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Formula List for PGRE

- Animation Help
- Tom Tellez Sprinting-A Biomechanical Approach
- Giancoli Prob.solution Chap.8
- Chapter 6 Plane Kinetics of Rigid Body
- The Bullet's Flight Through Crosswinds (PartII)
- Dynamic responses
- Accouplement mec
- ABB IRB120 Presentation
- Propeller Clock
- Development of Working Model of 3-D Mixer
- Circular Motion Type 2 PART 2 of 2 ENG
- Vortech Operating Manual
- H-1000-5081-03-A_PHS1_UG
- Assignment 2.pdf
- 2008CON Omni Baker McKenzie
- bowex_en
- PHY1January2001
- MIT8_01SC_slides22.pdf
- Position, Velocity and Acceleration
- ncert11physics1.pdf

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m

V

Average speed: v

Average velocity: v x

x

t

Average acceleration: a x

d

t

Instantaneous velocity: v x

v x

t

dx

dt

Instantaneous acceleration: a x

dvx

dt

4 equations of motion:

x xo

v vo a x t

x xo vo t

1 2

at

2

Projectile motion:

1

(v vo )t

2

2a ( x x o ) v 2 v o

v xi vi cos i

v yi vi sin i

ac

Centripetal acceleration:

at

Tangential acceleration:

v2

r

dv

dt

a a r at

Total acceleration:

Period:

2r

v

Radial acceleration:

v2

a r ac

r

Relative velocity:

v po v po voo

Newtons Laws

1st Law:

-Object at rest will remain at rest

-Object in motion remains in motion (law if inertia)

2nd Law:

-Acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and

F

inversely proportional to its mass a

m

rd

3 Law:

-If two objects interact, the force F12 exerted by object 1 on object 2 is equal in magnitude

but opposite in direction to the force F21 exerted by object 2 on object 1 F12 F21

Net Force:

F ma

Resistive force

Low speed:

R bv

f s s n

High speed:

R cv 2

f k k n

Differential form:

Terminal speed:

Law of gravitation:

dv

b

g vv

dt

m

mg

mg

vT

b

c

mg

(1 e bt / m )

b

2mg

DA

m1 m2

r2

Fg G

Coulombs law:

xf

Work: W Fd cos Fx dx

KE

1 2

mv

2

W KE f KE i KE

KE f k x Wotherforces

Instantaneous Power: P

Average power:

Conservation of energy:

Mechanical energy:

where Eint f x x

dE dW

F v

dt

dt

W

t

Electric potential energy:

U g mgy G

m1m2

r

q1q 2

r

KEi U i KE f U f

U e ke

E mech KE U

Elastic potential:

Us

1 2

kx

2

xf

xi

du

Force from potential energy: Fx

dx

p mv

Linear Momentum:

Net Force:

dp

F

dt

q1 q 2

r2

Hookes law: Fs kx

xi

Kinetic energy:

Fe k e

Impulse:

tf

I

F

dt p

tf

I

F

ext dt ptot

ti

ti

Perfect Inelastic: (Momentum is conserved & stick together)

m1v1i m2 v2i (m1 m2 )v f

Elastic collision: (Momentum & KE conserved)

m1v1i m2 v2i m1v1 f m2 v2 f

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

m1v1i m2 v 2i m1v1 f m2 v 2 f

2

2

2

2

Center of mass:

m x m2 x 2

xcm 1 1

m1 m2

i mi ri

rcm

M

CM of extended objects:

1

rcm

r dm

M

drcm

1

vcm

dt

M

Velocity of CM:

dri

1

i mi dt M

dv

1

dt

M

dvi

1

i mi dt M

Rocket Propulsion:

m

v f vi ve ln i

m

f

Rocket Thrust:

Thrust ma m

i i

Mvcm mi vi pi ptot

Momentum of system:

Radian:

m v

s

t

r

dv

dM

ve

dt

dt

Arc length:

m a

f i

t f ti

s r

d

dt

f i

t f ti

d

dt

1

2

o o t t 2

o t

o

2 o 2 o

1

o t

2

Tangential velocity:

ds

d

r

r

dt

dt

Tangential acceleration:

at

dv

d

r

r

dt

dt

Centripetal acceleration:

ac

v2

r 2

r

Moment of Inertia:

I mi ri r 2 dm

2

KE R

1 2

I

2

Torque:

I pr 2 dv

dL

Fr Fr sin r F I

dt

Power by torque:

W d Id

d

dt

1

2

2

I f i

2

L r p mvr sin I

Angular momentum:

Ltot cons tan t

ds

d

R

R

dt

dt

dv

d

cm R

R

dt

dt

vcm

Pure rolling motion:

acm

KE of rolling object: KE

1 2 1

2

I Mvcm

2

2

1st: Each planet in the solar system moves in an elliptical orbit with the Sun at one focus

a2 b2 c2

eccentricity : e c

a

2nd: The radius vector drawn from the Sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas in equal

time intervals

3rd: The square of the orbital period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis of the elliptical orbit.

4 2 3

2

a k s a 3

T

GM s

2GM

R

Speed of light: c f

Escape velocity:

vesc

Rydberg formula:

1

1

RH 2 2

n

ni

f

1

Total energy of hydrogen atom:

n2 2

me k e e 2

13.606eV

En

n2

Energy levels of H:

Ei E f hf

rn

kee

2r

hc

n = 1, 2, 3,

n = 1, 2, 3,

E

1

B

o o

k e e 2 1

1

f

2ao h n f 2 ni 2

ke e 2 1

En

2a o n 2

n = 1, 2, 3,

Fs kx

Hookes Law:

xt A cost

v max A

a max 2 A

Angular frequency:

Period:

Frequency:

k

2

2f

m

T

m

L 2r

2

k

g

v

1

1

T 2

Physical pendulum:

g v

L r

k

m

Total energy: E

mgd

I

T 2

I

mgd

bt

Position damped oscillation (small): x Ae 2 m cost

Fo

k b

m 2m

b

2

o

1 2

kA

2

y A sinkx t

d2y 1 d2y

dx 2 v 2 dt 2

Wave power:

Doppler effect:

where

1

2 A 2 v

2

v vo

f f

v vs

Standing wave:

y 2 A sin kxcost

Normal modes:

2L

n

Fundamental frequency:

where n = 1, 2, 3,

fn

f1

n

n T

v

2L

2L

1 T

2L

Natural frequency

Air column open on both ends:

v

4L

fn n

Beat frequency:

f b f 2 f1

Pressure:

F

A

Archimedess principle:

fn n

v

2L

where n = 1, 2, 3,

where n = 1, 3, 5,

f1 f 2

2

Pressure with depth:

B f gV Mg

P Po gh

1

1

2

2

Bernoullis equation: P1 v1 gy1 P2 v 2 gy2

2

2

Fe

q

E k e 2 r

Electric field: E

Electric field at a point:

Fe qo E

r

qo

q

Electric field due to a group of charged particles:

E k e 2i ri

i ri

Q

Q

Volume charge density:

Surface charge density:

V

A

Q

Electric flux: E E A EA cos

Electric flux: E E dA E dA

surface

q

E E dA in

o

B

U U B U A q o E ds

Change in potential energy:

B

U

E ds

A

qo

Electric potential:

V ke

q

r

Q

V

U

qo

Capacitance: C

V E ds Ed

V ke

Parallel-plate capacitor:

dq

r

o A

d

Q2 1

1

2

QV C V

2c 2

2

2

Q q

Q

dq

Work required to charge a capacitor: W

0 C

2C

Qo

C

C o

Capacitor with dielectric:

Vo

dQ

I

I

nqvd A

J nqvd

Current:

Current density:

dt

A

V

R

Resistance:

I

A A

Power:

IV I 2 R

Conservation of charge:

V 2

R

I1 I 2 I 3

qt C 1 e

t

I t e RC

R

I vs. t for a charging capacitor:

RC

Q 1 e t RC

qt Qe RC

dq

t

I t

I o e RC

I vs. t for a discharging capacitor:

dt

Magnetic force on moving charged particle: FB qv B

t

b

FB I B I ds B

Magnetic force on a current carrying conductor:

a

Biot-Savart law:

B N B NIA B

Ids r o Ids r

dB k m

4 r 2

r2

oI ds r

B

Total magnetic field at a point due to a current:

4 r 2

I I I

Magnetic force between two wires: F1 I1 o 2 o 1 2

2a

2a

II

F

Force per unit length: 1 o 1 2

2a

o I

Amperes law (steady currents):

B ds B ds 2r 2r o I

I

Amperes law (interior to R):

B o o2 r

2R

NI

N

B o I o nI

Toroid:

Solenoid:

B o

2r

Magnetic flux:

m B dA

d m

dB

E ds A

dt

dt

d m

d

Induced emf through coil:

N

BA cos

dt

dt

Voltage across a conductor moving through a magnetic field:

Faradays law:

V El Blv

Motional emf:

d m

d

dx

Bx B

Bv

dt

dt

dt

Fapp v IB v

Bv

R

R

d

1

r dB

m

E

2r

2r dt

2 dt

d m

dI

L

dt

dt

N m

Inductance of an N-turn coil:

L

I

Inductance:

dI

dt

1 2

LI

2

Um

B2

m

A 2 o

d E

I d o

dt

Magnetic energy density:

Displacement current:

Maxwells equations:

Q

E dA o

B

dA 0

d B

E

ds dt

d E

B

ds o I o o dt

Poynting vector:

Intensity:

fo

1

2 LC

1 EB

S

EB

o

o

I S av

Bv 2

E max Bmax

2 o

I

c

i r

sin 2 v 2

cons tan t

Snells law:

sin 1 v1

SOLvacuun c

Index of refraction: n

SOLmedium v

Reflection of light:

n1 sin1 n2 sin 2

1n1 2 n2

n o

n

n1 sin 1 n2 sin 2

Critical angle ( for n1 > n2 ) :

Magnification:

sin c

n2

n1

Im ageheight

Objectheight

h

h

1 1 2 1

p q R f

R

2

n1 n2 n2 n1

p q

R

q n2 p

n1

1

1

1

n 1

f

R1 R2

Path difference:

r2 r1 d sin

d sin bright m m = 0, 1, 2,

d sin dark m m = 0, 1, 2,

Phase difference:

1

2

min

Lorentz transformations:

x x vt

y y

z z

vx

t t 2

c

Gamma:

v2

1 2

c

1

2

Time dilation:

t t p

Length contraction:

Spacetime interval:

1

v2

c2

Lp

s ct 2 x2

2

Doppler effect:

Source/observer approaching:

1

fo

1

Observer/source approaching:

1

fo

1

Relativistic momentum:

Rest energy:

Kinetic energy:

where

p mu

E R mc 2

Total energy: E mc 2

K mc 2 mc 2 1mc 2

Energy-momentum relationship:

E 2 p 2 c 2 mc 2

:

E pc

u v

ux x

u v

1 x2

c

v t1 t 0

c xb x a

ux

dp

F

dt

Force in relativity:

Blackbody radiation

Stefan-Boltzmann law:

Wiens displacement law:

R T 4

mT 2.898103 m k

8hc5

hc

e kT 1

Photoelectric effect: eVo hf

h

1 cos

2 1

Compton effect:

mc

f E

h

De Broglie relations:

hp

1

xp

2

Heisenberg uncertainty principle:

1

Et

2

2

E

Particle in a box:

2mL2

Radioactivity: R

Half-life:

t1

2

dN

N o e t Ro e t

dt

ln 2

ux v

u v

1 x2

c

0.693

Rectangle:

A bh

Triangle:

Circle:

A r 2

C 2r

Parallelepiped:

Cylinder:

Cone:

V r 2

S 2r 2r 2

A r r 2

bh

V

3

Sphere:

Cube:

1

bh

2

V wh

4 3

r

3

S 4r 2

A 6s 2

V s3

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