You are on page 1of 10

The great expansion of piping industry where it is today if mainly for the available codes,

standards and recommended practices. The main concern for designing any process plant is
safety of personnel involved. Design of Piping systems complying these codes, standards or
recommended practices ensures safety along with standardization of required items. Every
piping engineer should possess a basic knowledge of the extensively used codes and
standards. The following write up will try to provide a sum up of common codes and
standards which are extensively used in recent process piping industry.
Codes Vs Standards:

Codes prescribes requirements for design, materials, fabrication, erection,


examination, assembly, test, and inspection of piping systems, whereas standards
contain design and construction rules and requirements for individual piping
components such as elbows, tees, returns, flanges, valves, and other in-line items.

Compliance to code is generally mandated by regulations imposed by regulatory and


enforcement agencies. At times, the insurance carrier for the facility leaves hardly any
choice for the owner but to comply with the requirements of a code or codes to ensure
safety of the workers and the general public. Compliance to standards is normally
required by the rules of the applicable code or the purchasers specification.

Recommended Practice:
Recommended Practices, prepared by professional organisations or professional bodies are
optional set of documents which can be used for good engineering practice.
Even though every country have their own codes and standards but still the American codes
and standards are most widely used. The major codes and standards which are used in day to
day piping application are listed below:
A. ASME CODES:
1.0 ASME B31: CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING:ASME B31.3 Process Piping:
This code normally provides rules for piping found in petroleum refineries,
chemical,pharmaceutical,textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants, and related
processing plants and terminals including piping for fluids like raw, intermediate and finished
chemicals, petroleum products, gas, steam, air and water, fluidized solids, refrigerants,
cryogenic fluids etc. For process piping professionals this code is of atmost importance.
This Code does not provide information on the following:
(a) piping systems designed for internal gage pressures at or above zero but less than 105 kPa
(15 psi), provided the fluid handled is nonflammable, nontoxic, and not damaging to human
tissues and its design temperature is from 29C (20F) through 186C (366F).
(b) power boilers and boiler external piping which is required to conform to B31.1.
(c) tubes, tube headers, crossovers, and manifolds of fired heaters, which are internal to the
heater enclosure
(d) pressure vessels, heat exchangers, pumps, compressors, and other fluid handling or
processing equipment, including internal piping and connections for external piping.
(e) piping covered by ASME B31.4, B31.8, or B31.11, although located on the company
property
(f) plumbing, sanitary sewers, and storm sewers.

(g) piping for fire-protection systems


(h) piping covered by applicable governmental regulations

ASME B31.1 Power Piping:


This code provides requirements for piping typically found in electric power generating stations, in
industrial and institutional plants, geothermal heating systems, and central and district heating and
cooling systems. This code is mainly important for Power piping professionals. It does not apply to
piping systems covered by other sections of the Code for Pressure Piping, and other piping which is
specifically excluded from the scope of this code.
ASME B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids and Slurries:
This code provides requirements for piping transporting liquids between production facilities, tank
farm, natural gas processing plants, plants and terminals and within terminals, pumping, regulating,
metering stations, and other delivery and receiving points.ASME B31.5 Refrigeration Piping and
Heat Transfer Components:
This code prescribes requirements for piping for refrigerants, heat transfer components and
secondary coolants for temperatures as low as -320 degree F (-196 degree C)
ASME
B31.8

Gas
Transmission
and
Distribution
Piping
Systems:
This code covers the piping transporting products that are mostly gas (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)
between sources and terminals. This code also covers safety aspects of the operation and
maintenance of those facilities.
ASME
B31.9

AMSE
B31.11

Slurry
ASME B31.12 Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines.

Building
Transportation

Services
Piping

Piping
Systems.

2.0 ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE: It contains 11 sections as mentioned below:
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI

Power Boilers
Material
Specifications
Rules for
Construction of Nuclear Power Plant Components
Heating Boilers
Nondestructive Examination
Recommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
Recommended Rules for
Care of
Power Boilers
Pressure
Vessels
Weldingand
Brazing Qualifications
Fiber-Reinforced
Plastic Pressure
Vessels
Rules for In-Service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components

Out of this 11 sections Section VIII is very important for Process Piping engineers.
B. PIPING COMPONENT STANDARDS: The major piping component standards which are used
frequently
are
listed below:
ASME B36.10M:
Welded and
Seamless
Wrought
Steel Pipe
ASME B36.19M:
Stainless Steel
Pipe
ASME B16.9: Factory-Made Wrought
Steel Buttwelding
Fittings
ASME B16.5: Pipe
Flanges
and
Flanged
Fittings
ASME B16.11: Forged Fittings,
Socket Welding
and
Threaded

