You are on page 1of 22

Much, many, a lot of, lots of:

de English Grammar Today
We use the quantifiers much, many, a lot of, lots of to talk about quantities, amounts
and degree. We can use them with a noun (as a determiner) or without a noun (as a

Much, many with a noun

We use much with singular uncountable nouns and many with plural nouns:
[talking about money]
I havent got much change. Ive only got a ten euro note.
Are there many campsites near you?

Questions and negatives

We usually use much and many with questions (?) and negatives ():
Is there much unemployment in that area?
How many eggs are in this cake?
Do you think many people will come?
It was pouring with rain but there wasnt much wind.
There arent many women priests.

In affirmative clauses we sometimes use much and many in more formal styles:
There is much concern about drug addiction in the US.
He had heard many stories about Yanto and he knew he was trouble.
In informal styles, we prefer to use lots of or a lot of:
I went shopping and spent a lot of money.
Not: I went shopping and spent much money.
See also:

Lots, a lot, plenty

Much of, many of

When we use much or many before articles (a/an, the), demonstratives (this, that),
possessives (my, your) or pronouns (him, them), we need to use of:
How much of this book is fact and how much is fiction?
Claude, the seventeenth-century French painter, spent much of his life in Italy.
Unfortunately, not many of the photographers were there.
How many of them can dance, sing and act?

This much, that much

Spoken English:
When we are talking to someone face-to-face, we can use this muchand that
much with a hand gesture to indicate quantity:
[the speaker indicates a small amount with his fingers]
I only had that much cake.

A lot of, lots of with a noun

We use a lot of and lots of in informal styles. Lots of is more informal thana lot of. A lot
of and lots of can both be used with plural countable nouns and with singular
uncountable nouns for affirmatives, negatives, and questions:
Weve got lots of things to do.

Thats a lot of money.

There werent a lot of choices.
Can you hurry up? I dont have a lot of time.
Are there a lot of good players at your tennis club?
Have you eaten lots of chocolate?
See also:

Lots, a lot, plenty

Much, many, a lot of, lots of: negative questions

When we use much and many in negative questions, we are usually expecting that a
large quantity of something isnt there. When we use a lot of and lots of in negative
questions, we are usually expecting a large quantity of something.

(No, they havent.)

Havent they sold manytickets? The speaker expects that they have
sold a small quantity of tickets.
(Yes, they have.)
Havent they sold a lot
oftickets? (or lots of)

The speaker expects that they have

sold a large quantity of tickets.
(No, there isnt.)

Isnt there much food left?

The speaker expects that there is a

small quantity of food left.
(Yes, there is.)

Isnt there a lot of food left?

(or lots of)

The speaker expects that there is a

large quantity of food left.

Much, many, a lot, lots: without a noun

We usually leave out the noun after much, many and a lot, lots when the noun is
Would you like some cheese?
Yes please but not too much. (not too much cheese)
Can you pass me some envelopes?
How many? (how many envelopes?)
How many people came?
A lot. (or Lots.)

Much with comparative adjectives and adverbs:much

older, much faster
We can use much before comparative adjectives and adverbs to make a stronger
Sometimes the prices in the local shop are much better than the supermarkets prices.

I feel much calmer now I know shes safe. (much calmer than I felt before)
Shes walking much more slowly since her operation. (much more slowly than before)

Too much, too many and so much, so many

Too much, too many with a noun
We often use too before much and many. It means more than necessary. We can
use too much before an uncountable noun and too many before a plural noun, or
without a noun when the noun is obvious:
I bought too much food. We had to throw some of it away.
They had a lot of work to do. Too much. (too much work)
There are too many cars on the road. More people should use public transport.
There are 35 children in each class. Its too many. (too many children)

So much, so many with a noun

We use so rather than very before much and many in affirmative clauses to emphasise
a very large quantity of something:
He has so much money!
Not: He has very much money!
There were so many jobs to do.

As much as, as many as

When we want to make comparisons connected with quantity, we use as much
as and as many as:
Try and find out as much information as you can.
You can ask as many questions as you want.
See also:

As as
As much as, as many as

Much, many and a lot of, lots of: typical errors

We use much with uncountable nouns and many with countable nouns:
It doesnt need much effort.
Not: It doesnt need many effort.
We usually use a lot of and lots of rather than much and many in informal
affirmative clauses:
There are a lot of monuments and a lot of historic buildings in Rome.
Not: There are many monuments and many historic buildings in Rome.
She gave me a lot of information.
Not: She gave me much information.
We dont use of after much or many when they come immediately before a
noun without an article (a/an, the), demonstrative (this, that), possessive (my, your) or
pronoun (him, them):
They havent made many friends here.
Not: They havent made many of friends here.
We dont use a lot of without a noun:
Do many people work in your building?
Yes. Quite a lot. (quite a lot of people)
Not: Quite a lot of.
("Much, many, a lot of, lots of : quantifiers" do English Grammar Today Cambridge University Press.)

