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BLDC motor control using hybrid system

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using PI/Fuzzy

Gagan Deep, Assistant Professor, Sunil Kumar, M.Tech Scholar

Baddi University of Emerging Science & Technology, Baddi, Himachal Pradesh, India

gagangumber48@gmail.com, sunilbarin@gmail.com

Abstract: - This paper presents adequate speed control

mechanisms for 3- permanent magnet DC synchronous motor

or PMBLDCM for a compound coordination. In the beginning,

the Proportional Integrated (PI) controller is explored being the

pace control of the PMBLDCM. As well as then fuzzy logic (FL)

controller formulation is simulated. PMBLDC motor formulation

is analysed using root locus technique & fuzzy logic controller in

a hybrid system using Matlab/Simulink software to autotune the

proportional integral gains. Hybridization of FL and PI

controller for the pace control of PMBLDC motor is also

performed to carry off the weakness of FL controller (steadystate error) and PI controller (overshoots & undershoots).

According to the simulation results, hybrid controller achieve

more efficient performance & precise control in expressions of

voltage, sampling time, rice time, overshoot, undershoot and

settling time.

Key words: - BLDC motor, close loop control system, velocity, PI

controller, fuzzy logic controller, Hybrid controller

I. INTRODUCTION

Brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) also known as

permanent magnet motor or synchronous motor or also known

as electronically commutated motor , which means their rotors

and stators runs at same frequency that are powered with

direct current (DC) inverter/switching

power supply.

Nowadays brushless DC motor becomes more popular due to

following advantages over brushed DC motor, which are good

speed vs. torque characteristics, more efficiency, long

operating life, and silent action with higher speed range, less

maintenance. Recently BLDCM mostly used in Industry such

as automobile, Medicine, aerospace & Electrical appliances

for controlling operation, [1], [2].

Amid Previous days by [3], control has been applied with AI

for the purpose of providing an accurate result to the control of

output variable that is not necessarily present a linear relation

with input signal of the system to overcome this problem

fuzzy offers leeway to use phonetic terms.

Previous work by [4],[5] the effective controllers in the digital

control of BLDC motor, from which the most common are the

these: neuro fuzzy & fuzzy genetic. Speed control is the

process of changing the electrical power delivered to the

motor to a certain speed which is needed. There are two main

controller, [6], [7].

In Case the speed control of motor using PI controller reduce

the effect of noise & gain stability in a system while Derivate

part in PID controller increase the effects of noise, So most

industrial dont use the derivative parts in controllers,[8],[9].

Whereas various technical control system suggest PI

controller, several of the above application are bilinear like

temp. Control & PI tuning for bilinear system is very difficult.

To overcome this problem PI with fuzzy logic controller being

used for bilinear system, [10], [11], [12].

The generation of response of system when using PID & fuzzy

logic controller respectively, fuzzy logic controller is used in

the process because of following reason: It can work with less

precise input, It does not need fast processor, It is more robust

than other non-linear controllers, fuzzy logic controller have

better stability, small overshoot & fast response,[13].

In this paper the primary objective is making a hybrid

structure of PI & fuzzy second order logic to autotune the

angular speed of Permanent magnet brushless DC motor,

whereas angular speed control is the main aim of this because

it helps to synchronize the velocity in a hybrid structure to

increase the integral gain using gain factor obtained through

root-locus of a transfer function in a feedback control system

& dynamic modeling is conducted, [14], [15].

The block diagram of permanent magnet brushless less direct

current motor (PMBLDC) control as shown in figure (1):

The block diagram of permanent magnet DC motor or

synchronous motor consists of following as discussed:

A-DC supply source

B-Power Electronics converter i.e. Universal Bridge

C-3- PMBLDC motor or Synchronous motor

D-Position sensor & Electronics sensor

E-Error Detector

F-Control unit

G-output

the command signals, these signal may be classified as torque,

voltage, and speed. PMBLDC is determined by control

algorithms due to which either voltage source & current

source based drives used.

D. Position sensor & Electronics sensor.

PMBLDC motor use electronic commutation to control the

power distribution to the motor, in these Hall Effect sensors

mounted in the motor to measure the motor position because

stator flux vector must be changed at certain rotor position &

which is commutated to the electronic controller to spin the

motor at right time at right orientation.

E. Error Detector:

Error detector is a device which receives the measured signal

& compares it with reference signal and generate error signal.

Angular speed:

The angular speed of the BLDC motor can be calculated by

following ways as shown in equation (1).

Figure (1):- control scheme of BLDC motor

Wc (c / no.ofslots) / T

A. DC supply source.

Direct current is the unidirectional flow of electrical

charge. Direct current is produced by source such as

batteries, dynamo, solar cells, or by using rectifiers.

T represents the time neceaary for encoding sampling

F.

B. Power electronics

bridge/Inverter.

Converter

or

Universal

back EMF is fed by a pulse width modulation (PWM) voltage

source inverter, which is built up by using a Universal bridge

ckt. Or block. The universal bridge is generally a device that

consists of six power switches in a bridge configuration used

to convert three phase AC power to two ports DC power and

two port DC power to three phase AC power. The universal

bridge allows simulation of three phase converter using both

natural commutated power electronics device (diode &

thyristor) & force commutated devices (GTO, IGBT,

MOSFET). The universal bridge input/output configuration

depends up on following:

o When A, B, C are selected as inputs, the DC

terminals are the outputs.

o When A, B, C are selected as output, the DC

terminals are the Inputs.

