PI) controller is explored being the
pace control of the PMBLDCM. As well as then fuzzy logic (FL)
controller formulation is simulated. PMBLDC motor formulation
is analysed using root locus technique & fuzzy logic controller in
a hybrid system using Matlab/Simulink software to autotune the
proportional integral gains. Hybridization of FL and PI
controller for the pace control of PMBLDC motor is also
performed to carry off the weakness of FL controller (steadystate error) and PI controller (overshoots & undershoots).
According to the simulation results, hybrid controller achieve
more efficient performance & precise control in expressions of
voltage, sampling time, rice time, overshoot, undershoot and
settling time.
Key words: - BLDC motor, close loop control system, velocity, PI
controller, fuzzy logic controller, Hybrid controller

I. INTRODUCTION
Brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) also known as
permanent magnet motor or synchronous motor or also known
as electronically commutated motor , which means their rotors
and stators runs at same frequency that are powered with
direct current (DC) inverter/switching
power supply.
Nowadays brushless DC motor becomes more popular due to
following advantages over brushed DC motor, which are good
speed vs. torque characteristics, more efficiency, long
operating life, and silent action with higher speed range, less
maintenance. Recently BLDCM mostly used in Industry such
as automobile, Medicine, aerospace & Electrical appliances
for controlling operation, [1], [2].
Amid Previous days by [3], control has been applied with AI
for the purpose of providing an accurate result to the control of
output variable that is not necessarily present a linear relation
with input signal of the system to overcome this problem
fuzzy offers leeway to use phonetic terms.
Previous work by [4],[5] the effective controllers in the digital
control of BLDC motor, from which the most common are the

PID controller, control by fuzzy logic and combination b/w


these: neuro fuzzy & fuzzy genetic. Speed control is the
process of changing the electrical power delivered to the
motor to a certain speed which is needed. There are two main

Proportional integral derivative (PID) controller & fuzzy PI


controller, [6], [7].
In Case the speed control of motor using PI controller reduce
the effect of noise & gain stability in a system while Derivate
part in PID controller increase the effects of noise, So most
industrial dont use the derivative parts in controllers,[8],[9].
Whereas various technical control system suggest PI
controller, several of the above application are bilinear like
temp. Control & PI tuning for bilinear system is very difficult.
To overcome this problem PI with fuzzy logic controller being
used for bilinear system, [10], [11], [12].
The generation of response of system when using PID & fuzzy
logic controller respectively, fuzzy logic controller is used in
the process because of following reason: It can work with less
precise input, It does not need fast processor, It is more robust
than other non-linear controllers, fuzzy logic controller have
better stability, small overshoot & fast response,[13].
In this paper the primary objective is making a hybrid
structure of PI & fuzzy second order logic to autotune the
angular speed of Permanent magnet brushless DC motor,
whereas angular speed control is the main aim of this because
it helps to synchronize the velocity in a hybrid structure to
increase the integral gain using gain factor obtained through
root-locus of a transfer function in a feedback control system
& dynamic modeling is conducted, [14], [15].

II. PMBLDC MOTOR DRIVE CONTROL SCHEME


The block diagram of permanent magnet brushless less direct
current motor (PMBLDC) control as shown in figure (1):
The block diagram of permanent magnet DC motor or
synchronous motor consists of following as discussed:
A-DC supply source
B-Power Electronics converter i.e. Universal Bridge
C-3- PMBLDC motor or Synchronous motor
D-Position sensor & Electronics sensor
E-Error Detector
F-Control unit
G-output

BLDC motor has rotor position sensor which is controlled by


the command signals, these signal may be classified as torque,
voltage, and speed. PMBLDC is determined by control
algorithms due to which either voltage source & current
source based drives used.
D. Position sensor & Electronics sensor.
PMBLDC motor use electronic commutation to control the
power distribution to the motor, in these Hall Effect sensors
mounted in the motor to measure the motor position because
stator flux vector must be changed at certain rotor position &
which is commutated to the electronic controller to spin the
motor at right time at right orientation.
E. Error Detector:
Error detector is a device which receives the measured signal
& compares it with reference signal and generate error signal.
Angular speed:
The angular speed of the BLDC motor can be calculated by
following ways as shown in equation (1).
Figure (1):- control scheme of BLDC motor

Wc (c / no.ofslots) / T

A. DC supply source.
Direct current is the unidirectional flow of electrical
charge. Direct current is produced by source such as
batteries, dynamo, solar cells, or by using rectifiers.

C represents no. of detected slots


T represents the time neceaary for encoding sampling
F.

B. Power electronics
bridge/Inverter.

Converter

or

Universal

The permanent Magnet Synchronous motor with trapezoidal


back EMF is fed by a pulse width modulation (PWM) voltage
source inverter, which is built up by using a Universal bridge
ckt. Or block. The universal bridge is generally a device that
consists of six power switches in a bridge configuration used
to convert three phase AC power to two ports DC power and
two port DC power to three phase AC power. The universal
bridge allows simulation of three phase converter using both
natural commutated power electronics device (diode &
thyristor) & force commutated devices (GTO, IGBT,
MOSFET). The universal bridge input/output configuration
depends up on following:
o When A, B, C are selected as inputs, the DC
terminals are the outputs.
o When A, B, C are selected as output, the DC
terminals are the Inputs.
C. 3- PMBLDC motor or Synchronous motor.
Universal Bridge transforms power to the PMBLDC motor
which converts electrical energy to the mechanical energy

.(1)

Where Wc represents the angular speed of motor

Control unit:

Control unit consist of two controller i.e. proportional


integral (PI) and fuzzy logic (FL)
F.1 Proportional Integral Derivative:
Proportional integral derivative controller is a close loop
feedback mechanism commonly used in industrial control
system, A PID controller continuously calculates an error
value as the difference between desired set point & a measured
process variable & desired set point. Mathematical expression
for PID controller is given by equation (2).

u (t ) K p e(t ) ki e(t )dt kd


Where

Kp

de(t )
dt (2)

Is known as Proportional controller.