Difference between TRAVEL, TRIP, and


Travel (uncountable n.) and travelling are used to mean the general
activity of moving from place to place. You do NOT say "a travel". When we use
it as a verb, we talk about how we travel to work; abroad; school, etc. And we
might mention the means of transport, e.g. "I travel to school by bus", "They
travelled on foot". As a noun, travel or travelling is often collocated with
holidays. We say: I love travelling or He had fond memories of his travels to
India, in those cases it is not interchangeable with journey. source
(i) We decided to travel by car. We travelled through France and into Germany.
(ii) When I finished college I went travelling for six months. source

trip, n. is often said when going out somewhere; it could be taking a short
holiday, or travelling some distance for business purposes, and staying at a
hotel overnight; very often it is a short journey abroad. We often say: a
business trip; a weekend trip; a day trip, and a school trip. But you can also
take a long (plane/road/boat) trip to somewhere.

journey, n. is usually a long trip of some kind; it can be any kind of trip, but
the implication is that it may be arduous and discoveries might be made along
the way. You can also talk about your journey to work, if the distance is
particularly long, time consuming or wrought with delays such as; roadworks,
heavy traffic, etc.
The trio has been in Oman for the last two weeks preparing for the journey.
As we set off on time we were warned that the train would be late into Liverpool
Street - the estimate was 30 minutes. That was an under-estimate thanks to two
problems familiar to rail travellers - at first a points failure at Bethnal Green which
was going to add to the delay and then a signal failure at Romford which added to
the delay still further. We got to London just after 11 a three-hour
journey which normally takes 1 hour 54 minutes. source

Trip (n.)

The act of going to another place (often for a short period of time) and returning.

We took a five-day trip to the Amazon.

Youre back from vacation! How was your trip?

I went on business trips to Switzerland and Germany last month.

Use the verbs take and go on with trip.

A round-trip ticket is a ticket for going and coming back.

A one-way ticket is only for going.

Travel (v.)
Going to another place (in general).

I really like to travel.

He travels frequently for work.

My sister is currently traveling through South America.

Travel (n.) can be used to describe the act of traveling in general:

Travel in that region of the country is dangerous.

World travel gives you a new perspective.

Incorrect uses of travel:

How was your travel?

How was your trip?

Im planning a travel to the U.S. next year.

Im planning to travel to the U.S. next year.
Im planning a trip to the U.S. next year.

Journey (n.)
One piece of travel (going from one place to another) usually a long distance.

The journey takes 3 hours by plane or 28 hours by bus.

He made the 200-mile journey by bike.

A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step Laotze, Tao Te Ching

We can also use journey in a more metaphorical way to talk about progress in

He has overcome a lot of problems on his spiritual journey.

My uncle is an alcoholic, but hes beginning the journey of recovery.

Question 1
Christopher Columbus made the _________ across the Atlantic Ocean with three

A trip
B travel
C journey
Question 2
I don't like to _________ alone. It's more fun to go with a friend.

A trip
B travel
C journey
Question 3
We took a 30-minute boat _________ to the island.

A trip
B travel
C journey
Question 4
Did you _________ during your spring break?


B travel
C journey
Question 5
The prize for first place in the contest is a _________ for two to Paris.

A trip
B travel
C journey
Question 6
I forgot to buy eggs, so I had to make another _________ to the supermarket.

A trip
B travel
C journey
Question 7
Do you think that _________ to other planets will be possible someday?

A trip
B travel
C journey
Question 8
My _________ from meat-eater to vegetarian has taken about 5 years.

A trip
B travel
C journey
1c 2b 3a 4b 5a 6a 7b - 8c

Travel (noun)

The noun travel is a general word, meaning to move from place to place, usually
over long distances.
We can say: air travel, food and travel, space travel, business travel, a
travel agency.

Air travel is getting more expensive.

The magazine is a food and travel guide.

We can also say travels, which is a plural noun:

Where did you go on your travels?

Jack Kerouac wrote many books about his travels.

Travel is also a verb:

I travel 20 km to work every day.

Journey (noun)
A journey means moving from one place to another, especially in a vehicle. It is
a single piece of travel. A journey can also be a regular thing.
Here is an example. Lets say we go from London to Leeds then back again. That
is twojourneys (London to Leeds is the first journey, Leeds to London is the
second journey).
We can say: a bus journey, a train journey, the journey to school, my
journey to work.
Be careful with the plural: journeys NOT journies.

How long does your journey to work take?

Did you have a good journey?
Did you have a good travel?

