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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CRDOBA

Facultad de Lenguas
Gramtica Inglesa I Comisiones A, B, C y D
Prof. Fabin Negrelli
Alumnas: Ceretti Carabajal, Macarena y Cortez, Paula Daniela
1- Complete the following sentences with an infinitive or an -ing form,
as appropriate. Justify your choices theoretically in the cases in
bold. That is, refer to any distinctive feature regarding meaning,
time, voice, speakers attitude or aspect. You may resort to a
comparison with its to infinitive/-ing counterpart.
a- I ... (convince + my friend + sit)
for the exam on July.
b- She was walking home and she stopped .
(buy) a chocolate.
c- A lot of people (take + go) on holiday.
d- The students (be used + stay) up all night
in order to study.
e- I dont remember (go) to school
yesterday.
f- Charles Darwin . (dedicate + study)
the evolution of the species.
g- This old house of yours seriously
(need + paint).
2- In the following sentences there are some errors concerning the
use of the infinitive and the -ing form. Spot the mistakes and
correct them.
a- I prefer going on an independent holiday rather than go on a package
holiday.
b- The student prided himself in passing the exam.
c- My mother forbade my sister go to the night club.
d- The little girl couldnt afford buying an ice-cream.
e- The man pretended not knowing anything about the burglary.
f- The businessman benefited of selling his company.

g- My mother congratulated my sister for having done her homework.


h- Getting accustomed to get up early is very hard.

3 Underline the correct verb. Then make ALL NECESSARY changes to


include the other verbs in grammatical sentences. Do not use that
clauses or passive voice.
John (doesnt hesitate / discouraged / admired / encouraged /
resorted / got used / insisted / delighted) to grow his own vegetables.

4 Read the following text, identify the finite adverbial clauses,


transcribe them, number them and analyse them fully.
Pollution is the degradation of natural environment by external
substances introduced directly or indirectly. Human health, ecosystem quality
and aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity may be affected and altered
permanently by pollution.
Pollution occurs when ecosystems cannot get rid of substances
introduced into the environment. The critical threshold of its ability to naturally
eliminate substances is compromised and the balance of the ecosystem is
broken.
Air Pollution: The sources of pollution are numerous, though the
identification of these different pollutants and their effects on ecosystems is
complex. They can come from natural disasters or the result of human activity,
such as oil spills, chemical spills and nuclear accidents. These can have such
terrible consequences on people and the planet where they live that they might
lead to the destruction of the biodiversity, increased mortality of the human

and animal species, destruction of natural habitat and damage caused to the
quality of soil, water and air.
Preventing pollution and protecting the environment necessitate the
application of the principles of sustainable development. Anywhere you go in
the world, people behave as if they did not care about the environment, but if
they want their grandchildren to have a world to live in, they will have to
consider satisfying the needs of today without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their needs. This means that we should remedy
existing pollution, but also anticipate and prevent future pollution sources so
that the environment and public health are protected. Any environmental
damage must be punishable by law, and polluters should pay compensation for
the damage caused to the environment.
Adapted from www.myenglishpages.com

KEY
Exercise 1
a- I convinced / have convinced / will convince my friend to sit for the exam
on July.
b- She was walking home and stopped to buy a chocolate. The correct
answer in this case is stopped to buy because it refers to a change of
action. The difference between stop + ing and stop + to inf is one of
meaning.
c- A lot of people take / are taking / have taken / took to going on holiday.
d- The students get used to staying up all night in order to study.
e- I dont remember having gone / going to school yesterday. The correct
answer in this case is remember having gone / going because it means
recall a past event. It points to a past action, which means the
reference is backwards in time. The difference between remember to go
and remember going has to do with time reference. The first one refers to
a future action and it means not forget, while the latter refers to a past
action and it means recall.
f- Charles Darwin dedicated himself to studying the evolution of the
species.
g- This old house of yours seriously needs painting / needs to be painted.
The correct answer is needs painting because the sentence carries a
passive meaning. In relation to its to inf counterpart, the difference
between the two options would be one of voice.
Exercise 2

a- I prefer going on an independent holiday to going on a package holiday. /


I prefer to go rather than go
b- The student prided himself on passing the exam.
c- My mother forbade my sister to go to the night club.
d- The little girl couldnt afford to buy an ice-cream.
e- The man pretended not to know anything about the burglary.
f-

The businessman benefited from selling his company.

g- My mother congratulated my sister on having done her homework.


h- Getting accustomed to getting up early is very hard.
Exercise 3
UNDERLINED: doesnt hesitate
John discouraged his mother from growing her own vegetables.
John admired his mother for growing her own vegetables.
John encouraged his mother to grow her own vegetables.
John resorted to growing his own vegetables.
John got used to growing his own vegetables.
John insisted on growing his own vegetables.
John delighted in growing his own vegetables.
Exercise 4
1.when ecosystems cannot get rid of substances introduced into the
environment: adverbial clause of time introduced by the subordinating
conjunction when
2.though the identification of these different pollutants and their effects on
ecosystems is complex: adverbial clause of contrast or concession introduced
by the subordinating conjunction though
3.suchthat they might lead to the destruction of the biodiversity, increased
mortality of the human and animal species, destruction of natural habitat and
damage caused to the quality of soil, water and air: adverbial clause of result
introduced by the subordinating conjunction such..that
4.Anywhere you go in the world: adverbial clause of place introduced by the
subordinating conjunction anywhere
5.as if they did not care about the environment: adverbial clause of manner
introduced by the subordinating conjunction as if

6.if they want their grandchildren to have a world to live in: adverbial clause of
condition introduced by the subordinating conjunction if
7.so that the environment and public health are protected: adverbial clause of
purpose introduced by the subordinating conjunction so that