K i Is known as Integral controller.


Kd

Is known as Derivative controller.


u(t) is a PID controller objects.
A block Diagram of PID controller in a Feedback close loop
system as shown in figure (2).

III.CONCLUSION
According to the previous approach the outline demonstrate
that a fuzzy controller combined with a combined with a PI
controller applied to control the angular speed of the hybrid
system has the advantages to autotune the real time, the gains
for control action, the rise & setting time are compared with
the root locus &Ziegler-Nichols strategies. The proportional
control activity in the feedback system has a derivation from
set point, in this way we choose PI controller to amend correct
the steady-state error to obtained stable transient response. The
coordination between PI &fuzzy logic control used to obtain a
better execution in the control variable.
IV. REFERENCES:
Figure (2):- PID controller

[1] G.R.Esocbar, L.U.Perez, C.R.Rojas, A.R.Quientero,


R.M.Grajales, H.S.Cisneros, Autotunning of P/PI fuzzy gain
for a rapid control of a brushless motor in an hybrid
systemIEEE, 2005.

Where E represents Error Signal.


SP represents set point.
In this P accounts for present value of error, I accounts for past
value of error, D accounts for future value of error. Some
application may require only one or two terms to provide the
appropriate system control. This is achieved by setting the
other parameter to zero. A PID controller will be called as a
PI, PD, P & I controller in the absence of respective control
actions .Following Characteristics of PID controller are shown
in a table .
CL
Respons
e
Kp
Ki
Kd

Rise
Time

Over
Shoot

Setting
Time

Decreas
e
Decreas
e
Small
Changes

Increase
Increase

Small
Changes
Increase

Decrease

Decrease

[2] H.wang, Design & Implementation of brushless DC


motor Drive and control system, Procedia Engineering, PP.
2219-2224, 05, 2012.
[3] S. Mitra, A.Ojha, Performance analysis of
BLDC M drive using PI& logic control scheme,
IRJET, vol. 02, sep.2015.

SteadyState
error
Decrease

[4] Ahmed M.Ahmed, Amr Ali-Eldin, Mohamed M.Elksasy,


F. F.Areed, BL DC Motor Speed Control using both PI
Controller and Fuzzy PI Controller, International Journal of
Computer Applications, PP 0975-8887, vol. 109, Jan. 2015.

Eliminat
e
No
Changes

[5] N.dharia, J. Gownipalli, O.Kaynak, B.M.Wilamowski,


Fuzzy controller with second order Defuzzification
Algorithm,IEEE, 0- 7803-7278, 2002.

These are no accurate but each depends upon each other (Kp,
Ki, Kd) changing on of them can change the effect of other
two.

F.2 Fuzzy Logic controller.


In conventional controller set theory based on Boolean logic,
the truth values of variables may be 0, 1 known as crisp value,
on the other hand in fuzzy set theory based on fuzzy logic a
particular variable has a degree of membership function that
can be any value between range of 0, 1. Fuzzy controller were
designed using FIS (fuzzy interface system ) of Matlab with
mumdani type architecture, the signal input to the fuzzy
controller ,works on the basis of reference value (set
point).from the error signal the controller increase or decrease
the gain value, output from the fuzzy controller.

[6] Gaurav, Amrit kaur, Comparison between conventional


PID & fuzzy logic controller for liquid flow control:
Performance Evaluation of fuzzy logic & PID controller using
Matlab/Simulink, IJITEE, ISSN 2278-3075, vol.1, June
2012.
[7] D.D. Neema, R.N.Patel, A.S.thok, Speed control of
induction motor using fuzzy rule base, International general
of computer application, PP. 0975-8887, vol. 5, Nov.2011.
[8] Ruey Yu, G., & Che Hwang, R. Optimal PID Speed
Control of Brushless DC Motors Using LQR Approach
International Conference on Systems, Man and Cibernetics,
pp. 473478, 2004.
[9] Xia, C., Guo, P., Shi, T., & Wang, M. Speed Control of
Brushless DC Motor Using Genetic Algorithm Based Fuzzy
Controller International Conference on Intelligent
Mechatronics and Automation IEEE, pp. 460464, 2004.

[10] Xia, C., Guo, P., Shi, T., & Wang, M. Speed Control of
Brushless DC Motor Using Genetic Algorithm Based Fuzzy
Controller International Conference on Intelligent
Mechatronics and Automation IEEE, pp. 460464, 2004.
[11] Bhim Singh, Sanjeev Singh, State of the art
on permanent magnet brushless DC motor
drivers, Journal of Power Electronics, 2009,
9(1):3-17.
[12] K. H. , A., Chong, G., & Li, Y., PID control system
analysis, design, and technology IEEE Trans. Control Syst.
Technol,pp. 55595576, 2005.
[13] Santanu Kumar Nayak, Pallav Dutta, A Comparative
Study of Speed Control of DC Brushless Motor Using PI and
Fuzzy Controller, IEEE Transactions on Industrial
Electronics, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2015.

[14] Gunes, M., & Dogru, N., Fuzzy Control of Brushless


Excitation System for Steam Turbogenerators IEEE
Transactions on Energy Conversion, pp. 844852, 08, 2010.
[15] S. Kumar, B. Singh, and J.-K. Chatterjee, Fuzzy Logic
Based Speed Controller for Vector Controlled Cage Induction
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