ASME
B1.1:
Unified
Inch
Screw
Threads
ASME
B16.20:
Metallic
Gaskets
for
Pipe
Flanges.
ASME
B16.25:
Buttwelding
Ends
ASME
B16.10:
Face-to-Face
and
End-To-End
Dimensions
of
Valves
MSS SP-58: Pipe Hangers and Supports Materials, Design, and Manufacture.
BS
6501,
Part
1:
Flexible
Metal
Hose
NFPA 1963: Standard for Fire Hose Connections
Refer ASME code B 31.3 for more of the component standards
C.
ASTM
STANDARDS:
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is a scientific and technical organization that
develops and publishes voluntary standards on the characteristics and performance of materials,
products, systems, and services. The standards published by theASTM include test procedures for
determining or verifying characteristics, such as chemical composition, and measuring performance,
such as tensile strength and bending properties. The standards cover refined materials, such as steel,
and basic products, such as machinery and fabricated equipment. The standards are developed by
committees drawn from a broad spectrum of professional, industrial, and commercial interests. Many
of the standards are made mandatory by reference in applicable piping codes.

The major ASTM standards are listed below:


A36:
Carbon
Structural
Steel
A105:
Carbon
Steel
Forgings,
for
Piping
Applications
A106:
Seamless
Carbon
Steel
Pipe
for
High-Temperature
Service
A312: Seamless, Welded, and Heavily Cold Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe
A335:
Seamless
Ferritic
Alloy
Steel
Pipe
for
High-Temperature
Service
A358: Electric-Fusion-Welded Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Alloy Stainless Steel Pipe for HighTemperature
Service
and
General
Applications
A516: Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for Moderate and Lower-Temperature Service
A671: Electric-Fusion-Welded Steel Pipe for Atmospheric and Lower Temperatures
A672: Electric-Fusion-Welded Steel Pipe for High-Pressure Service at Moderate Temperatures
Suggested reading for more on ASTM standards: Refer ASME B 31.3 Specification index for Apeendix
A.
D.
API
STANDARDS:
The American Petroleum Institute (API) publishes specifications, bulletins, recommended practices,
standards, and other publications as an aid to procurement of standardized equipment and materials.

The major ones are listed below for your reference:


API RP 520: Recommended Practice for Sizing, Selection,and Installation of Pressure-Relieving
Devices
in
Refineries.
API 610: Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Petrochemical and Natural Gas Industries

API
650:
Welded
Tanks
for
Oil
Storage
API
661: Air-Cooled
Heat
Exchangers
for
General
Refinery
Service
API
560: Fired
Heaters
for
General
Refinery
Service
API 617: Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-compressors for Petroleum, Chemical and
Gas
Industry
Services
API 618: Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry Services
API 612: Petroleum, Petrochemical and Natural Gas Industries-Steam Turbines-Special-purpose
Applications
For more API Standards refer the API website for their catalogue of published standard.
There are several other codes and standards which are used in piping industry like AMERICAN
WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION, AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY, AMERICAN SOCIETY OF
SANITARY ENGINEERS, AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR
NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE, EXPANSION JOINT
MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION, MANUFACTURERS STANDARDIZATION SOCIETY OF THE
VALVE AND FITTINGS INDUSTRY, NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION, TUBULAR
EXCHANGER MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION etc.
ASME B 31.3 is the bible of process piping engineering and every piping engineer should frequently
use this code for his knowledge enhancement. But to study a code similar to B 31.3 is time consuming
and also difficult because the contents are not at all interesting. Also every now and then it will say to
refer to some other point of the code which will irritate you. But still every piping engineer should learn
few basic points from it. The following literature will try to point out 11 basic and useful points from the
code about which every piping engineer must be aware.

1. What is the scope of ASME B 31.3? What does it covers and what does not?
Ans: Refer to the ASME B 31.3-Process Piping section from my earlier post.
Link: http://www.whatispiping.com/?p=44
Alternatively refer the below attached figure ( Figure 300.1.1 from code ASME B 31.3)

2. What are the disturbing parameters against which the piping system must be designed?
Ans: The piping system must stand strong (should not fail) against the following major effects:

Design Pressure and Temperature: Each component thickness must be sufficient to withstand
most severe combination of temperature and pressure.