Trip (noun)
A trip describes the whole process of going somewhere and coming back. (It is
more than one journey.)
Once again, lets go from London to Leeds then back again. As I said above, that
is twojourneys, but it is one trip.

Some examples: a day trip, a round trip, a round-the-world trip, a boat

trip and a business trip. We say go on a trip.

We went on a three-week trip to Scotland.

Hes gone on a business trip to Germany.
Lets go on a trip to the mountains this summer!
The trip there took three hours. The journey there took three

Voyage (noun)
Voyages are less common nowadays. A voyage is a very long trip, usually at sea
or in space:

At the age of twenty-three, Sir Francis Drake made his first voyage
to the New World.
A voyage around the world often took four or five years.

The French Bon voyage! translates into English as Have a good trip! or Have
a good journey!

I hope thats clear. Heres a quick exercise for you to test your understanding:

1 Steve's on a business

2 The

in South America.

from Manchester to London by train takes about two and

a half hours.
3 My

to Spain lasted over two weeks. I went to Madrid, Valencia,

Malaga and Granada.

4 Eric Newby wrote a book about his

5 We

6 My

in Afghanistan in 1956.

a trip to Paris to celebrate my wife's birthday.

to work today was horrible. I was stuck in a traffic jam for

two hours.
7 Air

is much faster and cheaper nowadays compared to fifty or

sixty years ago.

Trip journey trip travels went on journey travel



Haidar Mirhadi from Iran writes:

What is the difference between these words all concerning travel:

cruise/voyage? Thank you.

Roger Woodham replies:

It's the right time of year to talk about travel as the holiday season is now beginning in most countries north of the

travel/travelling (nouns)

Travel is the general term to describe going from one place to another. We can talk about someone's travels to refer to
the journeys he makes:

His travels abroad provided lots of background material for novels he wrote.
Travelling is also a general term which refers to the activity of travel:

Travelling by boat between the islands is less tiring than travelling by road.

I don't do as much travelling as I used to now that I'm retired.

Travel often crops up as part of compound nouns. Compare the following:

Make sure you keep all your travel documents safely. You can obtain your travel tickets from the travel agents in the
High Street if you don't want to order them over the Internet. Some of you may suffer from travel sickness. Air travel may
well give you a bumpy ride. If you don't have a credit or debit card, make sure you take plenty of traveller's cheques with

We often use travel as a verb:

I love to travel during the summer holidays. This year I plan to travel all around the Iberian Peninsula.
journey (noun)

A journey is one single piece of travel. You make journeys when you travel from one place to another. (Note that the
plural is spelt journeys, not journies):

The journey from London to Newcastle by train can now be completed in under three hours.

We can talk about journeys taking or lasting a long time:

How long did your journey take? ~ Oh, it lasted for ever. We stopped at every small station.

We occasionally use journey as a verb as an alternative to travel, although it may sound a bit formal or poetic:

We journeyed /travelled between the pyramids in Mexico on horseback.

trip (noun)

A trip usually involves more than one single journey. We talk about day trips, round trips and business trips. We make
journeys usually, but we go on trips:

I went on a day trip to France. We left at 6.30 in the morning and returned before midnight the same day.

The round-trip ticket enabled me to visit all the major tourist destinations in India.

Where's Laurie? ~ He won't be in this week. He's gone on a business trip to Malaysia and Singapore.

The trip went well. It was an old car, but we didn't break down in four weeks of travelling

expedition (noun)
An expedition is an organised trip whose purpose is usually scientific exploration of the environment. You go on
expeditions, just as you go on trips.

Numerous expeditions to The Antarctic have ended in disaster.

Are you going to join the expedition up the Amazon this year, like the one Tom went on last year?

Less dangerous and less adventurous are shopping expeditions when you are hunting down particular goods or
bargains and fishing expeditions when you go in search of fish which are not easy to locate or catch.
safari (noun)

A safari is a trip or expedition to observe wild animals in their natural habitat in Africa, usually. You go on safari to safari
parks. In days gone by, you might have worn your light cotton safari suit for this purpose:

His one ambition in life was to go on safari to Kenya to photograph lions and tigers.

cruise (noun and verb)

A cruise is a holiday during which you travel on a ship or boat and visit a number of places en route. When we cruise,
this is exactly what we do:

They cruised all around the Mediterranean for eight weeks last summer and stopped off at a number of uninhabited

My parents have seen nothing of the world so are saving up to go on a world cruise when they retire. They are hoping to
take a trip on the cruise liner, the QE2, in 2004.
voyage (noun)

A voyage is a long journey, not necessarily for pleasure, on a ship. We don't talk about voyages very much in the
present time, but historically they were very significant:

His second voyage (1493 - 96) led to the discovery of several Caribbean islands. On his third voyage (1498 - 1500) he
discovered the South American mainland.

What is the difference between Garbage and Trash?

