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# Density: p

m
V

Average speed: v

Average velocity: v x

x
t

Average acceleration: a x

d
t

Instantaneous velocity: v x

v x
t

dx
dt

Instantaneous acceleration: a x

dvx
dt

4 equations of motion:
x xo

v vo a x t
x xo vo t

1 2
at
2

Projectile motion:

1
(v vo )t
2

2a ( x x o ) v 2 v o

v xi vi cos i
v yi vi sin i

ac

Centripetal acceleration:

at

Tangential acceleration:

v2
r

dv

dt

a a r at

Total acceleration:

Period:

2r
v

v2
a r ac
r

Relative velocity:

v po v po voo

Newtons Laws
1st Law:
-Object at rest will remain at rest
-Object in motion remains in motion (law if inertia)
2nd Law:
-Acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and
F
inversely proportional to its mass a
m
rd
3 Law:
-If two objects interact, the force F12 exerted by object 1 on object 2 is equal in magnitude

but opposite in direction to the force F21 exerted by object 2 on object 1 F12 F21
Net Force:

F ma

Resistive force

Low speed:
R bv

f s s n

## Force of kinetic friction:

High speed:

R cv 2

f k k n

Differential form:
Terminal speed:
Law of gravitation:

dv
b
g vv
dt
m
mg
mg
vT

b
c

mg
(1 e bt / m )
b
2mg
DA

m1 m2
r2

Fg G

Coulombs law:

xf
Work: W Fd cos Fx dx

## Work & KE:

KE

1 2
mv
2

W KE f KE i KE
KE f k x Wotherforces

Instantaneous Power: P

Average power:

Conservation of energy:
Mechanical energy:

where Eint f x x

dE dW

F v
dt
dt

W
t

## Gravitational potential energy:

Electric potential energy:

U g mgy G

m1m2
r

q1q 2
r
KEi U i KE f U f

U e ke

E mech KE U

## General conservation of energy:

Elastic potential:

Us

1 2
kx
2

xf

## Potential energy from force: U f Fx dx U i

xi

du
Force from potential energy: Fx
dx

p mv
Linear Momentum:

## ptot cons tan t

Net Force:

dp
F
dt

q1 q 2
r2

Hookes law: Fs kx

xi

Kinetic energy:

Fe k e

Impulse:

tf
I

F
dt p

tf
I

F
ext dt ptot

ti

ti

## Inelastic collision: (KE is not conserved)

Perfect Inelastic: (Momentum is conserved & stick together)
m1v1i m2 v2i (m1 m2 )v f
Elastic collision: (Momentum & KE conserved)
m1v1i m2 v2i m1v1 f m2 v2 f
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
m1v1i m2 v 2i m1v1 f m2 v 2 f
2
2
2
2

Center of mass:
m x m2 x 2
xcm 1 1
m1 m2

i mi ri
rcm
M
CM of extended objects:

1
rcm
r dm
M

drcm

1
vcm

dt
M

Velocity of CM:

dri
1
i mi dt M

dv
1

## Acceleration of CM: acm cm

dt
M

dvi
1
i mi dt M

Rocket Propulsion:

m
v f vi ve ln i
m
f

Rocket Thrust:

Thrust ma m

i i

Mvcm mi vi pi ptot

Momentum of system:

m v

s
t
r

dv
dM
ve
dt
dt

Arc length:

m a

f i
t f ti

s r

d
dt

f i
t f ti

d
dt

## Rotational Motion (fixed axis/constant ):

1
2

o o t t 2

o t
o

2 o 2 o

1
o t
2

Tangential velocity:

ds
d
r
r
dt
dt

Tangential acceleration:

at

dv
d
r
r
dt
dt

Centripetal acceleration:

ac

v2
r 2
r

Moment of Inertia:

I mi ri r 2 dm
2

KE R

1 2
I
2

Torque:

I pr 2 dv

dL

Fr Fr sin r F I
dt

Power by torque:

W d Id

## Work done by torque:

d

dt

1
2
2
I f i
2

L r p mvr sin I
Angular momentum:
Ltot cons tan t

ds
d
R
R
dt
dt
dv
d
cm R
R
dt
dt

vcm
Pure rolling motion:

acm

KE of rolling object: KE

1 2 1
2
I Mvcm
2
2

## Keplers laws of planetary motion:

1st: Each planet in the solar system moves in an elliptical orbit with the Sun at one focus
a2 b2 c2
eccentricity : e c
a
2nd: The radius vector drawn from the Sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas in equal
time intervals
3rd: The square of the orbital period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis of the elliptical orbit.
4 2 3
2
a k s a 3
T
GM s
2GM
R

Speed of light: c f

Escape velocity:

vesc

Rydberg formula:

1
1
RH 2 2
n

ni
f
1

Total energy of hydrogen atom:

n2 2
me k e e 2
13.606eV
En
n2

## Radius of Bohr orbits in H:

Energy levels of H:

Ei E f hf

rn

kee
2r

hc

n = 1, 2, 3,
n = 1, 2, 3,

E
1

B
o o

k e e 2 1
1
f

2ao h n f 2 ni 2

ke e 2 1
En

2a o n 2

n = 1, 2, 3,

Fs kx

Hookes Law:

xt A cost
v max A

## Simple harmonic motion:

a max 2 A

Angular frequency:

Period:

Frequency:

k
2
2f

m
T

m
L 2r
2

k
g
v

1
1

T 2

Physical pendulum:

g v

L r

k
m

Total energy: E

mgd
I

T 2

I
mgd

bt
Position damped oscillation (small): x Ae 2 m cost

Fo

k b

m 2m

b
2
o

1 2
kA
2

y A sinkx t

d2y 1 d2y

dx 2 v 2 dt 2

## Velocity of wave (stretched): v

Wave power:
Doppler effect:

where

1
2 A 2 v
2
v vo
f f
v vs

Standing wave:

y 2 A sin kxcost

Normal modes:

2L
n

Fundamental frequency:

where n = 1, 2, 3,

fn

## Frequencies of normal modes:

f1

n
n T
v
2L
2L

1 T
2L

Natural frequency
Air column open on both ends:
v
4L

fn n

Beat frequency:

f b f 2 f1

## New frequency (beat):

Pressure:

F
A

Archimedess principle:

fn n

v
2L

where n = 1, 2, 3,

where n = 1, 3, 5,

f1 f 2
2
Pressure with depth:

B f gV Mg

P Po gh

## Continuity equation: A1v1 A2 v2

1
1
2
2
Bernoullis equation: P1 v1 gy1 P2 v 2 gy2
2
2

Fe

q
E k e 2 r
Electric field: E
Electric field at a point:
Fe qo E
r
qo

q
Electric field due to a group of charged particles:
E k e 2i ri
i ri
Q
Q

Volume charge density:
Surface charge density:
V
A
Q

## Linear charge density:

Electric flux: E E A EA cos

Electric flux: E E dA E dA
surface

q
E E dA in
o
B

U U B U A q o E ds

## Electric flux (closed surfaces):

Change in potential energy:

B
U

E ds
A
qo

## Potential difference between two points in a uniform E field:

Electric potential:

V ke

q
r

Q
V

U
qo

## Electric potential due to a point charge:

Capacitance: C

V E ds Ed

V ke

Parallel-plate capacitor:

dq
r

o A
d

Q2 1
1
2
QV C V
2c 2
2
2
Q q
Q
dq
Work required to charge a capacitor: W
0 C
2C
Qo
C
C o
Capacitor with dielectric:
Vo
dQ
I
I
nqvd A
J nqvd
Current:
Current density:
dt
A
V

R

Resistance:
I
A A

## Energy stored in a charged capacitor: U

Power:

IV I 2 R

Conservation of charge:

V 2
R

I1 I 2 I 3

qt C 1 e

t
I t e RC
R

## q vs. t for a charging capacitor:

I vs. t for a charging capacitor:

RC

Q 1 e t RC

qt Qe RC
dq
t
I t
I o e RC
I vs. t for a discharging capacitor:
dt

Magnetic force on moving charged particle: FB qv B
t

## q vs. t for a discharging capacitor:

b
FB I B I ds B
Magnetic force on a current carrying conductor:
a

## Torque on current loop:

Biot-Savart law:

B N B NIA B

Ids r o Ids r
dB k m

4 r 2
r2

oI ds r
B
Total magnetic field at a point due to a current:
4 r 2
I I I
Magnetic force between two wires: F1 I1 o 2 o 1 2
2a
2a
II
F
Force per unit length: 1 o 1 2

2a

o I
B ds B ds 2r 2r o I
I
Amperes law (interior to R):
B o o2 r
2R
NI
N
B o I o nI
Toroid:
Solenoid:
B o

2r

Magnetic flux:
m B dA

d m
dB
E ds A
dt
dt
d m
d
Induced emf through coil:
N
BA cos
dt
dt
Voltage across a conductor moving through a magnetic field:

V El Blv

Motional emf:

d m
d
dx
Bx B
Bv
dt
dt
dt

Fapp v IB v

Bv
R

R
d

1
r dB
m
E

2r
2r dt
2 dt

## Tangential electric field:

d m
dI
L
dt
dt
N m
Inductance of an N-turn coil:
L
I

Inductance:

dI

dt
1 2
LI
2
Um
B2
m

A 2 o
d E
I d o
dt

## Energy stored in an inductor: U m

Magnetic energy density:
Displacement current:
Maxwells equations:
Q
E dA o

B
dA 0

d B
E
ds dt

d E
B
ds o I o o dt

Poynting vector:

Intensity:

fo

1
2 LC

1 EB
S
EB
o
o

I S av

Bv 2

E max Bmax
2 o

I
c

## Polarization by selective absorption: I I o cos

i r
sin 2 v 2

cons tan t
Snells law:
sin 1 v1
SOLvacuun c

Index of refraction: n
SOLmedium v
Reflection of light:

n1 sin1 n2 sin 2

1n1 2 n2

n o
n

## Snells law of refraction:

n1 sin 1 n2 sin 2
Critical angle ( for n1 > n2 ) :

Magnification:

sin c

n2
n1

Im ageheight

Objectheight

h
h

1 1 2 1

p q R f

R
2

n1 n2 n2 n1

p q
R

q n2 p
n1

1
1
1

n 1
f
R1 R2

Path difference:

r2 r1 d sin

## Constructive interference for two slits:

d sin bright m m = 0, 1, 2,

## Destructive interference for two slits:

d sin dark m m = 0, 1, 2,

Phase difference:

1
2

min

## Limiting angle of resolution for a circular aperture: min 1.22

Lorentz transformations:

x x vt

y y
z z

vx
t t 2
c

Gamma:

v2
1 2
c

1
2

Time dilation:

t t p

Length contraction:

Spacetime interval:

1
v2
c2

Lp

s ct 2 x2
2

Doppler effect:
Source/observer approaching:

1
fo
1

Observer/source approaching:

1
fo
1

Relativistic momentum:
Rest energy:
Kinetic energy:

where

p mu

E R mc 2

Total energy: E mc 2

K mc 2 mc 2 1mc 2

Energy-momentum relationship:

E 2 p 2 c 2 mc 2

:

E pc

u v
ux x
u v
1 x2
c

v t1 t 0

c xb x a

## Lorentz velocity transformation for SS:

ux

dp
F
dt

Force in relativity:

Stefan-Boltzmann law:
Wiens displacement law:

R T 4
mT 2.898103 m k

8hc5
hc

e kT 1
Photoelectric effect: eVo hf
h
1 cos
2 1
Compton effect:
mc
f E
h
De Broglie relations:
hp
1
xp
2
Heisenberg uncertainty principle:
1
Et
2
2

E
Particle in a box:
2mL2

Half-life:

t1
2

dN
N o e t Ro e t
dt

ln 2

ux v
u v
1 x2
c

0.693

Rectangle:

A bh

Triangle:

Circle:

A r 2
C 2r

Parallelepiped:

Cylinder:

Cone:

V r 2
S 2r 2r 2

A r r 2
bh
V
3

Sphere:

Cube:

1
bh
2

V wh
4 3
r
3
S 4r 2

A 6s 2
V s3