Ambient effects like pressure reduction due to cooling, fluid expansion effect, possibility of
moisture condensation and build up of ice due to atmospheric icing, low ambient temperature
etc.

Dynamic effects like impact force due to external or internal unexpected conditions, Wind
force, Earthquake force, Vibration and discharge (Relief valve) reaction forces, cyclic effects
etc.

Component self weight including insulation, rigid body weights along with the medium it
transport.

Thermal expansion and contraction effects due to resistance from free displacement or due to
thermal gradients (thermal bowing effect) etc.

Movement of pipe supports or connected equipments etc.

3. How to calculate the allowable stress for a carbon steel pipe?


Ans: The material allowable stress for any material other than bolting material, cast iron and malleable
iron are the minimum of the following:
1. one-third of tensile strength at maximum temperature.
2. two-thirds of yield strength at maximum temperature.
3. for austenitic stainless steels and nickel alloys having similar stressstrain behavior, the lower
of two thirds of yield strength and 90% of yield strength at temperature.
4. 100% of the average stress for a creep rate of 0.01% per 1 000 h
5. 67% of the average stress for rupture at the end of 100 000 h
6. 80% of the minimum stress for rupture at the end of 100 000 h
7. for structural grade materials, the basic allowable stress shall be 0.92 times the lowest value
determined (1) through (6) above.
4. What is the allowable for Sustained, Occasional and Expansion Stress as per ASME B 31.3?
Ans: Calculated sustained stress (SL)< Sh (Basic allowable stress at maximum temperature)
Calculated occasional stress including sustained stress< 1.33 Sh
Calculated expansion stress< SA = f [ 1.25( Sc + Sh) SL]
Here f =stress range factor,
Sc =basic allowable stress at minimum metal temperature and
SL=calculated sustained stress. The sustained stress (SL) is calculated using the following code
formulas:

Here,
Ii = sustained in-plane moment index. In the absence of more applicable data, Ii is taken asthe greater
of 0.75ii or 1.00.
Io = sustained out-plane moment index. In the absence of more applicable data, Io is taken as the
greater of 0.75io or 1.00.
Mi = in-plane moment due to sustained loads, e.g.,pressure and weight
Mo = out-plane moment due to sustained loads, e.g.,pressure and weight
Z = sustained section modulus
It = sustained torsional moment index. In the absence of more applicable data, It is taken
as 1.00.
Mt = torsional moment due to sustained loads, e.g.,pressure and weight
Ap = cross-sectional area of the pipe, considering nominal pipe dimensions less allowances;
Fa = longitudinal force due to sustained loads, e.g.,pressure and weight
Ia = sustained longitudinal force index. In the absence of more applicable data, Ia is taken as 1.00.
5. What are steps for calculating the pipe thickness for a 10 inch carbon steel (A 106-Grade B)
pipe carrying a fluid with design pressure 15 bar and design temperatre of 250 degree
centigrade?
Ans: The pipe thickness (t) for internal design pressure (P) is calculated from the following equation.

Here, D=Outside diameter of pipe, obtain the diameter from pipe manufacturer standard.
S=stress value at design temperature from code Table A-1
E=quality factor from code Table A-1A or A-1B
W=weld joint strength reduction factor from code
Y=coefficient from code Table 304.1.1
Using the above formula calculate the pressure design thickness, t.
Now add the sum of the mechanical allowances (thread or groove depth) plus corrosion and erosion
allowances if any with t to get minimum required thickness, tm.
Next add the mill tolerance with this value to get calculated pipe thickness. For seamless pipe the mill
tolerance is 12.5% under tolerance. So calculated pipe thickness will be tm/(1-0.125)=tm/0.875.
Now accept the available pipe thickness (based on next nearest higher pipe schedule) just higher
than the calculated value from manufacturer standard thickness tables.
6. How many types of fluid services are available for process piping?
Ans: In process piping industry following fluid services are available..

Category D Fluid Service: nonflammable, nontoxic, and not damaging to human tissues, the
design pressure does not exceed 150 psig, the design temperature is from -20 degree F to
366 degree F.

Category M Fluid Service: a fluid service in which the potential for personnel exposure is
judged to be significant and in which a single exposure to a very small quantity of a toxic fluid,
caused by leakage, can produce serious irreversible harm to persons on breathing or bodily
contact, even when prompt restorative measures are taken.

Elavated Temperature Fluid service: a fluid service in which the piping metal temperature is
sustained equal to or greater than Tcr (Tcr=temperature 25C (50F) below the temperature
identifying the start of time-dependent properties).