Trash Vs. Garbage: Any Big Difference?

May 4, 1986|By Lewis Grizzard, Cowles Syndicate

Did you know there was a difference between trash and garbage?
I'm nearly 40 years old, and I didn't know that. I always figured trash and
garbage were the same thing, a bunch of stuff you wanted to throw away.

The other morning I walked outside my house and noticed the can in which I
dump my refuse (a highbrow word for a bunch of stuff you want to throw away)
was still full from the previous day.
There was a little note stuck to the can. It said, in essence, that my refuse
hadn't been picked up because -- and I quote -- ''trash and garbage had been
I hate making mistakes like that. I didn't close the cover on a book of matches
before striking. It was weeks before I got over the guilt.
I called Georgia Waste Systems, where I have my trash/garbage account, to
apologize. They were very nice and said a lot of people make the same mistake
I did and they were not planning a lawsuit.
As long as I had somebody on the phone who could explain, I asked, ''What is
the difference between trash and garbage?''
''Garbage,'' the woman said, ''are things that come from the bathroom or
''You mean like bread you leave out for months and green things start growing
on it?'' I asked.
''Precisely,'' she said.
''Trash,'' she continued, ''is basically anything else. We do not pick up leaves, for
instance, or old furniture or boxes of materials that were collected when
somebody cleaned out their attic.''
The woman said it was up to the individual garbage collectors to decide if there
is, in fact, trash and garbage mixed on their appointed rounds.
Somehow, I can't visualize two guys on a garbage truck really spending that
much time trying to figure out which is which. I will, of course, comply with the
waste company's dictum against mixing my trash and my garbage, but don't we
have enough complexities in our lives as it it?
Don't we have to deal with international terrorism? Don't we have to battle
traffic, computer involvement in our lives and airplanes that never take off on
time? Isn't it enough of a burden that we have to decide what to do about
Central America, which long-distance telephone company we want to serve us
and which cereal has the most fiber?

Oh, for a simpler time, when the good guys won, and trash and garbage were
the same, both delicacies as far as a goat was concerned.
It is a wonder that more of us don't tie a plastic bag around our heads and tell
modern living to go stick its head in the nearest Dumpster.
Garbage is your weekly household refuse (food, food containers, organic waste, clothing)
and Trash is yard refuse and junk items that are picked up every other week. Trash may
include brush, bagged leaves and grass clippings generated by the resident.

Garbage vs Trash
Americans are the biggest producers of waste in the whole
world. They are considered to be on the top of the list when it
comes to throwing waste in one day. These wastes which are
removed from the households are called garbage or trash in
general language but very few of us know that garbage and
trash are actually two different terms meant for two different
types of wastes.
Garbage is the refuse which comes from the bathroom and
kitchen. It is basically organic waste, clothing, food waste, food
containers, paper products etc. It is picked up by different
organizations like City sanitation Department or the Waste
Control Department. All the household garbage and the paper
products after getting picked are sent to the Waste-to-Energy
Trash is the waste which comes from anywhere but the
bathroom and kitchen. It could be old furniture, leaves, twigs,
grass clippings, junk and other products which might come
under the category of hazardous household waste. The trash is
picked up by different authorities of the city like the city itself








Commissioners office.
Trash after getting picked up is sent either to the Waste-toEnergy facility or landfills. Wastes like small burnable things,
passenger tires etc. are sent to the Waste-to-Energy facility and
items like furniture, cabinets, shingles, tree limbs, stumps,
bush, appliances and construction debris and debris due to






The city does not pick up trash like paint and paint products,
antifreeze, garden and lawn poisons, motor oils, , cleaners,
automotive fluids, solvents, batteries, fluorescent lights, butane,
acids, dead animals and infectious materials which are
considered Household hazardous wastes and should be
personally taken to facilities for Household hazardous waste.
The city also doesnt pick up waste generated by contractors.
Wastes like sheet rock, wood pallets, wallboards, roofing, pipes,
building metals, soil, stone, wiring etc. All these wastes come in
the category of trash and have to be sold to the landfills.
Landfills have days and timings when one can take the waste
and sell at a particular price. The authorities have the sole right
to determine the charges for the waste and the right to send the
waste to appropriate disposal facilities.
1.Garbage is refuse which comes from the bathroom and kitchen
of a house like organic waste, clothes, paper products etc.;
whereas trash is all the other waste which does not come from
bathroom and kitchen like furniture, junk, garden and lawn





2.Garbage is picked up by authorities like City sanitation

Department and Waste control Department; whereas, trash is
picked up by the city or sometimes contactors are hired by



3.Garbage being mostly organic is always picked up by garbage

trucks but trash generated by contactors or household
hazardous waste needs to be disposed of personally by taking
then to appropriate waste management facilities.