C. 3- PMBLDC motor or Synchronous motor.

Universal Bridge transforms power to the PMBLDC motor

which converts electrical energy to the mechanical energy

.(1)

Control unit:

integral (PI) and fuzzy logic (FL)

F.1 Proportional Integral Derivative:

Proportional integral derivative controller is a close loop

feedback mechanism commonly used in industrial control

system, A PID controller continuously calculates an error

value as the difference between desired set point & a measured

process variable & desired set point. Mathematical expression

for PID controller is given by equation (2).

Where

Kp

de(t )

dt (2)

Kd

u(t) is a PID controller objects.

A block Diagram of PID controller in a Feedback close loop

system as shown in figure (2).

III.CONCLUSION

According to the previous approach the outline demonstrate

that a fuzzy controller combined with a combined with a PI

controller applied to control the angular speed of the hybrid

system has the advantages to autotune the real time, the gains

for control action, the rise & setting time are compared with

the root locus &Ziegler-Nichols strategies. The proportional

control activity in the feedback system has a derivation from

set point, in this way we choose PI controller to amend correct

the steady-state error to obtained stable transient response. The

coordination between PI &fuzzy logic control used to obtain a

better execution in the control variable.

IV. REFERENCES:

Figure (2):- PID controller

R.M.Grajales, H.S.Cisneros, Autotunning of P/PI fuzzy gain

for a rapid control of a brushless motor in an hybrid

systemIEEE, 2005.

SP represents set point.

In this P accounts for present value of error, I accounts for past

value of error, D accounts for future value of error. Some

application may require only one or two terms to provide the

appropriate system control. This is achieved by setting the

other parameter to zero. A PID controller will be called as a

PI, PD, P & I controller in the absence of respective control

actions .Following Characteristics of PID controller are shown

in a table .

CL

Respons

e

Kp

Ki

Kd

Rise

Time

Over

Shoot

Setting

Time

Decreas

e

Decreas

e

Small

Changes

Increase

Increase

Small

Changes

Increase

Decrease

Decrease

motor Drive and control system, Procedia Engineering, PP.

2219-2224, 05, 2012.

[3] S. Mitra, A.Ojha, Performance analysis of

BLDC M drive using PI& logic control scheme,

IRJET, vol. 02, sep.2015.

SteadyState

error

Decrease

F. F.Areed, BL DC Motor Speed Control using both PI

Controller and Fuzzy PI Controller, International Journal of

Computer Applications, PP 0975-8887, vol. 109, Jan. 2015.

Eliminat

e

No

Changes

Fuzzy controller with second order Defuzzification

Algorithm,IEEE, 0- 7803-7278, 2002.

These are no accurate but each depends upon each other (Kp,

Ki, Kd) changing on of them can change the effect of other

two.

In conventional controller set theory based on Boolean logic,

the truth values of variables may be 0, 1 known as crisp value,

on the other hand in fuzzy set theory based on fuzzy logic a

particular variable has a degree of membership function that

can be any value between range of 0, 1. Fuzzy controller were

designed using FIS (fuzzy interface system ) of Matlab with

mumdani type architecture, the signal input to the fuzzy

controller ,works on the basis of reference value (set

point).from the error signal the controller increase or decrease

the gain value, output from the fuzzy controller.

PID & fuzzy logic controller for liquid flow control:

Performance Evaluation of fuzzy logic & PID controller using

Matlab/Simulink, IJITEE, ISSN 2278-3075, vol.1, June

2012.

[7] D.D. Neema, R.N.Patel, A.S.thok, Speed control of

induction motor using fuzzy rule base, International general

of computer application, PP. 0975-8887, vol. 5, Nov.2011.

[8] Ruey Yu, G., & Che Hwang, R. Optimal PID Speed

Control of Brushless DC Motors Using LQR Approach

International Conference on Systems, Man and Cibernetics,

pp. 473478, 2004.

[9] Xia, C., Guo, P., Shi, T., & Wang, M. Speed Control of

Brushless DC Motor Using Genetic Algorithm Based Fuzzy

Controller International Conference on Intelligent

Mechatronics and Automation IEEE, pp. 460464, 2004.

[10] Xia, C., Guo, P., Shi, T., & Wang, M. Speed Control of

Brushless DC Motor Using Genetic Algorithm Based Fuzzy

Controller International Conference on Intelligent

Mechatronics and Automation IEEE, pp. 460464, 2004.

[11] Bhim Singh, Sanjeev Singh, State of the art

on permanent magnet brushless DC motor

drivers, Journal of Power Electronics, 2009,

9(1):3-17.

[12] K. H. , A., Chong, G., & Li, Y., PID control system

analysis, design, and technology IEEE Trans. Control Syst.

Technol,pp. 55595576, 2005.

[13] Santanu Kumar Nayak, Pallav Dutta, A Comparative

Study of Speed Control of DC Brushless Motor Using PI and

Fuzzy Controller, IEEE Transactions on Industrial

Electronics, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2015.

Excitation System for Steam Turbogenerators IEEE

Transactions on Energy Conversion, pp. 844852, 08, 2010.

[15] S. Kumar, B. Singh, and J.-K. Chatterjee, Fuzzy Logic

Based Speed Controller for Vector Controlled Cage Induction

Motor Drive, Energy, Computer, Communication and Control

Conference, Vol. 12, pp. 17-19, 1998.

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