Normal Fluid Service: a fluid service pertaining to most piping covered by this Code, i.e., not
subject to the rules for Category D, Category M, Elevated Temperature, High Pressure, or
High Purity Fluid Service.

High Pressure Fluid Service: a fluid service for which the owner specifies the use of
Chapter IX for piping design and construction. High pressure is considered herein to be
pressure in excess of that allowed by the ASME B16.5 Class 2500 rating for the specified
design temperature and material group.

High Purity Fluid Service: a fluid service that requires alternative methods of fabrication,
inspection, examination, and testing not covered elsewhere in the Code, with the intent to
produce a controlled level of cleanness. The term thus applies to piping systems defined for
other purposes as high purity, ultra high purity, hygienic, or aseptic.

7. What do you mean by the term SIF?


Ans: The stress intensification factor or SIF is an intensifier of bending or torsional stress local to a
piping component such as tees, elbows and has a value great than or equal to 1.0. Its value depends
on component geometry. Code B 31.3 Appendix D (shown in below figure) provides formulas to
calculate the SIF values.

8. When do you feel that a piping system is not required formal stress analysis?
Ans: Formal pipe stress analysis will not be required if any of the following 3 mentioned criteria are
satisfied:
1. if the system duplicates, or replaces without significant change, a system operating with a
successful service record (operating successfully for more than 10 years without major
failure).
2. if the system can readily be judged adequate by comparison with previously analyzed
systems.
3. if the system is of uniform size, has no more than two points of fixation, no intermediate
restraints, and falls within the limitations of empirical equation mentioned below:

Here,
D = outside diameter of pipe, mm (in.)
Ea = reference modulus of elasticity at 21C (70F),MPa (ksi)

K1 = 208 000 SA/Ea, (mm/m)2 = 30 SA/Ea, (in./ft)2


L = developed length of piping between anchors,m (ft)
SA = allowable displacement stress range
U = anchor distance, straight line between anchors,m (ft)
y = resultant of total displacement strains, mm (in.), to be absorbed by the piping system
9. How will you calculate the displacement (Expansion) stress range for a piping system?
Ans: Expansion stress range (SE) for a complex piping system is normally calculated using softwares
like Caesar II or AutoPipe. However, the same can be calculated using the following code equations:

here
Ap
=
cross-sectional
area
of
pipe
Fa = range of axial forces due to displacement strains between any two conditions being evaluated
ia = axial stress intensification factor. In the absence of more applicable data, ia p 1.0 for elbows, pipe
bends, and miter bends (single, closely spaced, and widely spaced), and ia =io (or i when listed) in
Appendix
D
for
other
components;
it = torsional stress intensification factor. In the absence of more applicable data, it=1.0;
Mt
=
torsional
moment
Sa
=
axial
stress
range
due
to
displacement
strains=
iaXFa/Ap
Sb
=
resultant
bending
stress
St
=
torsional
stress=
itXMt/2Z
Z
=
section
modulus
of
pipe
ii
=
in-plane
stress
intensification
factor
from
Appendix
D
io
=
out-plane
stress
intensification
factor
from
Appendix
D
Mi
=
in-plane
bending
moment
Mo
=
out-plane
bending
moment
Sb = resultant bending stress
10. What do you mean by the term Cold Spring?
Ans: Cold spring is the intentional initial deformation applied to a piping system during assembly to
produce a desired initial displacement and stress. Cold spring is beneficial in that it serves to balance
the magnitude of stress under initial and extreme displacement conditions.
When cold spring is properly applied there is less likelihood of overstrain during initial operation;
hence, it is recommended especially for piping materials of limited ductility. There is also less
deviation from as installed dimensions during initial operation, so that hangers will not be displaced as
far from their original settings.
However now a days most of the EPC organizations does not prefer the use of Cold Spring while
analysis
any
system.
11. How to decide whether Reinforcement is required for a piping branch connection or not?
Ans: When a branch connection is made in any parent pipe the pipe connection is weakened by the
opening that is made in it. So it is required that the wall thickness after the opening must be
sufficiently in excess of the required thickness to sustain the pressure. This requirement is checked by
calculating the required reinforcement area (A1) and available reinforcement area (A2+A3+A4) and if
available area is more than the required area then no reinforcement is required. Otherwise additional
reinforcement need to be added. The equations for calculating the required and available area are
listed below for your information from the code. Please refer the code for notations used: